Presentation on theme: "Scaffolding Learning PATRICIA B. ARINTO 7 September 2006."— Presentation transcript:
Scaffolding Learning PATRICIA B. ARINTO 7 September 2006
What is scaffolding? A temporary structure that provides assistance at specific points in the learning process Allows learners to complete tasks that they would not be able to accomplish without assistance
Why provide scaffolding? To help learners make progress and avoid getting left behind To provide just-in-time assistance or help for learners In technology-supported learning, to help learners focus more on content rather than on the mechanics of technology use (Fryer, 1999) To direct students to good resources and help them form insights (McKenzie, 1998)
Scaffolding and constructivism Scaffolding is essential in construction work: for building tall structures, for reaching hard-to- reach places
Scaffolding and constructivism Learning is constructing/forming knowledge from various resources/ materials Learning is transforming information from various resources into new knowledge products
INPUTS TRANSFORMATION RECEPTION SCAFFOLDS OUTPUTS TRANSFORMATION SCAFFOLDS PRODUCTION SCAFFOLDS
How do we scaffold learning? By providing guides, outlines and templates By guiding thinking through visual/ graphic and other means
Reception scaffolds Given to help learners gather information from sources Designed to direct learners attention to what is important, and to help them organize and record what they perceive Examples: interview guide, reading guide, dictionaries and glossaries, observation guide
Transformation scaffolds Given to help learners transform the information they have received or collected into some other form Used to impose structure on information, while reception scaffolds help learners perceive structure that is already in the information Examples: Venn diagram (for comparisons), inductive tower (for making inferences), causal loop (for analyzing causes and effects)
Production scaffolds Provided to help learners produce something observable that conveys what they have learned Useful when the form of what is to be produced follows the conventions of a genre, publication or presentation format Examples: presentation template, outline, story map, play structure, writing guide/template
Questions teachers should ask them- selves when assigning learning tasks: 1.Reception task: Do all of my students know how to make sense of this source of information? 2.Transformation task: Do all of my students know how to manipulate the information in the way I am asking them to? 3.Production task: Do all of my students know how to produce information in the format I am requiring?
If your answer to any of these questions is No or Not Sure, then you need to MAKE A SCAFFOLD for your students to use. Questions teachers should ask them- selves when assigning learning tasks:
Key attributes of good scaffolds Available for just-in-time learning Can be skipped by those who dont need them Blends content and structure to an appropriate degree Fades when students become more adept
Degrees of scaffolding Strike a balance between spoon feeding and allowing your learners to sink-or-swim. Dont scaffold everything. Pick the 20% that will solve 80% of your problems.
Degrees of scaffolding Make sure your scaffolds do not stifle creativity. Over time, as your students internalize the structures and skills you want them to have, scaffold less.
References Dodge, Bernie. (1998). Thinking Visually With WebQuests. Available online at Accessed on 21 August Fryer, Wesley A. (1999). Teaching with Templates. Available online at plates.html. Accessed on 21 August plates.html McKenzie, Jamie. (1998). Grazing the Net: Raising a Generation of Free-Range Students. Available online at Accessed on 21 August