Presentation on theme: "ASSESSING SURFACE CONTAMINATION AND DERMAL HAZARDS"— Presentation transcript:
1ASSESSING SURFACE CONTAMINATION AND DERMAL HAZARDS
2DEFINING SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS Chemicals that can cause dermatitis or skin damage.Chemicals that can enter the body through intact skin and cause toxic effects in various organ systems.
3DEFINING SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS PROPERTIES:Can penetrate or injure the skinToxic if ingestedInhalation hazard if resuspendedLow vapor pressureCan remain on surfaces for prolonged periodsEXAMPLES:AminesIsocyanatesMetal dustsPCBs and dioxinsPesticidesVOCsAcids/basesBeryllium
4IDENTIFYING SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits(PELs) and ACGIH Threshold LimitValues (TLVs®) indicate these hazardswith:SKIN notationSENSITIZER notation
5THE SKIN NOTATIONDoes NOT denote the capability for the chemical to cause irritation, dermatitis and sensitization.Refers to thepotential contributionto the overall exposureby the cutaneous routeincluding absorptionthrough skin, mucousmembranes and theeyes.
6THE SKIN NOTATION + “Is intended to alert the reader that air sampling alone is insufficient to accuratelyquantitate exposure and that measures toprevent significant cutaneous absorptionmay be required.”+
7THE ACGIH SENSITIZER NOTATION (SEN) Is designed to protect workers from becoming sensitized through respiratory, dermal, and conjunctival exposures.
8SPECIAL PRECAUTIONSAre necessary for those chemicals that have BOTH a low exposure limit and a skin or sensitizer notation.Include process controls, measurement of airborne chemicals, worker training, and a complete dermal exposure reduction program.
9A DERMAL EXPOSURE REDUCTION PROGRAM DETECTION of skin and surface contaminants.PROTECTION through the proper selection and changing frequency of personal protective equipment.DECONTAMINATION of skin, work surfaces, tools, and equipment.DETERMINATION of program effectiveness through biological monitoring.
10SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS WHY SAMPLE?SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS
11WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To ensure a comprehensive exposure assessment.Dermal sampling along with air sampling and biological monitoring are all components of a comprehensive exposure assessment strategy.
12WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To select proper personal protective equipment (PPE) particularly hand protection.Surface contamination inside a glove indicates glove failure or improper work practices.Sampling can determine if and why PPE failure occurred and can be used to re-train workers so as to enhance PPE effectiveness.
13WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To comply with OSHA PPE standard.(b) requires employers to select hand protection on an evaluation of the performance characteristics of the hand protection relative to the task(s) to be performed, conditions present, duration of use and the hazards and potential hazards identified.
14WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To eliminate take home toxins.Employees’ shoes, glasses, tools and lunchboxes contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be an exposure source for family members.
15WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To prevent theinadvertent mixingof incompatiblechemicals.
16WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination procedures.Sampling can be done initially to determine a “normal” concentration of surface contaminant following a prescribed cleaning regimen.Future samples can be used to document that the ongoing cleaning procedures result in an acceptable surface contaminant level.
17WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To evaluate non-controlled work areas.Provides documentation that contamination of non-controlled work areas has not occurred from adjacent work areas and activities.
18SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS WHERE TO SAMPLE?SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS
19CONDUCTING AN INVESTIGATION FOR SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS Review the published literature to evaluatethe potential for skin absorption for thecontaminant under study.Rate specific jobs in regards to the amountand the frequency of exposure.Conduct a walk-through survey of the workarea making an assessment of personal andwork area hygiene.
20CONDUCTING AN INVESTIGATION FOR SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS Collect a bulk sample of suspect materialsand have them analyzed to confirm contents.Note parts of the skin regularly exposed tocontaminants due to machine design oremployee work practices.Note possible contamination of surfacesfrequently touched by workers in productionareas such as lids, equipment, tools, andswitches.
21CONDUCTING AN INVESTIGATION FOR SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS Check for cross contamination on cafeterialunch tables, desktops, doorknobs andchanging rooms.Investigate the potential for exposure fromhandling contaminated equipment or clothing.Check for contamination on door handles,seats and flooring of vehicles driven on the joband on the inside of respirators, hard hats, andreusable gloves.
22SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS HOW TO SAMPLESURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS
23WIPE SAMPLING FOR CHEMICALS ON SURFACES Is a routine method involving the use of a filter media used dry or wetted with a liquid or solvent specified in the procedure.
24WIPE SAMPLING MEDIA Gauze pads-PCBs, Pesticides Filters-Hexavalent ChromiumCotton gloves-PesticidesCotton balls-2,4 DGhost Wipes or Smear Tabs-MetalsCotton swabs-DNT, TNTAdhesive labels and cellophane tape-Dust and Mold spores
25SKC WIPE SAMPLE TEST KIT SKC 225-2401A Includes supplies necessary for OSHAWipe Tests (not including solvents):Filter mediaSterile bags and sample containersLatex glovesCotton swabspH paperDropper bottles, templates, and more
26GHOST WIPES SKCEase sample preparation and analysis of surface leadHold together in the field even when wiping rough surfacesReadily and completely dissolve during digestion for complete dispersion of analytes and uniform recoveriesSpecified in OSHA Wipe Method ID-125G for metals
27WIPE SAMPLE COLLECTION PROTOCOLS FOR OSHAWipe a test area of 100 cm2SKC offers 10 X 10 cm templates in plastic or paper. (SKC /2415)Dry wipes or filter paper wetted only with distilled water should be used for sampling on skin, PPE, and surfaces that contact food.FOR HUDWipe a test area of 1 ft2SKC offers 1 X 1 ft templates for HUD Lead Guidelines in plastic or paper. (SKC /2416)
28SURFACE SAMPLING OF VOLATILE CONTAMINANTS Wipe sampling is not effective for many volatile contaminants.For these compounds, surface contamination can be determined using a general survey monitor such as a photoionization detector (PID).SKC 730-series
29VACUUM SAMPLING FOR PESTICIDES AND METALS A 3-piece cassette loaded with an appropriate filter and a short length of tubing on the inlet acting as a nozzle is attached to a personal pump atflows of 2-3 L/min.*A template can be used to vacuum a consistently sized area for data comparison.*Reference: Surface and Dermal Monitoring for Toxic Exposures by Shirley Ness: page 188.
30VACUUM SAMPLING FOR ASBESTOS ASTM Standards D5755 and D5756 specify a carbon-filled black polypropylene cassette with cowl loaded with an MCE or polycarbonate filter and a short length of tubing on the inlet.The tubing on the inlet serves as a nozzle to vacuum contaminants from a 100 cm2 area at 1-5 L/min followed by transmission electron microscopy.SKC
31COLORIMETRIC SWABS FOR LEAD Lead poisoning continues to be a public health problem particular among children.Rapid, inexpensive surface sampling kits have been developed that allow non-professionals to answer the basic question, “Is lead present?”
32LEAD CHECK SWABS U.S. EPA TESTING Recognized by U.S.EPA to reliably determinethe absence of lead paint.Detects lead on 96.6%of surfaces tests.Suitable for surfaces,but activated swabs arenot suitable for use onskin.SKC
33LEAD CHECK SWABS NIOSH METHOD 7700 Lead in Air by Chemical Spot TestSpecifies 0.8 um MCE filters at 2 L/min for sample collection.Lead Check swabs are used to check for the presence of lead on the filter sample.Laboratory analysis can be done to quantitate levels if colorimetric test is positive.
34LEAD DETECTION ON SKIN OR SURFACES Developed by US NIOSH; NIOSH Method 9105Licensed by SKCScientific breakthrough- Colorimetric wipe for lead on skin or surfacesBehavior modification tool-Allows workers to determine if their hand washing has been thorough enoughLimit of ID is 18 ug of lead
36COLORIMETRIC SWYPE® SAMPLING Designed to detect contamination of work surfaces or skinFormulated to be specific to a particular compound groupSensitive to levels equal to or below PELs for comparable airborne exposures
37COLORIMETRIC SWYPE SAMPLING CHEMICAL SPECIFICTEST KITSAromatic AminesAliphatic AminesAromatic IsocyanatesAliphatic IsocyanatesHydrazineAcids/BasesSee
38SURFACE SAMPLING FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS A swab or filter wetted with sterile water or wash solution is used to wipe a specified area.Typically, the swab is then used to inoculate a culture plate.SKC offers a sterile swab kit with swabs in transport tubes and with plastic templates.SKC
39SURFACE SAMPLING FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS SKC microvacuumcassettes withpolycarbonate filtersare useful for thecollection of fungalspores in carpeting orother irregularsurfaces using high flowpumps.SKC Carpet Sampling kit includes filters, templates, bags, labels. SKC
40SURFACE SAMPLING FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS So-called lift tape is often used to collect a sample from surfaces for analysis of fungal spores.SKC Stick-to-it lift tape consists of a flexible plastic microscope with an adhesive areaPress onto the surface and insert into the plastic mailers for shipment to the lab.SKC
42METHAMPHETAMINE: DEFINING THE PROBLEM Methamphetamine or "meth" is a potent central nervous system stimulant that is highly addictive, cheap, and easy to produce.Meth is derived from commonly available decongestants and diet aids containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine and cooked in clandestine (illegal) “labs”.
46RESPONDING TO METH Health and safety professionals have a role to play in theresponse and cleanupof clandestinemeth laboratories.
47ROLE OF HEALTH & SAFETY PROS IN METH LABS To protect first-responders and other personnel from the hazardsTo develop health and safety plans for decontamination of buildings/environmentTo confirm that appropriate “safe” levels have been met prior to reoccupancy
48OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS OF METH WHO?Law enforcementFire, Haz-Mat, or ambulance crewsSocial servicesUtilities servicesLandlordsCustodial or Housekeeping staffWHERE?HomesCarsHotel RoomsStorage unitsDumpstersTents/Campsites
49SAMPLE COLLECTIONNIOSH reports that air sampling for individual contaminants is only effective during active “cooking” of meth.The particulate aerosol formed during meth production however deposits onto available surfaces.A better method for sampling meth after a cook is using surface wipe sampling.
50NIOSH SURFACE WIPE METHODS FOR METH To evaluate meth surface residue, NIOSH hasdeveloped two field detection kits andtransferred this technology to SKC forcommercial production.
51SKC METH RESIDUE KITSDetects the presence of meth residue with a limit of identification of 15 micrograms/100 cm2.Color results develop rapidly for on-the-spot qualitative assessments.Designed to check meth remediation/ clean-upCan assess meth residue on surfaces with limits of identification relevant to state cleanup guidelines.Measures as low as 50 nanograms.
52SKC 560-001 Kit includes: -Gauze wipes -Disposable gloves -10 X 10 cm templates-Wetting agent spray-Developer sprays-Color Guide Instructions and accessoriesMust be kept cool during storage/transport.