Presentation on theme: "So you want to write a Service Manual chapter? Tips, tools, and techniques for writing chapters for the Fish and Wildlife Service Manual."— Presentation transcript:
So you want to write a Service Manual chapter? Tips, tools, and techniques for writing chapters for the Fish and Wildlife Service Manual
What do I do first? Dont sound like a bureaucrat. Write using plain language: – Employees and the public should be able to understand your chapter – Read 116 FW 1, Plain Language in Fish and Wildlife Service Documents116 FW 1, Plain Language in Fish and Wildlife Service Documents – Visit
Then do a little homework Read 011 FW 2 and 011 FW 3011 FW FW 3 – Manual chapters on how to write chapters and our clearance process – 011 FW 2 includes a template, examples, and writing tips If its a new chapter, look at the Service Manual Index to determine where your chapter will fit: – Make sure there isnt already a chapter that covers your topic – You can search under each series, or you can enter your topic in our search engine
Next, call Krista Bibb in PDM Krista will: – Help you plan your project – Guide you through complexities like getting comments from the Directorate and the public on a draft chapter – Help you understand the process and troubleshoot any problems you encounter – Edit your chapter for plain language early in the process so the chapter is as easy to understand as it can be Phone: (703)
Whos the audience for your chapter? Your primary audience is our employees But our policy must be transparent to the public so they understand it too Avoid technical jargon (see plain language tips) Do not write using language that only technical experts will understand continued…
Whos the audience for your chapter? An example… Imagine youre writing a chapter on cooperative farming at National Wildlife Refuges. You explain in the policy what the Refuge Manager may allow farmers to do and whats prohibited. A cooperating farmer wants to better understand why he is not allowed to do something. He finds our policy online and reads and rereads it, but cannot penetrate the bureaucratic language. Frustrated and confused, he calls the Refuge Manager. Youll make it easier on the Refuge Manager and the public if you clearly explain our policy so that the average intelligent person can understand it. People shouldnt have to study a policy for hours to figure out what it means.
A word about policy vs. regulation Do not regulate in our Service Manual You can tell employees what they may do and how to do it, but you should not use the Manual to tell the public what it may or may not do To tell the public what it may or may not do, you write a regulation, not a policy in our Manual
Policy vs. Regulation – Example Language Policy Language: – The Project Leader must ensure that hunters with permits hunt only during the local (county and State) hunting season. – Grants specialists must collect XYX Forms from applicants by October 1, Regulatory Language: – Hunters with permits may hunt on the refuge only during the local (county and State) hunting seasons. – Grantees must complete and send us the XYZ Form by October 1, The difference is subtle. Call Krista in PDM if you need help.
Beginning your first draft: Organize your information before you write Plain language is about more than easy-to-read sentences. It also means the information is logically organized. Think about and record a few things before you begin working on the technical content: – Why are you writing the chapter? Thats your purpose. – Who or what does the chapter apply to? Thats the scope of the chapter. – What laws, regulations, and policy allow us to do whats in the chapter? Those are the authorities. Then you can start organizing the guts of the chapter continued….
Organize your information before you write Dont begin crafting sentences until youve got the basic ideas on paper Use whatever outlining method works for you Many authors prefer to informally brainstorm ideas Then put them in a logical order CLICKCLICK for an example
Heres a way to organize your thoughts (Vehicle maintenance is the topic) Step 1: Brainstorm Scheduled inspections Warranties Preventive Maintenance facilities Fuel, oil, and lube Signs of Operator abuse -Sketch out main points Step 2: Organize the storm -Sketch out main points 1.Fuel, oil, and lube Fuel and motor oil Other lubricants Tires 2.Preventive maintenance Who writes Regions procedures Adverse conditions Penalties for not scheduling preventive maint. GSAs schedules 3.Maintenance facilities Ours GSAs Commercial 4.Scheduled inspections Point 1, 2, etc. 5.Warranties Point 1, 2, etc. 6.Signs of operator abuse Point 1, 2, etc.
Start writing Use the template in 011 FW 2template Youve already written the first few sections of the template: – What is the purpose of this chapter? – What is the scope of the chapter? – What are the authorities? Use your outline to draft the remaining sections You may want to wait to write the section called Who is responsible for the policy? last. Its easier to write it after youve written everything else.
Write, read, and revise Avoid writers block -- start writing and dont worry too much what it sounds like Reread your work and see what you missed Flesh it out and reorganize if you need to Then start polishing your work continued… Click here for some guidance on how to use helping verbs.
Helping Verbs Use: – Must:When its a requirement Employees must take the test annually. – May:When its an option Employees may take the test to see how well they would score. – Should:When its a suggestion Employees should study for the test before they take it. Avoid using will because readers might interpret it as a future requirement.
Write, read, and revise Good writing is an evolving process. If you try to make it perfect the first time, your attempts at perfection limit your creativity.
Your draft is ready for review: Overview of the Review and Clearance Process OMB has opportunity to review significant policies Published in Federal Register for public comment Informal review- Krista in PDM Directorate Review (if new or major changes) Final clearance -Affected ADs, -PDM, -AD-BPHC Directors review and approval Most policies The following slides describe each of these steps Significant policies undergo more review
Informal review Once youre happy with your draft: – it to Krista in PDM BEFORE you prepare a surname package – Krista: Edits the chapter for plain language, checks for consistency with other policy, and checks your citations Will the chapter back to you to finalize PDMs early review of chapters saves time in the long run
How do you obtain Directorate comments? You need to send your chapter out for Directorate review if: – It is new, or – Revisions will impact the way the Regions do business Prepare a memo from the appropriate Deputy Director to the Directorate asking for their review (click here or call Krista and shell send you a template)click here Allow at least 30 days for the Directorate to comment continued…
The Surname package to request Directorate comments Prepare the package like you would for other correspondence. Your package may be entirely electronic and uploaded to our Data Tracking System (DTS) or hard copy as this graphic depicts. Memo from appropriate Deputy Director to Directorate asking for review Note to Reviewers Exhibits, etc. Any Important Background Old Chapter (if applicable) Yellow surname copy New or Revised Chapter
Enter a record into our Data Tracking System (DTS) Enter the information about the surname package in DTS In DTS, assign the package to the first official who you want to surname it. Be sure to click when you assign the official the record so that he/she knows its in the inbox.
Incorporating Directorate comments After the Deputy Director signs the memo, the Correspondence Control Unit sends it and the draft chapter to the Directorate using the DTS Members of the Directorate will post their comments in DTS continued…
Incorporating Directorate comments Incorporate the comments you receive from the Directorate and finalize the chapter If you dont incorporate a comment, explain why. Either: – Note the reason on a copy of the comment, or – Prepare a summary of comments and how you incorporated them (click here for an example you can use as a template)click here
Getting comments from the public by publishing in the Federal Register You should seek public comments on a policy if it: – Has clear and substantial impact on important public policies or private sector decisions. – Raises highly controversial issues related to interagency concerns or important Administration priorities. – Establishes initial interpretations of statutory or regulatory requirements. – Is about innovative or complex scientific or technical issues. continued…
Getting comments from the public by publishing in the Federal Register: OMB may review first If you believe a chapter meets any of the criteria in the previous slide, you must ask PDM to include it on the 90-day list. Our 90-day list is a list of regulations and policies ready for review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) during the next quarter of the fiscal year. If OMB designates your chapter as significant, you must send it to OMB for clearance before you may publish it in the Federal Register continued…
Publishing in the Federal Register After incorporating Directorate comments, send the chapter to OMB, if required Incorporate any OMB comments Then: – Write a notice of availability (contact PDM regulatory staff for help writing the notice and preparing the surname package for the notice) – The notice should include a URL where people can find the draft policy (we save money by publishing a notice and not the entire chapter) – When the notice publishes, it will have a link to the policy so people can read it – Incorporate appropriate public comments – You may choose to publish another notice when the Director signs the final chapter
Elements of the Final Surname Package Your final surname package may be entirely electronic (in DTS). Upload the following documents in DTS: – Note to reviewers – Summary of comments – Final chapter and any exhibits – Other supporting information If your managing Directorate member requires hard copy, you must also include a di-228, Clearance Record in the packagedi-228, Clearance Record Prepare a routing tree in DTS with all the offices you want to surname the chapter Route the record to the first office in the routing
Who should surname the final package? Your Division Chief and Assistant Director Any other Assistant Director whose program has significant responsibilities in the chapter Then these officials in this order: – Chief, Division of Policy and Directives Management (ABHC-PDM) – Assistant Director – Budget, Planning and Human Capital (ABHC) – Correspondence Control Unit (CCU): CCU will assign it to the Directors office
Sample DTS Routing This would be your office Your AD and offices with major responsibilities in the policy Then PDM, ABHC, and CCU
Then what happens? If the Director signs the policy, CCU sends it back to PDM PDM: – Notifies you its signed and publishes it online – Sends a message to Regional Directives contacts to let them know about the policy – Keeps the original signatures for the Directives files If the Director does not sign the policy: – The Directors office may call and ask for a briefing, or – CCU may return the surname package to you asking for revisions or corrections
Your chapter…. Is posted on the Service Manual website under its series, and On the Whats New? page
Visit your chapter from time to time Make a note on your calendar to reread your chapter at least once a year Update the policy when its no longer accurate Keeping our policy up-to-date saves time and money because people can easily find the answers they need to do their work