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ASSESSING SURFACE CONTAMINATION AND DERMAL HAZARDS
DEFINING SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS Chemicals that can cause dermatitis or skin damage. Chemicals that can enter the body through intact skin and cause toxic effects in various organ systems.
DEFINING SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS PROPERTIES: Can penetrate or injure the skin Toxic if ingested Inhalation hazard if resuspended Low vapor pressure Can remain on surfaces for prolonged periods EXAMPLES: Amines Isocyanates Metal dusts PCBs and dioxins Pesticides VOCs Acids/bases Beryllium
IDENTIFYING SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) and ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLVs ® ) indicate these hazards with: SKIN notation SENSITIZER notation
THE SKIN NOTATION Does NOT denote the capability for the chemical to cause irritation, dermatitis and sensitization. Refers to the potential contribution to the overall exposure by the cutaneous route including absorption through skin, mucous membranes and the eyes.
THE SKIN NOTATION Is intended to alert the reader that air sampling alone is insufficient to accurately quantitate exposure and that measures to prevent significant cutaneous absorption may be required. +
THE ACGIH SENSITIZER NOTATION (SEN) Is designed to protect workers from becoming sensitized through respiratory, dermal, and conjunctival exposures.
SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS Are necessary for those chemicals that have BOTH a low exposure limit and a skin or sensitizer notation. Include process controls, measurement of airborne chemicals, worker training, and a complete dermal exposure reduction program.
A DERMAL EXPOSURE REDUCTION PROGRAM DETECTION of skin and surface contaminants. PROTECTION through the proper selection and changing frequency of personal protective equipment. DECONTAMINATION of skin, work surfaces, tools, and equipment. DETERMINATION of program effectiveness through biological monitoring.
WHY SAMPLE? SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS
WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To ensure a comprehensive exposure assessment. Dermal sampling along with air sampling and biological monitoring are all components of a comprehensive exposure assessment strategy.
WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To select proper personal protective equipment (PPE) particularly hand protection. Surface contamination inside a glove indicates glove failure or improper work practices. Sampling can determine if and why PPE failure occurred and can be used to re-train workers so as to enhance PPE effectiveness.
WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To comply with OSHA PPE standard (b) requires employers to select hand protection on an evaluation of the performance characteristics of the hand protection relative to the task(s) to be performed, conditions present, duration of use and the hazards and potential hazards identified.
WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To eliminate take home toxins. Employees shoes, glasses, tools and lunchboxes contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be an exposure source for family members.
WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To prevent the inadvertent mixing of incompatible chemicals.
WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination procedures. Sampling can be done initially to determine a normal concentration of surface contaminant following a prescribed cleaning regimen. Future samples can be used to document that the ongoing cleaning procedures result in an acceptable surface contaminant level.
WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To evaluate non- controlled work areas. Provides documentation that contamination of non-controlled work areas has not occurred from adjacent work areas and activities.
WHERE TO SAMPLE? SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS
CONDUCTING AN INVESTIGATION FOR SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS 1. Review the published literature to evaluate the potential for skin absorption for the contaminant under study. 2. Rate specific jobs in regards to the amount and the frequency of exposure. 3. Conduct a walk-through survey of the work area making an assessment of personal and work area hygiene.
CONDUCTING AN INVESTIGATION FOR SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS 4. Collect a bulk sample of suspect materials and have them analyzed to confirm contents. 5. Note parts of the skin regularly exposed to contaminants due to machine design or employee work practices. 6. Note possible contamination of surfaces frequently touched by workers in production areas such as lids, equipment, tools, and switches.
CONDUCTING AN INVESTIGATION FOR SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS 7. Check for cross contamination on cafeteria lunch tables, desktops, doorknobs and changing rooms. 8. Investigate the potential for exposure from handling contaminated equipment or clothing. 9. Check for contamination on door handles, seats and flooring of vehicles driven on the job and on the inside of respirators, hard hats, and reusable gloves.
HOW TO SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS
WIPE SAMPLING FOR CHEMICALS ON SURFACES Is a routine method involving the use of a filter media used dry or wetted with a liquid or solvent specified in the procedure.
WIPE SAMPLING MEDIA Gauze pads-PCBs, Pesticides Filters-Hexavalent Chromium Cotton gloves-Pesticides Cotton balls-2,4 D Ghost Wipes or Smear Tabs-Metals Cotton swabs-DNT, TNT Adhesive labels and cellophane tape-Dust and Mold spores
SKC WIPE SAMPLE TEST KIT SKC A Includes supplies necessary for OSHA Wipe Tests (not including solvents): Filter media Sterile bags and sample containers Latex gloves Cotton swabs pH paper Dropper bottles, templates, and more
GHOST WIPES SKC Ease sample preparation and analysis of surface lead Hold together in the field even when wiping rough surfaces Readily and completely dissolve during digestion for complete dispersion of analytes and uniform recoveries Specified in OSHA Wipe Method ID-125G for metals
WIPE SAMPLE COLLECTION PROTOCOLS FOR OSHA Wipe a test area of 100 cm 2 SKC offers 10 X 10 cm templates in plastic or paper. (SKC /2415) Dry wipes or filter paper wetted only with distilled water should be used for sampling on skin, PPE, and surfaces that contact food. FOR HUD Wipe a test area of 1 ft 2 SKC offers 1 X 1 ft templates for HUD Lead Guidelines in plastic or paper. (SKC /2416)
SURFACE SAMPLING OF VOLATILE CONTAMINANTS Wipe sampling is not effective for many volatile contaminants. For these compounds, surface contamination can be determined using a general survey monitor such as a photoionization detector (PID). SKC 730-series
VACUUM SAMPLING FOR PESTICIDES AND METALS A 3-piece cassette loaded with an appropriate filter and a short length of tubing on the inlet acting as a nozzle is attached to a personal pump at flows of 2-3 L/min.* A template can be used to vacuum a consistently sized area for data comparison. * Reference: Surface and Dermal Monitoring for Toxic Exposures by Shirley Ness: page 188.
VACUUM SAMPLING FOR ASBESTOS ASTM Standards D5755 and D5756 specify a carbon-filled black polypropylene cassette with cowl loaded with an MCE or polycarbonate filter and a short length of tubing on the inlet. The tubing on the inlet serves as a nozzle to vacuum contaminants from a 100 cm 2 area at 1-5 L/min followed by transmission electron microscopy. SKC
COLORIMETRIC SWABS FOR LEAD Lead poisoning continues to be a public health problem particular among children. Rapid, inexpensive surface sampling kits have been developed that allow non- professionals to answer the basic question, Is lead present?
LEAD CHECK SWABS U.S. EPA TESTING Recognized by U.S. EPA to reliably determine the absence of lead paint. Detects lead on 96.6% of surfaces tests. Suitable for surfaces, but activated swabs are not suitable for use on skin. SKC
LEAD CHECK SWABS NIOSH METHOD 7700 Lead in Air by Chemical Spot Test Specifies 0.8 um MCE filters at 2 L/min for sample collection. Lead Check swabs are used to check for the presence of lead on the filter sample. Laboratory analysis can be done to quantitate levels if colorimetric test is positive.
LEAD DETECTION ON SKIN OR SURFACES Developed by US NIOSH; NIOSH Method 9105 Licensed by SKC Scientific breakthrough- Colorimetric wipe for lead on skin or surfaces Behavior modification tool-Allows workers to determine if their hand washing has been thorough enough Limit of ID is 18 ug of lead
FULL DISCLOSURE LEAD WIPES Step 1Step 2Step 3 SKC /2
COLORIMETRIC SWYPE ® SAMPLING Designed to detect contamination of work surfaces or skin Formulated to be specific to a particular compound group Sensitive to levels equal to or below PELs for comparable airborne exposures
COLORIMETRIC SWYPE SAMPLING CHEMICAL SPECIFIC TEST KITS Aromatic Amines Aliphatic Amines Aromatic Isocyanates Aliphatic Isocyanates Hydrazine Acids/Bases See
SURFACE SAMPLING FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS A swab or filter wetted with sterile water or wash solution is used to wipe a specified area. Typically, the swab is then used to inoculate a culture plate. SKC offers a sterile swab kit with swabs in transport tubes and with plastic templates. SKC
SURFACE SAMPLING FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS SKC microvacuum cassettes with polycarbonate filters are useful for the collection of fungal spores in carpeting or other irregular surfaces using high flow pumps. SKC Carpet Sampling kit includes filters, templates, bags, labels. SKC
SURFACE SAMPLING FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS So-called lift tape is often used to collect a sample from surfaces for analysis of fungal spores. SKC Stick-to-it lift tape consists of a flexible plastic microscope with an adhesive area Press onto the surface and insert into the plastic mailers for shipment to the lab. SKC
METHAMPHETAMINE: A NEW SURFACE CONTAMINANT
METHAMPHETAMINE: DEFINING THE PROBLEM Methamphetamine or "meth" is a potent central nervous system stimulant that is highly addictive, cheap, and easy to produce. Meth is derived from commonly available decongestants and diet aids containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine and cooked in clandestine (illegal) labs.
TYPICAL METH LAB
RESPONDING TO METH Health and safety professionals have a role to play in the response and cleanup of clandestine meth laboratories.
ROLE OF HEALTH & SAFETY PROS IN METH LABS To protect first-responders and other personnel from the hazards To develop health and safety plans for decontamination of buildings/environment To confirm that appropriate safe levels have been met prior to reoccupancy
OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS OF METH WHO? Law enforcement Fire, Haz-Mat, or ambulance crews Social services Utilities services Landlords Custodial or Housekeeping staff WHERE? Homes Cars Hotel Rooms Storage units Dumpsters Tents/Campsites
SAMPLE COLLECTION NIOSH reports that air sampling for individual contaminants is only effective during active cooking of meth. The particulate aerosol formed during meth production however deposits onto available surfaces. A better method for sampling meth after a cook is using surface wipe sampling.
NIOSH SURFACE WIPE METHODS FOR METH To evaluate meth surface residue, NIOSH has developed two field detection kits and transferred this technology to SKC for commercial production.
SKC METH RESIDUE KITS Detects the presence of meth residue with a limit of identification of 15 micrograms/100 cm 2. Color results develop rapidly for on-the-spot qualitative assessments. Designed to check meth remediation/ clean-up Can assess meth residue on surfaces with limits of identification relevant to state cleanup guidelines. Measures as low as 50 nanograms.
SKC Kit includes: -Gauze wipes -Disposable gloves -10 X 10 cm templates -Wetting agent spray -Developer sprays -Color Guide Instructions and accessories Must be kept cool during storage/transport.
Allows assessment of meth residues on surfaces with limits of identification relevant to state cleanup guidelines: MethChek 1500-detects 1500 nanograms/100 cm2 MethChek 500-detects 500 nanograms/100 cm 2 MethChek 100-detects 100 nanograms/100 cm 2 MethChek 50-detects 50 nanograms/100 cm 2
Each kit contains solutions and multiple individually packaged test packets that include: Gauze wipes/cotton swabs Disposable gloves Disposable 10 x 10-cm templates Syringes Pipettes Extractor solution in vials Sample storage mini bags Detection cartridges Color Quick Guide instructions Wetting Agent spray Complete Operating Instructions and accessories SKC to -005B
THANK YOU FOR YOUR INTEREST IN SKC SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES.
SURFACE CONTAMINATION AND DERMAL HAZARDS CDC-NIOSH has released a technical resource entitled Effects of Skin Contact with Chemicals: What a Worker Should Know. Link to 199/pdfs/ pdf