# Telecooperation/RBG Technische Universität Darmstadt Copyrighted material; for TUD student use only Introduction to Computer Science I Topic 14: Stepwise.

## Presentation on theme: "Telecooperation/RBG Technische Universität Darmstadt Copyrighted material; for TUD student use only Introduction to Computer Science I Topic 14: Stepwise."— Presentation transcript:

Telecooperation/RBG Technische Universität Darmstadt Copyrighted material; for TUD student use only Introduction to Computer Science I Topic 14: Stepwise Refinement Prof. Dr. Max Mühlhäuser Dr. Guido Rößling

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 A New Problem 2 Let us assume we now want to design a graphical representation of a String[]. Of course, we want to use the classes of ACM JTF. Our design could roughly look like this: This seems to be a large problem. How can we solve this problem by stepwise refinement?

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 Stepwise refinement I.Analysis: What is the problem? II.Planning: How do we solve the problem? III.Testing/Verification sample/proof yes continueno to step I. / II. IV.Implementation: solution in form of program V.Testing/Verification sample/proof Have we solved the problem? yes done!no to step I. / II. 3 Claim: OOP supports stepwise refinement and architectural thinking stepwise basically means go top-down: Start by writing the task in a main method. Use types and operations as they are needed … just assume you have everything you need Specify the new types and operations Bundle everything in a complete program Refine the program and the types stepwise Compared to the design recipe: Understand the purpose of the program Data analysis Wish list of helper functions Consider program examples Implementing the body of the program Testing

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 I. Analysis We try to split the problem by asking questions. –What is the domain of our problem? What entities are involved? –Texts –Array cells What tasks are there? –Creating and positioning texts –Creating and positioning array cells –Adding elements to the Canvas Idea: We design appropriate graphical objects that will solve our problem –What sort of graphical object could solve our problem? We need a good plan! 4

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 II. Planning 5 First Plan We use terms from the problem domain, not primitive GObject commands (let alone machine code) public void buildArray(String[] contents, double x, double y) { setLocation(x, y); // store position double x0 = x; // initial x position for (int i=0; i { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/4/1405820/slides/slide_5.jpg", "name": "Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M.", "description": "Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 II. Planning 5 First Plan We use terms from the problem domain, not primitive GObject commands (let alone machine code) public void buildArray(String[] contents, double x, double y) { setLocation(x, y); // store position double x0 = x; // initial x position for (int i=0; i

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 III. Testing the plan 6 Testing on this level of abstraction… This plan seems to solve the problem... Once we have taken the next step and defined the class GStringArray First Plan

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 public methods, marked with + in UML IV. Implementation 7 Helper method assist us in implementing the public interface We implement a new graphical object class that will handle all tasks. GStringArray + buildArray(String[], double, double) createDataEntry(String, double, double) createBoxForEntry(int) getWidthForEntry(int)

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 IV. Implementation 8 public class GStringArray extends GObject { // Konstruktor (weggelassen) public void buildArray(String[] c, double x, double y) { setLocation(x, y); // store initial position double x0 = x; for (int i=0; i { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/4/1405820/slides/slide_8.jpg", "name": "Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M.", "description": "Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 IV. Implementation 8 public class GStringArray extends GObject { // Konstruktor (weggelassen) public void buildArray(String[] c, double x, double y) { setLocation(x, y); // store initial position double x0 = x; for (int i=0; i

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 void createBoxForEntry(int index) { // Retrieve text GPoint v=getStartOf(index); double x0 = v.getX() – 5; double y0 = v.getY() – 15; v = getEndOf(index); double x1 = x0 + w.getX() + 5; double y1 = y0 + y.getY() +15; createAndStoreBox(x0, y0, x1, y1); } V. Evaluation of first implementation Some operations are still rather long. Other operations are hard to understand How data is stored remains unclear 9 First Plan Evaluation failed; return to step II.

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 Next Refinement Step II. Planning (Second Approach) –Divide the operations further IV. Implementation (Second Approach) –We can find similar division for the other operations 10 void createBoxForEntry(int index){ GPoint p0 = determineStartPoint(index); GPoint p1 = determineEndPoint(index); Grect cell = createRect(p0, p1); storeAndAdd(cell); }

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 Advantages of higher-order operations Higher-order operation can be derived from the the terms used in the problem domain. The program has a better structure and is easier to understand, especially if appropriate names were chosen. The programmer of the run method that uses the GStringArray does not have to consider the details of the implementation of buildArray. 11 Ability to abstract

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 Advantages of higher-order operations The human brain can only work on a limited number of pieces of information at any given time. –Splitting programs into modular units and the ability to ignore irrelevant facts can be a large help. Understandable operations –Not longer than 5-10 statements Beginners tend to write operations that are too long. Better: implement many small, precisely named operations –Write comments! Especially if operations only work correctly if certain conditions are met. 12

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 Advantages of higher-level operations Abstracting by composition of elementary to compound is something we already know about from Scheme OOP increases the ability to abstract over irrelevant details (according to some point of view!) by means of inheritance –Can reuse bigger pieces of functionality –Eases the adoption of programs to new tasks 13

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 Advantages of higher-level operations Testing the program is simplified –A higher operation may be tested separately Each individual operation composes less primitive operations than needed for the realization of the whole task easier to test than the whole task –A tested operation can be considered as a correctly working (primitive) instruction when verifying the remaining parts of the program. –Higher operations enforce a good modular structure in the program that eases locating bugs. We locate malfunctioning operations first. We may concentrate on the instructions in this operations afterwards. 14

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 V. Evaluation of Second Implementation 15 Should one class take care of all aspects of a StringArray? Will become rather large Has to know much Evaluation failed; return to step I./II. Creating complex objects is… complex –It is best done by a team of specialists that take care of specific aspects –The coordinator (here: GStringArray ) will gather a fitting team for the task We will use a similar approach for our String-Array

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 OO Design as Teamwork 16 The core of OO problem solving: teamwork. Instead of a Super-Robot that does everything… …use a set of cooperating objects, where each robot is specialized and responsible for a well-defined sub-part of the work Watch out for problems in your design if you have only one or a few huge classes!

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 II. Planning (Third Approach) Next refinement step: We design a team for solving the problem: –Determining a coordinator for the team –Several workers who focus on one task each In this way, we can delegate the creation of parts of a StringArray to specialists: –The coordinator role is taken by our class GStringArray –For creating tet elements, we use the services provided by GLabel. –For creating text boxes, we use services providede by GRect. –Painting will be delegated to the subelements. Sharing the work among objects is preferable if this provides a better degree of abstraction The basic idea is that objects offer certain services that can be used by other objects. 17

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 Comparison with Scheme The introduction of helper functions has the same motivation as in Scheme: –Design one level of abstraction after the next –Supports data abstraction –Hides the implementation details of the lower levels –The implementation can be changed easily without affecting the higher levels of abstraction Hierarchical decomposition/composition of functionality –In Scheme: Structures und (helper) functions –In Java: Structuring a space of objects with operations Same Advantages: abstraction / information hiding 18

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 OO Design with Clients and Servers Asymmetric relation: Client - Server –Clients refer to servers (know them as attributes, or in other ways we will consider soon) Do not necessarily exclusively own servers as it is the case with the workers –Servers do not know clients –Clients call services –Clients await A result State change 19 server selected Client needs service

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 OO Design with Clients and Servers Servers provide services either directly or by being themselves clients of other servers Whether a server provides a service directly or delegates it, is transparent for the clients 20 server selected Client needs service client uses service

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 OO Design with Clients and Servers We discussed the step-wise refinement technique for designing a single class… –Start designing a solution by asking what services are needed by the class –Next, design complex services of the class as a decomposition into simpler services –Continue decomposing until primitive operations We have distinguished two kinds of operations: (see slide 7) –The first kind, e.g., buildArray() in the GStringArray class of the 1 st Implementation, was meant to be requested by clients (the main method in that example) –The other kind, e.g., createDataEntry(), was meant to be used internally, as part of problem decomposition. 21

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 OO Design with Clients and Servers Next, we generalize this technique, looking at design from a broader perspective: –We recognize that we may need several classes of robots to carry out some task –These classes may need to cooperate in some way Generalizing: The place to begin design is with the public services and the servers providing them. –Server classes will then, perhaps, execute other instructions, or even create other helper classes and use their services to provide the public services. –We can use successive refinement to help design the other instructions and helper classes. 22

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 Stepwise OOD: An Example We have a class GStringArray New instances of this class will take care of assembling a fitting StringArray on the screen Clients simply call the constructor with appropriate parameters –The work is then done somehow –The client does not care, how GStringArray will do this, as long as the result is OK Keep in mind, that we will for now focus on designing the class GStringArray with one public method: its constructor –Later on, we may notice that we need more methods or classes. –We also know that we will probably need only one instance of the class GStringArray for each StringArray let us call it stringArray. 23

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 Top-Level Design 24 private String[] values = …; // actual values public void run() { GStringArray stringArray = new GStringArray(values, 100, 100); add(stringArray); } //... class GStringArray extends GObject { public GStringArray(String[] values, double x, double y) { // … }

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 Designing Workers: Alternative 1 We may decided that…: –GArrayCell objects offer the service createCellBox(int, double, double) The GStringArray will tell the GArrayCell where to put the cell. –GArrayElement objects offer the service createArrayValue(String, double, double) GStringArray has to tell the object which value is put where 25 Consequence: the coordinator has to know all operations of its workers – that makes it more complex.

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 Designing Workers: Alternative 2 Each specialized worker knows its tasks: –It also knows the names of all tasks and subtasks it has to do. –If the coordinator simply orders the worker to work(), it will know what has to be done. We can fix this interface using an Interface Worker –The other classes will implement this interface by implementing the new method. –Each worker subclass will implement work in ist own specific way. 26 interface Worker { void work(); } Advantage: the coordinator can use a shared interface type for all workers.

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 Designing Workers: Alternative 3 We can also directly use the fitting classes from ACM JTF: –Array values are represented by GLabel objects –Array cells are rendered using GRect –We essentially only have to use the constructors! However, the coordinator has to fix the position for each element The array values and cells will be stored in one array each We also have to consider the implementation of the methods paint(Graphics) and getBounds() –paint(Graphics g) : Iterate the value and cellBoxes array in a loop and send the message paint(g) to each element –getBounds(): Determine the start and end position of the first and last cell and use this to determine start, width and height 27

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 The simplified GStringArray class 28 package acm.graphics; import java.awt.Graphics; public class GStringArray extends GObject { private GLabel[] array; private GRect[] cellBoxes; public GStringArray(String[] values, double x, double y) { setLocation(x, y); // set the base location int nrElems = values.length; // nr of array elements array = new GLabel[nrElems]; // allocate value storage cellBoxes = new GRect[nrElems]; // create cell storage double x0 = x; // initial x position for (int i = 0; i < nrElems; i++) { // iterate... x0 = createAndStoreElement(values[i], i, x0, y); }

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 The simplified GStringArray class 29 private double createAndStoreElement(String string, int index, double x, double y) { array[index] = new GLabel(string, x + 5, y + 15); // add padding cellBoxes[index] = new GRect(x, y, array[index].getWidth() + 10, 20); return x + cellBoxes[index].getWidth(); } public GRectangle getBounds() { double x0 = array[0].getX(); double y0 = array[0].getY(); GRect lastRect = cellBoxes[cellBoxes.length - 1]; double width = lastRect.getX() + lastRect.getWidth() - x0; double height = lastRect.getY() + lastRect.getHeight() - y0; return new GRectangle(x0, y0, width, height); }

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 The simplified GStringArray class 30 public void paint(Graphics g) { for (int i = 0; i < array.length; i++) { // iterate over all cellBoxes[i].paint(g); // paint current box array[i].paint(g);// paint current elem } The code is still rather long… Luckily, ACM JTF offers us additional support! –Class GCompound models composed objects –GCompound directly takes are of…: The determination of getBounds() The painting method ( paint(Graphics)); this simply paints all objects inserted before using add(GObject) The elements are stored internally

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 Further simplification using GCompound 31 package acm.graphics; public class GStringArrayCompound extends GCompound { public GStringArrayCompound(String[] values, double x, double y) { setLocation(x, y); // set the object's location // create Strings and boxes double x0 = x; // initial x position for (String value: values) // iterate over all input values x0 = makeEntry(value, x0, y); // create object at (x0, y) markAsComplete(); } private double makeEntry(String value, double x, double y) { GLabel text = new GLabel(value, x + 5, y + 15); // some offset GRect arrayCell = new GRect(x, y, text.getWidth()+10, 20); add(arrayCell); // add the element to the canvas -> visible add(text); // add the element to the canvas -> visible return x + arrayCell.getWidth(); }

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 Verallgemeinerung In more complex cases, the coordinator needs access to ist team – even after the creation of the elements –We declare the names of the helpers as private attributes in the coordinator class, instead of as global names. The client is not interested in details on how the coordinator will organize the workers. This also effectively prevents the client from giving orders to the workers. Encapsulation! The coordinator has to be able to gather ist team, so we need a method for this gatherTeam –This method should probably be called internally by the coordinator when it starts working. 32

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 The generalized Contractor Class 33 class Contractor extends GObject { // Constructor (hidden) Worker ken = new...(...); Worker tim = new...(...); Worker linda = new...(...); void gatherTeam() { // Messages for the initialization // of the workers. } public void buildHouse() { gatherTeam(); ken.work(); tim.work(); linda.work(); //... }

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 UML Class Diagram 34 The UML name for association Contractor + doTheJob() > Worker + work() X Y Z internalMethodA() internalMethodB() internalMethodC() internalMethodD() ken : Worker tim: Worker linda: Worker … uses gatherTeam()

Dr. G. Rößling Prof. Dr. M. Mühlhäuser RBG / Telekooperation © Introduction to Computer Science I: T14 OO Design – Klienten und Server The coordinator is a server class. Its client is the method that calls the server method. –Even if this is a constructor call! The coordinator can also be a client of other classes, if they offer services (creation of element, …). In fact, it is rather usual in the real world that clients and servers will be linked. –For example, the workers of a constructor can also have a house built for themselves. 35