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Neutralizations to h in Mösiehuali from the perspective of Cognitive Grammar David Tuggy SIL-Mexico.

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1 Neutralizations to h in Mösiehuali from the perspective of Cognitive Grammar David Tuggy SIL-Mexico

2 Neutralizations to h in Mösiehuali Mösiehuali, or Tetelcingo Nahuatl, is noteworthy for the number of contrasting phonemes which are neutralized in certain syllable-final positions. Mösiehuali, or Tetelcingo Nahuatl, is noteworthy for the number of contrasting phonemes which are neutralized in certain syllable-final positions. In particular, a syllable-final h may, by alternation evidence, be shown to be a p, t, k, k ʷ, c ̸, č, s, š, w, or y In particular, a syllable-final h may, by alternation evidence, be shown to be a p, t, k, k ʷ, c ̸, č, s, š, w, or y not to mention an h. not to mention an h.

3 Neutralizations to h in Mösiehuali An hc ̸ sequence, for instance, could correspond to any of the following: An hc ̸ sequence, for instance, could correspond to any of the following: hc ̸ (ayoh-c ̸ īn- ƛ i zucchini/young squash, ayoh- ƛ i squash) hc ̸ (ayoh-c ̸ īn- ƛ i zucchini/young squash, ayoh- ƛ i squash) tc ̸ (otimomah-c ̸ īno you H knew yourself vs. otimomat you knew yourself) tc ̸ (otimomah-c ̸ īno you H knew yourself vs. otimomat you knew yourself) c ̸ c ̸ (otimokeh-c ̸ īno you H stood vs. otimokec ̸ you stood) c ̸ c ̸ (otimokeh-c ̸ īno you H stood vs. otimokec ̸ you stood) čc ̸ (nēh-c ̸ ahc ̸ ilia he calls me vs. nēč-ilwia he tells me) čc ̸ (nēh-c ̸ ahc ̸ ilia he calls me vs. nēč-ilwia he tells me) sc ̸ (mo-nemilih-c ̸ ī your H life vs. mo-nemilis your life) sc ̸ (mo-nemilih-c ̸ ī your H life vs. mo-nemilis your life) wc ̸ (mo-k ʷ ah-c ̸ ī your H stick vs. k ʷ aw-i ƛ stick) wc ̸ (mo-k ʷ ah-c ̸ ī your H stick vs. k ʷ aw-i ƛ stick) yc ̸ (mo-k ʷ ēh-c ̸ ī your H skirt vs. k ʷ ēy-i ƛ skirt) yc ̸ (mo-k ʷ ēh-c ̸ ī your H skirt vs. k ʷ ēy-i ƛ skirt)

4 Neutralizations to h in Mösiehuali Similarly, a final ø (zero) can correspond to an h, a w, a y, a nasal, or a zero. Similarly, a final ø (zero) can correspond to an h, a w, a y, a nasal, or a zero. h ( mo-ayo your squash vs. ayoh- ƛ i squash) h ( mo-ayo your squash vs. ayoh- ƛ i squash) w ( mo-k ʷ a your stick vs. k ʷ aw-i ƛ stick) w ( mo-k ʷ a your stick vs. k ʷ aw-i ƛ stick) y ( mo-k ʷ ē your skirt vs. k ʷ ēy-i ƛ skirt) y ( mo-k ʷ ē your skirt vs. k ʷ ēy-i ƛ skirt) n ( mo-c ̸ o your hair vs. c ̸ on- ƛ i hair) n ( mo-c ̸ o your hair vs. c ̸ on- ƛ i hair) m ( mo-kō your waterpot vs. kōm-i ƛ waterpot) m ( mo-kō your waterpot vs. kōm-i ƛ waterpot) ø ( mo-konē your baby vs. mo-konē-c ̸ ī your H baby) ø ( mo-konē your baby vs. mo-konē-c ̸ ī your H baby)

5 Usage-based structure Cognitive Grammar brings several interesting theoretical perspectives to data of this kind. Cognitive Grammar brings several interesting theoretical perspectives to data of this kind. In the first place, it is usage based In the first place, it is usage based Words and other forms which are learned by speakers are ipso facto part of the language, Words and other forms which are learned by speakers are ipso facto part of the language, regardless of whether or not they might be predicted by rules or patterns (schemas) which are also part of the language. regardless of whether or not they might be predicted by rules or patterns (schemas) which are also part of the language. This has consequences for the way CG handles categorization. This has consequences for the way CG handles categorization.

6 Categorization A quick review, or as the case may be, a crash course in how CG handles categorization: A quick review, or as the case may be, a crash course in how CG handles categorization: Categorization is based on judgements of similarity from standard to target of comparison. Categorization is based on judgements of similarity from standard to target of comparison. If the standard is fully realized in the target this is full schematicity: S T. If the standard is fully realized in the target this is full schematicity: S T. T is an/ is a kind of S. T is an/ is a kind of S. T is a sub-case of S T is a sub-case of S T elaborates S T elaborates S S is schematic for T S is schematic for T S is a generalization of which T is a specific case S is a generalization of which T is a specific case

7 Categorization When the standard is only partially realized in the target you have partial schematicity: S - - T. When the standard is only partially realized in the target you have partial schematicity: S - - T. T is similar to S, but is not an S. T is similar to S, but is not an S. T is a kind of warped or distorted S. T is a kind of warped or distorted S. T is an extension of S. T is an extension of S. Typically, S is more prominent (salient) than T (we compare less-known T to well-known S.) Typically, S is more prominent (salient) than T (we compare less-known T to well-known S.) When S - - T, what is common to them (typically) forms an incipient higher-level schema. When S - - T, what is common to them (typically) forms an incipient higher-level schema.

8 Usage-based structure The subcases prompt the extraction of the schema. The subcases prompt the extraction of the schema. They do not disappear when it is extracted, but continue to support it. They do not disappear when it is extracted, but continue to support it. General patterns are based on and learned from specific cases. General patterns are based on and learned from specific cases. This is not to deny, however, that it works the other way also: a well-established pattern sanctions (legitimizes) specific cases that match it. This is not to deny, however, that it works the other way also: a well-established pattern sanctions (legitimizes) specific cases that match it. If these are novel cases, the schema is used productively. If these are novel cases, the schema is used productively.

9 General patterns coexist with specific structures Bottom line: both general patterns and specific cases of those patterns can coexist in speakers minds. Bottom line: both general patterns and specific cases of those patterns can coexist in speakers minds. They do not contradict but rather reinforce each other. They do not contradict but rather reinforce each other. It is an empirical issue, not a theoretically predetermined one, to what extent any given pattern or specific case is entrenched or prominent in speakers minds. It is an empirical issue, not a theoretically predetermined one, to what extent any given pattern or specific case is entrenched or prominent in speakers minds.

10 Categories The more elaborations (sub-cases) a schema has, the better entrenched, and thus more salient, it is likely to be. The more elaborations (sub-cases) a schema has, the better entrenched, and thus more salient, it is likely to be.

11 Categories Often sub-cases can support different schemas; i.e. they embody more than one pattern or generalization. Often sub-cases can support different schemas; i.e. they embody more than one pattern or generalization.

12 Categories Classical categories, of the kind assumed by many theories, are modeled when Classical categories, of the kind assumed by many theories, are modeled when (a) a salient (well-entrenched) pattern or schema (a) a salient (well-entrenched) pattern or schema (b) has many less salient sub-cases, and (b) has many less salient sub-cases, and (c) any other schemas based on those sub-cases can be reasonably ignored. As a result, (c) any other schemas based on those sub-cases can be reasonably ignored. As a result, (d) The category does not overlap with neighboring categories. (d) The category does not overlap with neighboring categories.

13 Categories Well-behaved classical categories look like this: Well-behaved classical categories look like this: Or, even better, like this: Or, even better, like this: But classical categories are just one case of the range of kinds of categories we find in language. But classical categories are just one case of the range of kinds of categories we find in language.

14 Phonological Categories Phonological categories are of the same kinds as any other linguistic categories. Phonological categories are of the same kinds as any other linguistic categories. Phonology, like semantics, lexicon or grammar, is built bottom-up, and is based on usage. Phonology, like semantics, lexicon or grammar, is built bottom-up, and is based on usage. As with semantics, that usage is conditioned by the fact that it occurs in bipolar, symbolic structures (i.e. in morphemes or grammatical constructions.) As with semantics, that usage is conditioned by the fact that it occurs in bipolar, symbolic structures (i.e. in morphemes or grammatical constructions.)

15 nēč- in Mösiehuali Mösiehuali speakers learn or hear many word/stems in which nēč before a verb stem means me. Mösiehuali speakers learn or hear many word/stems in which nēč before a verb stem means me. Some are very well-entrenched, others less so. Some are very well-entrenched, others less so. These cases support a prefixal nēč-V schema. These cases support a prefixal nēč-V schema.

16 nēč- in Mösiehuali It is only within this nēč-V construction that nēč- is identified as a morpheme. It is only within this nēč-V construction that nēč- is identified as a morpheme. Its prefixality consists in its strong attachment to the construction, in which it is followed by a verb stem. Its prefixality consists in its strong attachment to the construction, in which it is followed by a verb stem. It can hardly be activated without activating the construction. It can hardly be activated without activating the construction.

17 nēh- Mösiehuali speakers also learn or hear many word/stems in which nēh before a verb stem also means me. Mösiehuali speakers also learn or hear many word/stems in which nēh before a verb stem also means me. Again, some are very well-entrenched, others less so. Again, some are very well-entrenched, others less so. These cases support a pair of prefixal nēh-V schemas. These cases support a pair of prefixal nēh-V schemas.

18 nēh- (In Mösiehuali the maximal syllable is CVC. Thus in all these cases the h is syllable- final.) (In Mösiehuali the maximal syllable is CVC. Thus in all these cases the h is syllable- final.) (In fact the vast majority of hs in the language are syllable-final.) (In fact the vast majority of hs in the language are syllable-final.)

19 nēh- These two schemas cry out to be compared to each other These two schemas cry out to be compared to each other The result of doing so is a higher-level schema. The result of doing so is a higher-level schema.

20 nēč- alternates with nēh- All three of these schemas cry out to be compared with the better-entrenched nēč-V schema. All three of these schemas cry out to be compared with the better-entrenched nēč-V schema.

21 nēč- alternates with nēh- (For convenience, we will concentrate on the comparison of nēč-V with the highest-level nēh-V schema.) (For convenience, we will concentrate on the comparison of nēč-V with the highest-level nēh-V schema.) This is the Cognitive Grammar equivalent of a morpheme alternation rule: nēč- ~ nēh- / __ t [sib] This is the Cognitive Grammar equivalent of a morpheme alternation rule: nēč- ~ nēh- / __ t [sib] (Remember, it does not deny the existence or importance of the more specific rules nēč- ~ nēh- / __ c ̸ and nēč- ~ nēh- / __ č ) (Remember, it does not deny the existence or importance of the more specific rules nēč- ~ nēh- / __ c ̸ and nēč- ~ nēh- / __ č )

22 nēč- alternates with nēh- This comparison of nēč-V with the nēh-V schemas can again result in the extraction of a schema. This comparison of nēč-V with the nēh-V schemas can again result in the extraction of a schema. Like many other high-level schemas, this one has gotten too abstract to be useful for most purposes, and is unlikely to be very salient. Like many other high-level schemas, this one has gotten too abstract to be useful for most purposes, and is unlikely to be very salient.

23 nēč- alternates with nēh- It is less than fully useful because It is less than fully useful because It is not the case that just any voiceless consonant can appear as the final part of the morpheme meaning me. It is not the case that just any voiceless consonant can appear as the final part of the morpheme meaning me. To say an important part of the same thing: č and h do not form a particularly natural class. To say an important part of the same thing: č and h do not form a particularly natural class.

24 tēč- alternates with tēh- Through exactly parallel steps, speakers arrive at a tēč-V schema and a tēh-V schema, and compare them to each other. Through exactly parallel steps, speakers arrive at a tēč-V schema and a tēh-V schema, and compare them to each other. So their cognitive grammars will have another morpheme alternation rule: tēč- ~ tēh- / __ t [sib] So their cognitive grammars will have another morpheme alternation rule: tēč- ~ tēh- / __ t [sib] (And also the more specific rules tēč- ~ tēh- / __ c ̸ and tēč- ~ tēh- / __ č ) (And also the more specific rules tēč- ~ tēh- / __ c ̸ and tēč- ~ tēh- / __ č )

25 ƛ apeč- alternates with ƛ apeh- Again, through largely parallel steps, speakers will come up with ƛ apeč and ƛ apeh- t [sib] schemas (cf. mo- ƛ apeč your bed and mo- ƛ apeh-c ̸ ī your H bed,) and will compare them to each other. Again, through largely parallel steps, speakers will come up with ƛ apeč and ƛ apeh- t [sib] schemas (cf. mo- ƛ apeč your bed and mo- ƛ apeh-c ̸ ī your H bed,) and will compare them to each other. Another morpheme-alternation rule, ƛ apeč ~ ƛ apeh / __ t [sib], will be established. Another morpheme-alternation rule, ƛ apeč ~ ƛ apeh / __ t [sib], will be established.

26 č alternates with h Such morpheme alternations will function as specific cases for the extraction of another schema, which localizes the alternation to the phonological segments which contrast. Such morpheme alternations will function as specific cases for the extraction of another schema, which localizes the alternation to the phonological segments which contrast.

27 č alternates with h This schema is the Cognitive Grammar equiva-lent of a phonological (morphophonemic) rule č h / __ t [sib] This schema is the Cognitive Grammar equiva-lent of a phonological (morphophonemic) rule č h / __ t [sib] It can be abbreviated by leaving out the specifications, largely empty at this level of schematicity, of the semantic poles involved. It can be abbreviated by leaving out the specifications, largely empty at this level of schematicity, of the semantic poles involved.

28 č alternates with h Nonetheless it is bipolar (morphemic) in that Nonetheless it is bipolar (morphemic) in that the comparison of phonological structures is motivated by and established largely because of the identity of the semantic structures. the comparison of phonological structures is motivated by and established largely because of the identity of the semantic structures. If č and h werent the only points of difference in allomorphs, speakers probably wouldnt particularly compare them, much less entrench the comparison as part of their standard linguistic repertoire. If č and h werent the only points of difference in allomorphs, speakers probably wouldnt particularly compare them, much less entrench the comparison as part of their standard linguistic repertoire. Other similar abbreviated representations we use should be understood to also be morphemic, not just phonological. Other similar abbreviated representations we use should be understood to also be morphemic, not just phonological.

29 Other obstruents alternate with h Similar kinds of considerations, including Similar kinds of considerations, including many specific structures many specific structures comparisons among them comparisons among them abstraction of schemas and comparisons among them abstraction of schemas and comparisons among them lead to the establishment of a number of other phonological rules similar to the č - h rule. lead to the establishment of a number of other phonological rules similar to the č - h rule.

30 Other obstruents alternate with h They include: They include: a c ̸ - h schema (this is the most similar to the č - h rule) a c ̸ - h schema (this is the most similar to the č - h rule) a t - h schema (before t or apical affricates) a t - h schema (before t or apical affricates) an š - h schema (before č) an š - h schema (before č) an s - h schema (before c ̸ ) an s - h schema (before c ̸ ) a k - h schema (before k or k ʷ ) a k - h schema (before k or k ʷ )

31 Dissimilation These are all so similar that they invite comparison and extraction of a schema. These are all so similar that they invite comparison and extraction of a schema. Such a schema would say an obstruent (O) is pronounced h when it precedes a similar obstruent. Such a schema would say an obstruent (O) is pronounced h when it precedes a similar obstruent.

32 Dissimilation This is in a sense a rather important schema. This is in a sense a rather important schema. It captures the generalization that all these patterns are dissimilations. It captures the generalization that all these patterns are dissimilations.

33 Dissimilation However, it cannot be the whole story. However, it cannot be the whole story. It does not tell you how similar the second obstruent need be in which cases. It does not tell you how similar the second obstruent need be in which cases. It is the lower-level schemas which give you that information. It is the lower-level schemas which give you that information. They themselves got it from the specific cases, of course. (Tuggy 2004) They themselves got it from the specific cases, of course. (Tuggy 2004)

34 p alternates with k and h Note that there is no schema dissimilating p before another p. Note that there is no schema dissimilating p before another p. This is so even though both p s and hp sequences occur in Mösiehuali, and the overall Dissimilation schema in some sense predicts that there ought to be an extension linking them. This is so even though both p s and hp sequences occur in Mösiehuali, and the overall Dissimilation schema in some sense predicts that there ought to be an extension linking them. But in a usage-based model it is absent because there simply are no clear cases where the morphemic patterns place a p before another p. But in a usage-based model it is absent because there simply are no clear cases where the morphemic patterns place a p before another p. There is thus some expectation (but no requirement) that if such were to arise, the combination would be pronounced hp. There is thus some expectation (but no requirement) that if such were to arise, the combination would be pronounced hp.

35 p alternates with k and h Syllable-final p s should occur when a verb like k ʷ epa turn has its final vowel truncated. Syllable-final p s should occur when a verb like k ʷ epa turn has its final vowel truncated. (This happens in preterite, durative and other forms) (This happens in preterite, durative and other forms) Instead of the expected k ʷ ep, the form k ʷ ek appears. Instead of the expected k ʷ ep, the form k ʷ ek appears.

36 p alternates with k and h Again, a schema can be extracted which captures this p - k pattern. (Though abbreviated, it too is morphemic in nature.) Again, a schema can be extracted which captures this p - k pattern. (Though abbreviated, it too is morphemic in nature.) This pattern would predict but again, fail to guarantee that a pp combination would be pronounced kp rather than hp. This pattern would predict but again, fail to guarantee that a pp combination would be pronounced kp rather than hp.

37 p alternates with k and h When k ʷ epa is truncated and the following consonant is a k, the truncated form is pronounced k ʷ eh. When k ʷ epa is truncated and the following consonant is a k, the truncated form is pronounced k ʷ eh. The extensions from the more common truncated form k ʷ ek follow the pattern of the k - h dissimilation rule. The extensions from the more common truncated form k ʷ ek follow the pattern of the k - h dissimilation rule.

38 Rule ordering This is an example of what rule ordering (in this case, feeding) looks like in Cognitive Grammar. This is an example of what rule ordering (in this case, feeding) looks like in Cognitive Grammar. One extension leads to or allows for another. One extension leads to or allows for another. Each is a subcase of at least one more-general pattern (schema, rule) Each is a subcase of at least one more-general pattern (schema, rule) This imposes a certain logical ordering on the rules. This imposes a certain logical ordering on the rules.

39 Rule ordering Note that this ordering configuration does not preclude a direct extension from k ʷ epa to k ʷ eh, and thus from p to h. Note that this ordering configuration does not preclude a direct extension from k ʷ epa to k ʷ eh, and thus from p to h. It does show how the alternation is motivated by the way it fits with a couple of established patterns. It does show how the alternation is motivated by the way it fits with a couple of established patterns. It is a much less surprising alternation in Mösiehuali than it would be in most other languages. It is a much less surprising alternation in Mösiehuali than it would be in most other languages.

40 Spirantization In parallel ways to those we have seen in the case of dissimilation, a schema for semivowel Spirantization is extracted. In parallel ways to those we have seen in the case of dissimilation, a schema for semivowel Spirantization is extracted.

41 Spirantization Specific forms like k ʷ aw and k ʷ ah, or k ʷ ēy and k ʷ ēh, are compared, and schemas extracted. Specific forms like k ʷ aw and k ʷ ah, or k ʷ ēy and k ʷ ēh, are compared, and schemas extracted.

42 Various consonants are pronounced h The two schemas w - h and y - h support the semivowel (W) - h schema. The two schemas w - h and y - h support the semivowel (W) - h schema. This schema can be compared with the Dissimilation schema and yet another, higher-level schema abstracted. This schema can be compared with the Dissimilation schema and yet another, higher-level schema abstracted. This highest schema expresses the generalization that a lot of consonants are pronounced h before other consonants. This highest schema expresses the generalization that a lot of consonants are pronounced h before other consonants.

43 Various consonants are pronounced h Again, we have a schema that captures an important generalization, but is far from absolute. Again, we have a schema that captures an important generalization, but is far from absolute. It does not tell us which consonants are pronounced h in which circumstances. Many consonants are not pronounced as h in many preconsonantal positions. It does not tell us which consonants are pronounced h in which circumstances. Many consonants are not pronounced as h in many preconsonantal positions. E.g. nasals, l and r are not (cf. nonānc ̸ ī my mother, īmpa on them mokalc ̸ ī your hon. house) E.g. nasals, l and r are not (cf. nonānc ̸ ī my mother, īmpa on them mokalc ̸ ī your hon. house) E.g. k is not before apicals, apicals before k or p, š before c ̸, etc. E.g. k is not before apicals, apicals before k or p, š before c ̸, etc. And so forth. And so forth.

44 Various consonants are pronounced h The lower-level schemas give us that infor- mation; and they got it from the specific cases. The lower-level schemas give us that infor- mation; and they got it from the specific cases. The whole system is based on specific usages. The whole system is based on specific usages. As they change, the system changes with them. As they change, the system changes with them.

45 Phonemes Like most if not all languages, Mösiehuali has a set of contrasting sounds that tend to be structured close to the norm for classical categories. Like most if not all languages, Mösiehuali has a set of contrasting sounds that tend to be structured close to the norm for classical categories. They are abstracted from millions of individual usage events. They are abstracted from millions of individual usage events. They tend to consist of a single articulatory position or gesture, though sometimes a complex one. They tend to consist of a single articulatory position or gesture, though sometimes a complex one. They are of two main types: syllable peaks, and syllable margins (onsets or endings). They are of two main types: syllable peaks, and syllable margins (onsets or endings). Among them they cover the range of articulatory gestures of the language pretty completely, with little overlap. Among them they cover the range of articulatory gestures of the language pretty completely, with little overlap. They are, of course, phonemes. They are, of course, phonemes. We have assumed them in what we have been describing so far. We have assumed them in what we have been describing so far.

46 A classical phoneme For example, the phoneme t consists largely of a group of sounds which, though differing slightly among each other, have in common a (non-nasal) apico-dental gesture at the margin of a syllable (and its acoustic correlates). For example, the phoneme t consists largely of a group of sounds which, though differing slightly among each other, have in common a (non-nasal) apico-dental gesture at the margin of a syllable (and its acoustic correlates). Although specific pronunciations differ in detail, none of those details particularly stand out. Although specific pronunciations differ in detail, none of those details particularly stand out. This is, then, a good example of a classical category. This is, then, a good example of a classical category.

47 A classical phonemic system t fits in with a number of other similar categories in a system which pretty well covers the territory of sounds pronounced at syllable margins. (Only the obstruents are represented here.) t fits in with a number of other similar categories in a system which pretty well covers the territory of sounds pronounced at syllable margins. (Only the obstruents are represented here.)

48 A classical phonemic system These sounds, by and large, contrast clearly with each other, each potentially occurring between vowels, for instance. These sounds, by and large, contrast clearly with each other, each potentially occurring between vowels, for instance. This looks like a good classical categorial system. If the phonemes didnt overlap, it would be perfect. This looks like a good classical categorial system. If the phonemes didnt overlap, it would be perfect.

49 A classical phonemic system Schemas can be extracted to group or categorize these phonemes, but they are not likely to be as useful or prominent as the phonemes themselves are. Schemas can be extracted to group or categorize these phonemes, but they are not likely to be as useful or prominent as the phonemes themselves are. These are CG counterparts to the traditional archiphonemes, or in some cases to phonological features or feature combinations. These are CG counterparts to the traditional archiphonemes, or in some cases to phonological features or feature combinations.

50 A messy phoneme Not all phonemes present such a pretty picture, however. Not all phonemes present such a pretty picture, however. For example, the phoneme w in Mösiehuali includes a range of pronunciations including [w], [w ̥ ], [β], and [ ɸ ]. For example, the phoneme w in Mösiehuali includes a range of pronunciations including [w], [w ̥ ], [β], and [ ɸ ]. These allophones are clearly salient in peoples minds, to such an extent that /w/s unity can be (and certainly has been) questioned. These allophones are clearly salient in peoples minds, to such an extent that /w/s unity can be (and certainly has been) questioned. Yet when the allophones are compared a schema is extractible. Yet when the allophones are compared a schema is extractible. They clearly have a lot in common, there is alternation evidence to link them together, and they do not contrast with each other (in native words, anyway). They clearly have a lot in common, there is alternation evidence to link them together, and they do not contrast with each other (in native words, anyway).

51 A messy phoneme In fact, there are other sub-generalizations that can (and should) be included in the picture. In fact, there are other sub-generalizations that can (and should) be included in the picture. (The relations between these sub-generalizations embody phonological rules of the sort we have seen earlier) (The relations between these sub-generalizations embody phonological rules of the sort we have seen earlier) This phoneme is a much messier category than t, č, and the others. This phoneme is a much messier category than t, č, and the others.

52 A messy phoneme In fact, w is already such a messy category that adding h to it may not seem like that big a change. In fact, w is already such a messy category that adding h to it may not seem like that big a change. (This extension is the one we described as a sub- case of the Spirantization rule) (This extension is the one we described as a sub- case of the Spirantization rule)

53 A messy phoneme Still, it is less than clear what schema (if any) one should posit as extracted from the extension. Still, it is less than clear what schema (if any) one should posit as extracted from the extension. Certainly that schema would not fit well into the nice set of phonemes in Mösiehuali. Certainly that schema would not fit well into the nice set of phonemes in Mösiehuali.

54 Neutralization to h More importantly (perhaps), this h allophone (or particular subcases of it) is shared by other phonemes. More importantly (perhaps), this h allophone (or particular subcases of it) is shared by other phonemes. These phoneme categories do overlap. These phoneme categories do overlap.

55 Neutralization to h What is more, these h allophones fit quite well among the non-distinguished allophones of another phoneme, namely h. What is more, these h allophones fit quite well among the non-distinguished allophones of another phoneme, namely h.

56 Neutralization to h What had looked like nice neat classical categories suddenly arentthey overlap massively. What had looked like nice neat classical categories suddenly arentthey overlap massively.

57 Neutralization to h And the overlap is even more massive and complex, when we include the cases of h before t, k, k ʷ, etc. And the overlap is even more massive and complex, when we include the cases of h before t, k, k ʷ, etc.

58 Consonant neutralizations in Mösiehuali Not to mention the cases of neutralization to ø in word-final position. Not to mention the cases of neutralization to ø in word-final position.

59 Consonant neutralizations in Mösiehuali All this may seem like making heavy weather of a sort of thing weve all seen plenty of times before All this may seem like making heavy weather of a sort of thing weve all seen plenty of times before even if not quite on such a scale in most languages even if not quite on such a scale in most languages

60 Consonant Neutralizations in Mösiehuali Under at least some other theoretical models this sort of thing is essentially inexplicable. Many of us were taught to see this not as normal, but as pathological. Many of us were taught to see this not as normal, but as pathological. If classical categories are the basis of phonology, why would you ever get this kind of a mess? If classical categories are the basis of phonology, why would you ever get this kind of a mess? But, it is in fact quite normal, empirically, to get this kind of mess But, it is in fact quite normal, empirically, to get this kind of mess (even if, again, not usually on this scale). (even if, again, not usually on this scale).

61 Consonant neutralizations in Mösiehuali The main points I would draw from all this are: Phonological categories are like other categories we find in language. Phonological categories are like other categories we find in language. Like other categories, they are usage-based. Like other categories, they are usage-based. It is usage (along with, not instead of brute etic similarity) that lets us know which sounds (or other concepts) are to be compared and categorized together. It is usage (along with, not instead of brute etic similarity) that lets us know which sounds (or other concepts) are to be compared and categorized together. Like other categories, phonological categories may be nice, neat and orderly (classical), or they may be messy. Like other categories, phonological categories may be nice, neat and orderly (classical), or they may be messy.

62 Consonant neutralizations in Mösiehuali Most of the time, they are at least a little bit messy. Most of the time, they are at least a little bit messy. From the CG perspective, aberrations from the classical phonemic model are perfectly normal and to be expected. From the CG perspective, aberrations from the classical phonemic model are perfectly normal and to be expected. What needs explaining is not why the phonemic model isnt perfect, but rather why it works so well in so many cases. What needs explaining is not why the phonemic model isnt perfect, but rather why it works so well in so many cases.

63 Consonant neutralizations in Mösiehuali The CG perspective on categories allows us to characterize, in natural and naturally related ways, such traditional structures and mechanisms as: The CG perspective on categories allows us to characterize, in natural and naturally related ways, such traditional structures and mechanisms as: Morphemic alternation rules Morphemic alternation rules Morphophonemic and other phonological rules Morphophonemic and other phonological rules Rule ordering Rule ordering Phonemes and allophones Phonemes and allophones Archiphonemes Archiphonemes Features Features Neutralization Neutralization

64 Consonant neutralizations in Mösiehuali I think this is important. I think this is important. If a model obliges me to say that older thinkers were all wrong, something is probably wrong with the model. If a model obliges me to say that older thinkers were all wrong, something is probably wrong with the model. If it helps me understand what those older thinkers were talking about, that it is a point in its favor. If it helps me understand what those older thinkers were talking about, that it is a point in its favor.

65 Consonant neutralizations in Mösiehuali And, finally, And, finally, Isnt Mösiehuali beautiful? Isnt Mösiehuali beautiful? Isnt it admirable how a community of language-speakers can allow, and even encourage to the point of enforcing, such massive neutralizations, Isnt it admirable how a community of language-speakers can allow, and even encourage to the point of enforcing, such massive neutralizations, and still be able to tell perfectly well what they are talking about? and still be able to tell perfectly well what they are talking about?

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