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Going to Iraq Why. In August 1990, Saddam Hussein sent his military in to Kuwait. The purpose, erase Kuwait from the map.

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Presentation on theme: "Going to Iraq Why. In August 1990, Saddam Hussein sent his military in to Kuwait. The purpose, erase Kuwait from the map."— Presentation transcript:

1 Going to Iraq Why

2 In August 1990, Saddam Hussein sent his military in to Kuwait. The purpose, erase Kuwait from the map.

3 In 1991, the UN authorized the use of force to remove Saddam Hussein from Kuwait.

4 Over six hundred and sixty thousands troops from over 34 countries lined up with the US against Iraq. George H. Bush was given a mandate from the UN – REMOVE Iraq from Kuwait. He could do nothing more.

5 The 34 countries: Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Korea, Spain, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and the United States

6 Iraq was expelled from Kuwait. One of the conditions for surrender was Iraq permitting UN inspectors in to Iraq to inspect facilities.

7 The UN began inspecting facilities, but immediately began running into conflict with Iraqi government officials.

8 Inspectors were prevented from checking certain sites, detained, only to be allowed in to the site after many hours. It was believed that this tactic was used to prevent UN inspectors from finding anything in any of the nuclear or biological sites.

9 Almost immediately after Iraqi forces were kicked out of Kuwait, Iraqi rebellions were crushed, in most vicious ways. To counter the use of Iraqi planes and helicopters attacking civilians across Iraq, the UN devised a no fly zone.

10 There was a NO FLY zone in the North and one in the South. UN control over these areas was enforced by the US and UK airforce.

11 From the start of the NO FLY zones until 2003, there were daily attacks on US and UK planes. –A violation of the UN peace agreement after the 1991 war.

12 UN Inspectors reported to the UN that they found nuclear and biological weapons laboratories. Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction and was trying to hide them.

13 In 1991, Saddam told his commanders (a tape, uncovered after 2003 invasion of Iraq) that he wanted to make sure that the germ and chemical warheads, as well as the chemical and germ bombs, are available.

14 Mahdi Obeidi, a former Iraqi weapons scientist told CIA that he was instructed to bury parts of equipment needed to enrich uranium under a bush in his backyard. When the inspectors left Iraq, he was told to retrieve the equipment.

15 During Mr Clintons term in office, the US launched an attack on Iraq, in retaliation for Iraqi plans to assassinate the 41 st President of the United States.

16 An attempt on the life of the president or former president of the United States is an attack on the United States. –The attempt is not made because the president or former president lives quietly, but because in their capacity as president they bothered someone and now the someone wants to kill them for a policy decision of the US government. –Such an attack is more an attack on the American people than simply on the life of one man.

17 During this attack, US missiles destroyed many government buildings, schools, hospitals, and facilities where Saddam was building his weapons arsenals.

18 When the missiles stopped, the UN forced Saddam to agree to allow the inspectors back in to Iraq. –Saddam blocked, stonewalled, prevented, hindered, obstructed UN inspectors from resuming their search for Weapons of Mass Destruction.

19 One response by the UN was to cut off Iraqi control of their oil. By 1996, the UN was in control of Iraqi oil. The world body decided it would control how much oil Saddam sold.

20 The reason was clear – Saddam was spending his budget on rebuilding his military. The UN intended to stop him. They decided how much oil he could sell based on population and costs and need.

21 All oil from Iraq was pumped out of the ground by French and Russian companies, monitored by the UN and sold by the UN, to the world. The UN would rebate to Saddam his portion.

22 All oil sold = X billions went into UN bank accounts. The UN would write a check to Saddam to pay for medical, food, educational, building costs for Iraq.

23 Saddam used the money to build palaces, rebuild his army, and we learned – to continue his weapons of mass destruction program.

24 In 2003, we learned from Russian intelligence that Saddam wanted to punish the US for what it had done to him in 1991 and throughout the 90s.

25 UN inspectors report back to the UN – the weapons of mass destruction are missing. –Biological and chemical weapons – missing –Nuclear - missing

26 A report by the Iraq Survey group, headed by Charles Duelfer stated –(SH) He had no weapons stockpiles but he had dormant programs that could be reactivated within eight months –(SH) He was importing banned materials (banned by the UN but sent into Iraq in violation of the ban, through Syria) –(SH) He had intentions to start up his weapons programs at a later date once inspectors had gone.

27 UN requests Saddam enlighten the world on where his weapons of mass destruction disappeared to.

28 Saddam says nothing. He then orders his officials to obstruct further UN investigations.

29 In 2003, after Uday Hussein is removed, his diary is found. In it, Uday recounts statements by his father concerning the future of Iraq: –Desire to take parts of Iran –Desire to take Kuwait again –Desire to take parts of Saudi Arabia –Desire to punish the US This was to be accomplished when, according to the diary, Saddam rebuilt his nuclear weapons program. Then, according to Udays diary notes – no one would be able to stop his father.

30 Saddam Hussein, in his own words, told his commanders he wanted chemical and germ weapons. He used chemical warfare against the Kurds He used chemical warfare against the Iranians He had nuclear and biological and chemical weapons in He refused to allow inspections of those facilties and would often have materials hidden from inspectors. He vowed to retake Kuwait, parts of Iran and Saudi Arabia. He promised to punish the US after the 1991 expulsion from Kuwait. He intended to rebuild his nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons programs and could have within eight months.

31 Saddam had the money to buy weapons – he secretly received over ten billion in black market oil trading –Purchased long range missiles –Spare parts for tanks –Night vision equipment –Tank carriers –Missile guidance systems –North Korean missile technology –Radar jamming devices Purchased these illegal weapons from countries like: France, Germany, Russia, China, N Korea, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Turkey, Romania, and India.

32 In September 2002, Lt Col al- Dabbagh, head of Iraqi Air Defenses in the Western Desert told British intelligence that Saddam had deployed weapons of mass destruction that could be used against coalition forces in less than 45 minutes.

33 Saddams personal bodyguard (Abu Hamdi Mahmoud) provided information to British intelligence about scud assembly areas (banned by the UN), underground bunkers with nuclear materials stored in the bunkers. –The bunkers were built by Germany companies.

34 After September 11, 2001 – President Bush informed the world that the United States would no longer simply sit by while we were attacked. We would go after those who would harm us and those nations who supported, aided, gave comfort to terrorists.

35 Saddam Hussein was given an ultimatum by President Bush – provide documentation as to where the weapons of mass destruction were, show them and allow UN inspectors to have unfettered access – or else.

36 Saddam disregarded the UN and three specific resolutions calling for Iraq to comply with the UN demands. The United States would enforce those resolutions if Saddam did not comply.

37 The world watched as President Bush gave Saddam Hussein repeated ultimatums to turn over the missing weapons of mass destruction or face the US military.

38 The United Nations made it clear to the world that Saddam Hussein was in material breach of Resolution –That material breach would violate the agreements signed after the 1991 invasion and expulsion of Iraq from Kuwait and create a state of war once more. The facts are the UN, could not sustain such a threat hence it was never pushed publicly.

39 The UN weapons inspector (Hans Blix) could not locate hundreds of tons of VX, thousands of liters of anthrax, thousands of chemical rockets.

40 In the United Nations – France, Germany, Russia, and China opposed the US actions. –One French company (TotalFinaElf) had contracts worth over $7.3 billion with Saddam Hussein for period between The CEO of TotalFinaElf (Thierry Desmarest) was one of the top 3 contributors to president Chiracs last three campaigns for public office. –TotalFinaElf has another contract with Saddam for $40 billion from –France exports over $1.8 billion in trade with Iraq. Accounting for 35% of Frances total exports. –Russian companys were not left out – one company was contracted with Saddam for $12 billion to explore oil fields in Western Kurna Iraq. –Total Russian contracts with Iraq - over $35 billion over next ten years. –9 German companies had contracts totaling over $13 billion with Iraq for period –China signed agreements valued at over $9 billion with Saddam.

41 In 2001, President Bush began the debate about Iraq. In 2003, the US invaded and removed Saddam Hussein. –Two years worth of diplomacy and debate.

42 Between 2001 and 2003, President Bush requested intelligence from the FBI, CIA, NSA concerning Iraq and the threat Iraq posed.

43 On January 28, 2003, President Bush spoke to the nation and told us: –Today, the gravest danger in the war on terror, the gravest danger facing America and the world, is outlaw regimes that seek and possess nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. These regimes could use such weapons for blackmail, terror, and mass murder. They could also give or sell those weapons to terrorist allies, who would use them without the least hesitation.

44 –With nuclear arms or a full arsenal of chemical and biological weapons, Saddam Hussein could resume his ambitions of conquest in the Middle East and create deadly havoc in that region. And this Congress and the America people must recognize another threat. Evidence from intelligence sources, secret communications, and statements by people now in custody reveal that Saddam Hussein aids and protects terrorists, including members of al Qaeda. Secretly, and without fingerprints, he could provide one of his hidden weapons to terrorists, or help them develop their own.

45 –Some have said we must not act until the threat is imminent. Since when have terrorists and tyrants announced their intentions, politely putting us on notice before they strike? If this threat is permitted to fully and suddenly emerge, all actions, all words, and all recriminations would come too late. Trusting in the sanity and restraint of Saddam Hussein is not a strategy, and it is not an option.

46 President Bush did not say Saddam had the weapons or the threat from Saddam was imminent. He said we cannot let Saddam get the weapons he wants to have, because if we do the threat will be imminent.

47 In addition to US intelligence services, the intelligence agencies of the Ukraine, Poland, Russia, Jordan, Israel, Germany, Italy, and France informed Bush that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction. –The Russians informed the US, Saddam had made it clear to their sources, he intended to use his resources to punish the US.

48 In addition to the United States, UK, South Korea, Italy, Poland, Ukraine, Georgia, Romania, Australia, Japan, Denmark, Bulgaria, El Salvador, Mongolia, Azerbaijan, Latvia, Albania, Lithuania, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Bosnia, Herzegovinia, Estonia, Macedonia, Kazakhstan, Norway, Angola, Colombia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kuwait, Micronesia, Rwanda, Solomon islands, Uganda, Uzbekistan A total of 37 countries lined up against Saddam in 2003

49 When US forces arrived in Iraq, what did we find: –Weeks before the US invaded, Abu Nidal was found shot to death. He had been shot in the head with a shotgun, twice. It was ruled a suicide by Iraqi police. Abu Nidal was responsible for the hijacking of the Achille Laurel ship, and multiple hijackings in the 1970s and 80s. He was the individual Oliver North referenced in a speech to congressional hearings. –In 1993, Abdul Rahman Yasin, one of the masterminds behind the WTC attack, fled the US. In 2003, he was found in Baghdad, in a government apartment funded by Saddam Hussein. Yousef was working with Mohamad Khalif in 1993 on the first WTC bombing. In 2001, Khalif scouted the location for bin Laden.

50 Two Islamic terrorist training camps were put out of commission. One in the North east along border with Iran and one in North west, bordering Syria.

51 In Uday Husseins diary, he recounts the adventures his father had when Osama bin Laden arrived for a visit. Bin Laden was taken North East of Baghdad to inspect the training camp.

52 Ounces of nuclear material, when exposed to human beings can cause serious life threatening conditions. Pounds of the material can destroy cities.

53 In 2003, the US military, after removing Saddam from power, discovered three tons of nuclear materials. The UN was called in to aid the US in collecting and removing the nuclear material.

54 We further have uncovered 1,500 gallons of chemical weapons agents metric tons of enriched uranium 17 chemical warheads containing cyclosarin (a nerve agent five times more deadly than sarin gas) Over 1,000 radioactive materials in powdered form meant for dispersal over populated areas Roadside bombs loaded with mustard and "conventional" sarin gas, assembled in binary chemical projectiles for maximum potency

55 Saddam Hussein was a threat and needed to be removed from power

56 He posed a threat to Iraqis and Iraqs neighbors Between – over 1 million Iranians killed in a war he began Between 1980 – 1988 – nearly one million Iraqis killed in a war he began In the 1980s – gassed the Iranians In the 1980s – used chemical weapons on the Kurds 1991 – Iraqi troops killed over 300,000 Iraqis as they retreated from Kuwait. These Iraqis made the mistake of standing up to Saddam, try to depose him In 1991 – Saddam sent scud missiles flying in to Saudi Arabia In 1991 – Saddam sent scud missiles flying in to Israel In 1991 – Saddam invaded Kuwait Saddam paid Palestinian homicide bombers families $25,000 each After Palestinian homicide bomber blew up Israelis

57 Saddam was a murderer who killed or tried to kill his own family He may have been involved in arranging the attempted assassination of his son Uday. –Uday was too evil even for his father, and Saddam may have arranged for an attempt to be made on his life. An attempt was made, Uday was permanently handicapped after the attempt. He was responsible for the murders of his two daughters husbands –Raghad married Hussein Kamal, and Rana married Saddam Kamel. In 1995, his sons-in-law and their wives defected to Jordan. They later returned to Iraq, believing they had been pardoned, but within 72 hours Saddam Hussein had both his sons-in-law killed. The sons-in-law were also second cousins of Saddam.

58 Saddam Hussein violated the 1991 Peace Treaty ending the 1 st Persian Gulf war In 1991, to end the war, Saddam promised the United Nations he would: –Permit unfettered inspections of all locations where chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons, or materials might be stored. He violated this agreement –Not use military forces to attack populations in the North and South No Fly Zone He used his airforce AA weapons systems to attack US and UK airforce, every day from the time the agreement was signed until the US deposed Saddam. –He violated the agreement. –Show the UN or provide to the UN an explanation for his weapons programs He did not.. The UN concluded he was lying to them.

59 Saddam posed a threat to the region and the world The UN Inspectors could not locate: –hundreds of tons of VX –thousands of liters of anthrax –thousands of chemical rockets

60 Saddam Hussein posed an ongoing threat to Iran and Saudi Arabia When US forces took control of Baghdad they found, in Uday Husseins home, a journal with many entries. One entry stated the following (approximate): –Saddam told Uday, that he (SH) wanted to take Iran and parts of Saudi Arabia when his (SH) weapons programs began and completed production of nuclear weapons.

61 Saddam Hussein aided terrorists Two terrorist training camps were found and shut down when the US entered Iraq. Abu Nidal, famed terror leader, hijacked Achille Laurel, the Osama bin Laden of the 1970s and 1980s – had been living in Baghdad in an apartment provided by Saddam. Abdul Rahman Yasin, mastermind of the 1993 attack on the World Trade Center, living in an apartment provided by Saddam Hussein. Paid $25,000 to each homicide bombers family in the West Bank and Gaza.

62 Saddam Hussein had Weapons of Mass Destruction in 1991 The UN had records of the weapons – biological, chemical, and nuclear. In 1991, a tape recording of Saddam telling his officers that he (SH) wanted to make sure that the germ and chemical warheads, as well as the chemical and germ bombs, are available

63 Saddam Hussein had Weapons of Mass Destruction in 2003 The US military has uncovered –1,500 gallons of chemical weapons agents. –1.77 metric tons of enriched uranium –17 chemical warheads containing cyclosarin (a nerve agent five times more deadly than sarin gas) –Over 1,000 radioactive materials in powdered form meant for dispersal over populated areas –3 tons of nuclear material (removed by a joint US/UN force)

64 He posed a threat to the US In 1993, Bill Clinton ordered a missile strike (over 200) on Iraq for the conspiracy to assassinate former president George H Bush. In 1998, President Clinton sent US air forces in to Iraq – their purpose is to protect the national interest of the United States, and indeed the interests of people throughout the Middle East and around the world. –Reason: Saddam was not complying with UN Resolutions and allowing inspectors to inspect unfettered –Between 1998 and 2001 – Iraq did not open up to inspectors. Rather, Iraq made it more difficult for UN inspections Russian intelligence informed the US that Saddam intended to punish the US for what it had done to him (Iraq).

65 Saddam Hussein met with Osama Bin Laden In Uday Husseins journal we have comments concerning a meeting between his father (SH) and Osama bin Laden in the late 1990s.

66 Saddam Hussein had the intention to harm the US. Saddam Hussein had the means (dormant WMD programs could easily be restarted). Saddam Hussein had the connections to terrorists –OBL, Nidal, Yassin Saddam Hussein had demonstrated a ruthlessness to use said weapons on his own people and others

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