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1 Oxidation Reduction Redox An introduction to electron transfer reactions.

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1 1 Oxidation Reduction Redox An introduction to electron transfer reactions

2 2 Oxidation-Reduction: A Reaction Oxidation: When a substances loses electrons. Reduction: When a substance gains electrons. Consider: Ca (s) + 2H + (aq) Ca 2+ (aq) + H 2(g). The neutral Ca (s) has lost two e - to 2 H + to become Ca 2+. We say Ca has been oxidized to Ca 2+ At the same time 2 electrons are gained by 2 H + to form H 2. We say H + is reduced to H 2.

3 3 Redox Reaction with Air Consider the reaction of Ca with O 2 : 2Ca (s) + O 2(g) 2CaO (s) Ca is easily oxidized in air. On the left there is shiny Ca metal. On the right we see a white powder – Calcium oxide. Again, Ca(s) loses electrons and is oxidized to Ca +2 And the neutral O 2 has gained electrons from the Ca to become O 2- in CaO. We say O 2 has been reduced to O 2-.

4 4 Electron Transfer and Terminology Lose electrons: Oxidation Gain electrons: Reduction. GER Leo

5 5 It Takes Two: Oxidation-Reduction In all reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions, one species is reduced at the same time as another is oxidized. Oxidizing Agent: The species which causes oxidation is called the oxidizing agent. The substance which is oxidized loses electrons to the other. The oxidizing agent is always reduced Reducing Agent: The species which causes reduction is called the reducing agent. The substance which is reduces gains electrons from the other. The Reducing agent is always oxidized

6 6 Oxidation of Metals with Acids It is common for metal to produce hydrogen gas when they react with acids. For example, the reaction between Mg and HCl: Mg (s) + 2HCI (aq) MgCl 2(aq) + H 2(g). In this reaction, Mg is oxidized and H in HCl is reduced. Note the change in oxidation state for these species: Mg 0 Mg +2 in MgCl 2 & H + in HCl H 0 in H 2

7 7 Redox reaction with Acid It is possible for metals to be oxidized with salt: Fe (s) + Ni(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Fe(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Ni (s). Molecular Equation The net ionic equation shows the redox chemistry well: Fe (s) + Ni +2 (aq) Fe 2+ (aq) + Ni (s) Net ionic Equation In this reaction iron has been oxidized to Fe 2+ while the Ni +2 has been reduced to Ni 0. What determines whether the reaction occurs ?

8 8 The Activity Series Metals can be placed in order of their tendencies for losing electrons. This is called the activity series.

9 9 Competition For e - Transfer Consider: Na, Mg, Al, Metallic character decreases left to right. Metal tend to give up electrons. Now consider the reaction: Na + AlCl 3 ??? (NaCl + Al) To determine if the reaction occurs, the question is to determine which metal has a greater affinity for electrons (or which is willing to lose e - ). Na is more willing to lose e- than Al Al is more willing to accept e- (less metallic) Conclude: The reaction occurs. 3Na + AlCl 3 3NaCl + Al

10 10 Reading Activity Table A metal in the activity series can only be oxidized by a metal ion below it. In our example, Na is oxidized by Al. active metals The metals at the top of the activity series are called active metals. noble metals. The metals at the bottom of the activity series are called noble metals.

11 11 Example: Silver and Copper If we place Cu into a solution of Ag+ ions, will copper plate out of solution ? Cu (s) + 2AgNO 3(aq) ? [Cu(NO 3 ) 2(aq) + 2Ag (s) ] or Cu (s) + 2Ag+ (aq) ? [Cu 2+ (aq) + 2Ag (s) ] Which metal is active? Which is noble ? Cu Ag Therefore, Cu 2+ ions is be formed because Cu is above Ag in the activity series. Therefore, Cu 2+ ions is be formed because Cu is above Ag in the activity series. CopperCu Cu 2+ + 2 e - SilverAg Ag + + e -

12 12 Example: Redox Reaction B&L 4.47: Based on the activity series, what is the outcome of the following reaction ? b) Ag (s) + PbNO 3 (aq) ?c) Cr (s) + NiSO 4 (aq) ? e) H 2 (g) + CuCl 2 (aq) ? f) Ba (s) + H 2 O (l) ? b) Ag vs. Pb, Pb is more active, no reaction occurs c) Cr vs. Ni, Cr is more active, reaction occurs Cr (s) + NiSO 4 (aq) Ni (s) + CrSO 4 (aq) Cr (s) + NiSO 4 (aq) Ni (s) + CrSO 4 (aq) d) H 2 vs. Cu, H 2 is more active, reaction occurs H 2 (g) + CuCl 2 (aq) 2HCl (aq) + Cu (s) H 2 (g) + CuCl 2 (aq) 2HCl (aq) + Cu (s) e) Ba vs. H 2, Ba is more active, reaction occurs Ba (s) + H 2 O (l) H 2 (g) + Ba(OH) 2 (aq)

13 13 Summary Oxidation/Reduction reaction Redox - Oxidation/Reduction reaction Lose electron (LEO) Oxidation- Lose electron (LEO) Gain electron (GER) Reduction- Gain electron (GER) Activity Series- Table showing elements relative ease of oxidation. Metal which prefers to lose e- and therefore prefers the oxidized form. Active Metal Metal which prefers to lose e- and therefore prefers the oxidized form. Metal which do not lose e - and therefore prefers the zero state. Noble Metal Metal which do not lose e - and therefore prefers the zero state.


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