Presentation on theme: "Oxidation-Reduction: A Reaction"— Presentation transcript:
1Oxidation Reduction Redox An introduction to electron transfer reactions
2Oxidation-Reduction: A Reaction Oxidation: When a substances loses electrons.Reduction: When a substance gains electrons.Consider:Ca(s) + 2H+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + H2(g).The neutral Ca(s) has lost two e- to 2 H+ to become Ca2+.We say Ca has been oxidized to Ca2+At the same time 2 electrons are gained by 2 H+ to form H2 .We say H+ is reduced to H2 .
3Redox Reaction with Air Consider the reaction of Ca with O2:2Ca(s) + O2(g) 2CaO(s)Ca is easily oxidized in air.On the left there is shiny Ca metal.On the right we see a white powder – Calcium oxide.Again, Ca(s) loses electrons and is oxidized to Ca+2And the neutral O2 has gained electrons from the Ca to become O2- in CaO.We say O2 has been reduced to O2-.
4Electron Transfer and Terminology Lose electrons: OxidationGain electrons: Reduction.GERLeo
5It Takes Two: Oxidation-Reduction In all reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions, one species is reduced at the same time as another is oxidized.Oxidizing Agent:The species which causes oxidation is called the oxidizing agent. The substance which is oxidized loses electrons to the other.The oxidizing agent is always reducedReducing Agent:The species which causes reduction is called the reducing agent.The substance which is reduces gains electrons from the other.The Reducing agent is always oxidized
6Oxidation of Metals with Acids It is common for metal to produce hydrogen gas when they react with acids. For example, the reaction between Mg and HCl:Mg(s) + 2HCI(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) .In this reaction, Mg is oxidized and H in HCl is reduced.Note the change in oxidation state for these species:Mg0 Mg+2 in MgCl2&H+ in HCl H0 in H2
7Redox reaction with Acid It is possible for metals to be oxidized with salt:Fe(s) + Ni(NO3)2 (aq) Fe(NO3)2 (aq) + Ni (s) .Molecular EquationThe net ionic equation shows the redox chemistry well:Fe(s) + Ni+2(aq) Fe2+(aq) + Ni (s)Net ionic EquationIn this reaction iron has been oxidized to Fe2+ while the Ni+2 has been reduced to Ni0.What determines whether the reaction occurs ?
8The Activity SeriesMetals can be placed in order of their tendencies for losing electrons. This is called the activity series.
9Competition For e- Transfer Consider: Na, Mg, Al,Metallic character decreases left to right.Metal tend to give up electrons.Now consider the reaction:Na + AlCl3 ??? (NaCl + Al)To determine if the reaction occurs, the question is to determine which metal has a greater affinity for electrons (or which is willing to lose e- ).Na is more willing to lose e- than AlAl is more willing to accept e- (less metallic)Conclude: The reaction occurs.3Na + AlCl3 3NaCl + Al
10Reading Activity Table A metal in the activity series can only be oxidized by a metal ion below it.In our example, Nais oxidized by Al.The metals at the top of the activity series are called active metals.The metals at the bottom of the activity series are called noble metals.
11Example: Silver and Copper If we place Cu into a solution of Ag+ ions, will copper plate out of solution ?Cu(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) ? [Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag (s)]or Cu (s) + 2Ag+ (aq) ? [Cu2+(aq) + 2Ag (s)]Which metal is active? Which is noble ?g Cu g Ag\ Therefore, Cu 2+ ions is be formed because Cu is above Ag in the activity series.Copper Cu g Cu e-Silver Ag g Ag e-
12Example: Redox Reaction B&L 4.47: Based on the activity series, what is the outcome of the following reaction ?b) Ag(s) + PbNO3 (aq) ? c) Cr (s) + NiSO4 (aq) ?e) H2 (g) + CuCl2 (aq) ? f) Ba (s) + H2O (l) ?b) Ag vs. Pb , Pb is more active, no reaction occursc) Cr vs. Ni , Cr is more active, reaction occursCr (s) + NiSO4 (aq) Ni (s) + CrSO4 (aq)d) H2 vs. Cu , H2 is more active, reaction occursH2 (g) + CuCl2 (aq) 2HCl (aq) + Cu (s)e) Ba vs. H2 , Ba is more active, reaction occursBa (s) + H2O (l) H2 (g) + Ba(OH)2 (aq)
13Summary Redox - Oxidation/Reduction reaction Oxidation- Lose electron (LEO)Reduction- Gain electron (GER)Activity Series- Table showing elements’ relative ease of oxidation.Active Metal Metal which prefers to lose e- and therefore prefers the oxidized form.Noble Metal Metal which do not lose e- and therefore prefers the zero state.