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The beginnings of globalization

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Presentation on theme: "The beginnings of globalization"— Presentation transcript:


2 The beginnings of globalization
Colonialism The beginnings of globalization

3 Colonialism - definition
A set of unequal relationships[political, economic, cultural] between the METROPOLE and the COLONY and between the COLONISTS and the INDIGENOUS population. The colonial period normally refers to the late 15th to the 20th century, when European states established colonies on other continents. France-, Britain, Spain, Belgium, Africa, South America, India, West indies

A rationale for intervention or colonisation, proposing to contribute to the spread of civilization, mostly amounting to the Westernization of indigenous peoples. European colonial powers felt it WAS THEIR DUTY to bring Western civilization to what they perceived as backwards peoples. WHITE MAN”S BURDEN: A view proposes that white people have an OBLIGATION to rule over, and encourage the cultural development of people from other ethnic and cultural backgrounds until they can take their place in the world economically and socially.

5 Definitions - continued
Cultural HEGMONY: a culturally diverse society can be dominated [ruled] by 1 social class. The social, cultural, ideological, or economic influence exerted by a dominant group Colonialism connection: aggression or expansionism by large nations over small nations in an effort to achieve world economic, political and cultural domination. The ruling-class imposes its world view on society as the SOCIAL NORM. Their world-view is perceived as a UNIVERSAL ideology. It is understood {pretends] to BE BENEFICIAL TO ALL OF SOCIETY. IN FACT, IT ONLY BENEFITS THE RULING CLASS

6 Eurocentric attitudes invented and continue to support RACISM.
Definitions ETHNO-CENTRIC: Characterized by or based on the attitude that one's own ethnic group is superior to another. EURO-CENTRIC: The practice of viewing the world from a [superior] European [white] perspective …………………………………………………….………..,………………………………………… Eurocentrism takes the view of European superiority in respect to social standards. With the belief in superiority of social standards, Eurocentrism sees the right for Europeans to judge other nations Eurocentric attitudes invented and continue to support RACISM.

7 on its own terms. (This can be problematic)
Definitions CULTURAL RELATIVISM: the principle that an individual human beliefs and activities are understood by others in terms of that individuals own culture. This is NOT A COMPARISON between another culture and your own It is understanding another culture in its context – on its own terms. (This can be problematic) In other words, “right” and “wrong” are culture-specific; what is considered moral in one society may be considered immoral in another, and, since no universal standard of morality exists, no one has the right to claim superiority over another society’s customs.

8 Change in mode of production Socio-economic transformation
Colonialism: The direct and overall domination of one country by another on the basis of state power being in the hands of a foreign power WHY ? HOW ? Decline in agriculture Change in mode of production INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AGRARIAN  INDUSTRIAL The industrial revolution was a revolutionary trend in the history of mankind. Progress of Industry grew faster than agriculture European powers went outside the country to look for new materials Increasingly difficult tor agriculture to satisfy the demand for raw materials required in the industries Socio-economic transformation and technology As a result of rapid increase in technology, new products were produced at a faster rate than the populations could dispose of. As a result of the decline in agricultural production, there was the problem of how to produce enough or adequate food to feed the fast growing urban population There was under-utilization of capital in Europe at this time, and a need to find where these capitals will transported and invested for the creation of new products. Movement from RURAL to URBAN

9 political administration
Conquest, Forced labour, Taxation Monetization of the economy. Payment of low wages. Colonialism: The strategy HOW? WHY ? African economy before colonization was primitive and based on barter system Colonialist needed to take full control of the African economy and administration to ensure that Africa was made a consumer nation for European manufactured goods. Control Money was introduced as the only official acceptable medium of exchange and to enforce this, there was need for the colonialist to take direct control of the administration of the African colonies. economy Direct control of the African economy and political administration enabled the colonialist to ensure that African colonies or states did not take to manufacturing. political administration Reorganized the economy and the markets to make it possible for integration into the world market and international economy It helped to restrict Africans and their technology to the confines or role of producing only primary goods or agricultural raw materials needed by the industries in Europe. Direct control of African economy and political administration made possible colonialism Africa was compelled or forced to accept the international division of labour which assigned her the compulsory role of production of agricultural raw materials required by the industries in Europe.

10 If the colonialists required palm oil for their soap making industry, they had to compel Africans to concentrate on the production of this commodity in commercial quantities so that the industry concerned could have adequate and steady supply of this product. If the colonialists did not take full control and direct production in the economy, the African people who are the producers might decide to produce yams more than palm oil, because this might be what was in high demand within the local economy.

Types of colonialism 2 NON-MUTUALLY–EXCLUSIVE FORMS OF COLONIALISM: SETTLER COLONIALISM involves large-scale immigration, often motivated by religious, political, or economic reasons. EXPLOITATION COLONIALISM involves fewer colonists and focuses on access to resources for export, typically to the Metroplole. relied on indigenous resources for labor and material [slaves]. Both types of colonization were enacted by EXTREME FORCE and EXPLOITED and DESTROYED the indigenous culture.

12 imperialism- definition
the creation and/or maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, based on domination and subordination between the METROPLOLE and the COLONY and often in the form of an EMPIRE. British Empire / Ottoman Empire Colonialism vs. Imperialism COLONIALISM is the implanting of settlements or colonies on a distant territory” – IMPERIALISM IS “the practice, the theory and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan centre ruling a distant territory’”. e.g.. “The Scramble for Africa”

13 Slavery European nations entered their imperial projects with the goal of enriching the European Metroplole. Exploitation of non-Europeans to support imperial goals was acceptable to the colonizers. Two outgrowths of this imperial agenda were slavery and indentured servitude. Ultimately, around 11 MILLION AFRICANS were taken to the Caribbean and North and South America as slaves by European colonizers.

14 The slave trade The Atlantic slave trade or trans-Atlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic ocean from the 16th through to the 19th centuries. The vast majority of slaves involved in the Atlantic trade were Africans from the central and western parts of the continent, who were sold by Africans to European slave traders, who transported them across the ocean to the colonies in North and South America.

15 The triangular Trade route

16 THE SLAVE TRADE - continued Millions of Africans were forcibly placed into slavery. ‘BLACKS’ were considered TO BE ANIMALS – NOT HUMAN. This justified the inhumane treatment. There, the slaves were FORCED TO LABOR on coffee, tobacco, cocoa, cotton and sugar plantations, toil in gold and silver mines, in rice fields, the construction industry, timber for ships, or in houses to work as servants

17 Slave auction advertising
Even after the end of the slave trade, most colonies were used as sources of inexpensive labor and resources while providing little in terms of services and development to indigenous populations.


19 The scramble for Africa
The Scramble for Africa ( ) was a period of rapid colonization of the African continent by European powers The Africans’ worst loss was not of land or power but self-respect, as the newcomers taught them that their ways, cultures and gods were inferior and should be abandoned.

20 The scramble for africa

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