Presentation on theme: "Concerns About Psychologist Prescribing"— Presentation transcript:
1Concerns About Psychologist Prescribing William Robiner, Ph.D., A.B.P.P.Department of Medicine???UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA MEDICAL SCHOOL
2Disclosure Information Concerns About Psychologist Prescribing William N. Robiner, Ph.D., A.B.P.P. I have the following financial relationships to disclose:Consultant for: HealthPartnersStockholder in Medtronic but no pharmaceutical companiesEmployee of: University of MinnesotaI have never received any funding from the American Medical Association or American Psychiatric Association or any of their affiliates.I will not discuss of label use and/or investigational use in my presentation.
3Prescription Privileges for Psychologists Are Controversial “I don’t think we need to be subliminable about the differences between our views on prescription drugs”George Bush, Orlando, FLSeptember 12, 2000
4Prescription Privileges for Psychologists Are Controversial Many people, including psychologists, are not fully informed of the issues in the ongoing debate.Many psychologists are reluctant to speak up against the Prescription Privileges (RxP) movement or are indifferent to the issue.
5ObjectivesUpon completion of the presentation, participants should be able to:Summarize diverse concerns about psychologist prescribingIdentify relative limits of the APA Clinical Psychopharmacology Training model and the DoD PDP ProgramIdentify psychologists’ motives and rationales for pursuing prescription privilegesDecide their position about the controversy about prescription privileges for psychologists
6What do Consumers Want of Their Psychopharmacologist? “Our Psychopharmacologist is a genius”
7What Do Consumers Want Of Their Psychopharmacologist? A knowledgeable, well-trained professional who is as competent to manage their medications and understand their overall health status as well as all other prescribers
8Why Do Psychologists Want Prescription Privileges? Money
9Also, Psychologists Want Prescription Privileges for Autonomy in clinical practiceJob securityAnother marketable skillParity with other professionsGiveaways and meals from drug company salespersons
10“Physician Wannabes”“…if we talk like psychiatrists, if we practice like psychiatrists, we will get our due”“The principal reward for becoming a junior psychiatrist must be financial- a chance to break into what appears to be a profitable market and grab a share of the action”Hubble, M. A. & Miller, S. D. (2001). In pursuit of folly. Bulletin of the Academy of Clinical Psychology, 7, 2-6.
11Why Do Pharmaceutical Companies Want Prescription Privileges for Psychologists? Increase revenues via increased sales of medications through more prescribersMore than $24 billion worth of antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs were dispensed in 2008
12Why Do Some Schools Want Prescription Privileges for Psychologists? Potential revenues from courses, workshops, and continuing educationHedge against potential future declines in enrollment in traditional professional psychology programsDevelop potentially new marketable skills for graduates
13Why Does the APA Want Prescription Privileges for Psychologists? Potential revenues from courses, workshops, and continuing educationDevelop potentially new marketable skills for psychologistsIncreased status and power of psychologists in the market and health care system
14Why Does the APA Want Prescription Privileges for Psychologists? Potential revenues from advertising dollars for its journals from pharmaceutical companies
15What Factors Engender Opposition to Prescription Privileges for Psychologists? Concerns about psychologists’ competence and training (i.e., the training model for RxP)Concern about adverse effects on the field – what would be lost?Concerns about the quality and safety of patient care prescribing psychologists would likely deliver
16What Factors Lead Psychologists to Oppose Prescription Privileges for Psychologists? A personal sense of responsibility to speak truth to power
17Note the absence of any financial incentives within psychology for opposing prescription privileges on the previous slides.
18Who Wants Psychologists to Prescribe? The prescription movement is not driven be consumers, physicians, or other mental health providersNAMI does not support itIt originated with practitioners rather than academicians or scientistsPsychology training directors are equivocal about it62% are equivocal (Evans & Murphy, 1997)Relatively few academic psychologists are interested in developing training programs for it (Hanson et al., 1999)Raising questions about the feasibility of developing high quality psychopharmacology training programs in settings with limited experience in educating and training psychologists
19Prescription Privileges are Controversial Among Psychologists Estimates vary about the percentage of psychologists favoring it (Gutierrez & Silk, 1998, Bush, 2002)Frederick/Schneiders, Inc. (1990), the largest survey of APA members, found:30% strongly supported it and 38% favored it The rest are opposed or unsure
20Prescription Privileges are Divisive Among Psychologists A meta-analysis of 17 surveys revealed a lack of consensus (Walters, 2001)“Opinion… is divided and polarized”More psychologists than not believe that …organizations like APA should not be spearheading efforts to gain prescription privilegesPsychologists are more supportive of prescription privileges in principle than they are of obtaining the training to prescribe medicationPrescription privileges have the potential to confuse issues of training and identity for future … psychologists
21Professional Organizations of Psychologists Oppose Prescription Privileges Society for a Science of Clinical Psychology (Section 3, Division 12)American Association of Applied and Preventive Psychology (AAAPP)Committee Against Medicalizing Psychology (CAMP)Psychologists Opposed to Prescription Privileges for Psychologists (POPPP)
22Support Is Not Unanimous 43% of psychologists responding to an APA survey indicted that “full medical training would be required” for prescription privileges (APA, 1992)Nevertheless, the APA training model is shorter, as well as substantively and procedurally inferior to medical school, nurse practitioner training, and other prescribers’
23It Is About Quality: Not Popularity Whatever sentiments surveys of psychologists reveal, it is less appropriate to decide this issue on the basis of its popularity among psychologists than on the quality of pharmacologic care that psychologists would provideBieliauskas, L. A. (1992b). Rebuttal of Dr. Frank’s position. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: State of the Art Reviews, 6, 584.
24It Isn’t Just Up To Psychologists It concerns a range of potential stakeholdersConsumersEducatorsPractitioners in other health disciplines experienced in prescribingRegulatory and governmental authoritiesFood and Drug AdministrationRegulatory boards (e.g., Board of Psychology)
25Historical Highlights APA (1992) established an Ad Hoc Task Force on Psychopharmacology to explore the desirability and feasibility of psychopharmacology prescription privileges for psychologistsThe Task Force concluded that greater understanding of psychopharmacology would enhance the care that psychologists provide (Smyer et al., 1993)
26Proposed Levels of Training The APA Task Force proposed three levels of preparation in psychopharmacology:Level 1- Basic Psychopharmacology EducationLevel 2- Collaborative PracticeLevel 3- Prescription PrivilegesWhereas the Task Force thought all psychologists providing mental health services should be prepared at Level 1, it did not take that position for training at Level 3
27Legal Status of Prescribing Most states and provinces do not allow psychologists to prescribeSupervised prescribing by “qualified” psychologists has been passed in Guam, New Mexico, and Louisiana.It took time for details to be worked out, so we don’t know yet how this experiment is going.
29Does New Mexico Lead the Way? Can you name 2 things that are legal in New Mexico, but not most places?Cock fightingAlso legal in LouisianaPsychologist prescribing
30“Foundation” Definitions The lowest load-bearing part of a building, typically below ground levelA body or ground on which other parts rest or are overlaidAn underlying basis or principle for something; specific learning skills as a foundation for other subjects
31Buildings Have Foundations Foundation No Foundation Foundations are structurally importantInadequate foundations can lead to instability of the structure, creating safety risks to users
32Foundation in Education: Prerequisites The APA Task Force stated “retraining of practicing psychologists for prescription privileges would need to carefully consider selection criteria, focusing on those psychologists with the necessary science background” (APA, 1992)This included undergraduate coursework in:BiologyChemistry, andOther areas typifying the pre-medical curriculum
33Inadequate Foundation But no physical or biological science prerequisites are required!Instead, APA uses vague language about trainees’ scientific background
34Dumbing Down“Demonstrated knowledge of human biology, anatomy and physiology, biochemistry, neuroanatomy, and psychopharmacology is a necessary prerequisite for embarking on this postdoctoral trainingDemonstrated knowledge involves evidence of(1) successful completion of a planned sequence of courses at a regionally accredited institution of higher learning, OR(2) evidence of successful completion of a planned sequence of continuing education courses offered by an accredited institution of higher learning or an approved provider of continuing education and passage of an examination covering the content of such a program
35Are They The Same??=Rigorous CourseworkContinuing Education
36Bait and SwitchBy deleting the scientific prerequisites APA has ignored the judgment of the importance of scientific backgrounds of its own experts as well as nearly half of the members it surveyed!But nevertheless, APA says that members support RxP, even if their favorable statements was based on expectations of more stringent requirements“PDP-Lite” (Stuart & Heiby, 2007)“Ersatz training” (Anonymous Member of APA Task Force)
38Other Non-Physician Prescribers’ Training is much closer to that of physicians than to psychologists’Clinical practice is more focused on physical functioning, including medication effects, than psychologists’
39Is this good?“Among all the disciplines whose members include non-physician health care providers who prescribe, psychology has the core curriculum with probably the least overlap with traditional medicine”Fox, DeLeon, Newman, et al.., 2009
40APA Knows BetterAccreditation criteria for all levels of education specify:Training for practice is sequential, cumulative, graded in complexityBiochemistryOrganic ChemistryInorganic Chemistry
41Undergraduate Differences* Between Psychologists and Psychiatrists
42Psychologists’ and Psychiatrists’ Pre-Med Courses Robiner, W. N., Bearman, D. L., Berman, M., Grove, W. M., Colón, E., Armstrong, J., Mareck, S., Tanenbaum, R. (2003). Prescriptive authority for psychologists: Despite deficits in education and knowledge? Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 10,
43Arrogance?Some RxP advocates question the necessity of scientific background for prescribing (Hanson et al., 1999)Does that denigrate the importance of other scientific disciplines?
44How Hard Is It To Prescribe? Former APA President, Patrick DeLeon, contends that:"...prescription privileges is no big deal. It's like learning how to use a desk-top computer" (Roan, 1993)
45But Is It…….Really? Meet Noah Robiner1 Hobby: Plays with laptop computerAge: Six years1 2002
46Or Is Safe Prescribing More Involved? Would you have confidence in a prescription from a kindergartener?Do psychologists want to “play” at being medical doctors too?
47Differences* Between Psychologists’ and Psychiatrists’ Scientific Coursework
48Graduate Education in Psychology Comprises “vastly differing models of study and practice” with “no effort to standardize the training of psychologists” (Klein, 1996)Some psychology degrees (e.g., school psychology) have relatively limited exposure to psychopathology and psychological treatments, let alone the physical sciences or medical environments (DeMers, 1994; Moyer, 1995)
49Where’s the Biology in Psychology Graduate Education? According to the APA Accreditation Commission:Domain B. 3. …The program has…a…coherent curriculum plan that provides the means whereby all students can acquire and demonstrate substantial understanding of and competence in the following areas:The breadth of scientific psychology, its history of thought and development, its research methods, and its applications. To achieve this end, the students shall be exposed to the current body of knowledge in at least the following areas: biological aspects of behavior…..
50Where’s the Biology in Psychology Graduate Education? Note the absence of clear guidance from APA about content or creditsAlso note that “biological aspects of behavior” is considerably narrower than the biological curriculum for other prescribers (M.D., R.N., etc.)It does not require any knowledge of human physiology, pathophysiology, anatomy, etc.
51Where’s the Biology in Psychology Graduate Education? According to the ASPPB/National Register Designation Committee:Psychology doctorates require merely 3 graduate semester hours in the biological bases of behaviorwhich can cover a range of topics, such as physiological psychology, comparative psychology, neuropsychology, sensation and perception, or psychopharmacologyThese courses’ relevance to and preparation for prescribing can be negligible
52The Trend for Less Science in Psychologists’ Training According to the Director of the APA Education Directorate, the training of psychologists is moving away from the “scientist-practitioner” model, to other models that de-emphasize scientific background and activities (Belar, 1998)By 1997, nearly 2/3 of clinical psychology degrees were conferred by professional schools, rather than university-based academic programs (Reich, 1999) which typically require more rigorous scientific training than professional schools
53Sometimes A Science Background Isn’t So Important Should cub scouts or their dads have to take physics to design cars for the pinewood derby?
54Sometimes It IsWould you want to get on a plane if the engineers who designed it hadn’t taken physics?
55If You’re Sick, Who You Gonna Call? U of M Lung Transplant TeamER CastWould you entrust your health to people who lacked basic scientific backgrounds?
56What is HappeningIn 1995 the APA Council of Representatives passed a resolution making the pursuit of prescription privilege an official objective for the organizationAPA devotes greatest attention to the most controversial option, Level 3, promoting prescription privileges through a hybrid of continuing education and a modular executive training in psychopharmacology for doctoral-level psychologists
57Training Is LimitedSeveral training programs exist, including some that emphasize distance-learning300 hours100 supervised patientsThe training is not close to medical or psychiatric training, and is less comprehensive than nurse practitioner training
58Where and When is it Occurring? Wherever programs wish to offer itNot at medical schools or top-ranked nursing or physician assistant training programsSome is largely on-line
59APA Training Model Does Not Specify Minimal Criteria For: Breadth of patients’ mental health conditionsDuration of treatment (i.e., to allow for adequate monitoring and feedback) or requirements for outpatient or inpatient experiences, or length of trainingExposure to adverse medication effectsExposure to patients with comorbid medical conditions and complex drug regimensQualifications for supervisors
60Training Without Accreditation Unlike training for other prescribers, no accreditation mechanisms to evaluate psychopharmacology programs or supervised clinical experiences exist.The psychopharmacology training programs do not meet the APA's (1996c) own criteria for accreditation of postdoctoral programs or internships.
61Designation: Minimal Standards The 2008 APA Council meeting allocated funding for a Task Force to create a “designation” system that was charged with developing “the minimal standards for programs of psychopharmacology education and training programs.”Note how this is inferior to the objective of the accreditation process, as used in other psychology training, which is intended to “promote consistent quality and excellence in education and training in professional psychology." (APA, 2008)
62What Isn’t HappeningThe Task Force’s Level-2 Collaborative Practice, envisioned to enhance patient care via collaborations with prescribers by expanding their expertise about medication management has not been pursued
63No Training for Collaborative Practice Even though more psychology graduate students believe that Level 2 (77%) training should be offered in their programs than Level 3 (57%) and(Tatman, Peters, Greene, & Bongar, 1997)Even though there is a good literature about the benefits of collaborations between psychologists and prescribers, such as primary care physicians
64RxP Advocacy TacticsPollitt, B. (2003). Fool's gold: Psychologists using disingenuous reasoning to mislead legislatures into granting psychologists prescriptive authority. American Journal of Law & Medicine, 29,
65Argument #1 About Prescription Privileges for Psychologists It’s not a big deal: Psychologists have done it for years without problems (VA, Reservations, military)How well and how long has it been studied in demonstration projects?The DoD studied only 10 psychologistsWhat controls were in place which might have prevented problems in these projects?They were in supervised, military hospitals with a long history of teaching health professionalsHow would the care psychologists be different on broader scale, without supervision, outside of medical settings?
66DoD/PDP Selection Bias They were not typical psychologists6 were Air Force Officers or Army Officers holding the rank of Captain or higher4 were Navy officers holding the rank of Lieutenant Commander or Commander8 were chiefs or assistant chiefs of an outpatient psychology clinic or a mental health clinic
67Department of Defense (DoD) Psychopharmacology Demonstration Project (PDP) Initial participants undertook preparation in chemistry and biochemistry before completing a majority of 1st year medical school coursesDuring their first full-time year at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, they worked with the Psychiatry-Liaison service and assumed night call with 2nd year psychiatry residents
68Department of Defense (DoD) Psychopharmacology Demonstration Project (PDP) In the second full-time year, they completed core basic science courses and continued psychopharmacology training and clinical workAfter 2-day written and oral examinations, they had a third year of supervised clinical work at Walter Reed Army Medical Center or Malcolm Grow Medical Center
69Then PDP Training Was Reduced Over time, the PDP curriculum was abbreviated, streamlining training to one year of coursework and a year of supervised clinical practiceDidactic hours decreased by 48% in the 2nd iterationMost PDP graduates functioned as prescribing psychologists in branches of the militaryAt least one graduate went on to medical school
70A Few Words About the PDP The PDP was discontinued after the first few yearsProponents want you to believe:The successes of PDP participants justify extending prescriptive authority to psychologists who undergo training consistent with the APA model (1996a)Even though the APA training model and the likely resources available for the training are less substantial than the PDP
71What You Should Know About the PDP The Final Report of on the PDP the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (1998) assessed graduates as weaker medically and psychiatrically than psychiatrists.Limitations are likely to be most evident in treating medically complex patientsKennedy, J. (1998, April 3). Prescription privileges for psychologists: A view from the field. Psychiatric News, 33 (7), 26.
72More to Know About the PDP “[The psychologists] medical knowledge was variously judged as on a level between 3rd or 4th year medical students” (p. 6)Note: Patients never get treated by medical students without strict supervisionShould patients get healthcare from someone approximating a medical student or a licensed health professional who completed training?
73Concern About the PDP Trainees “The most common concern cited by most of the psychiatrist supervisors in one form or another was that the fellows knew too little medicine to prescribe psychotropic drugs safely. They worried about the lack of medical sophistication.” (p. 13)
74Limits Within the DoD Graduates only saw a limited range of patients aged 18-65generally with limited medical problemsSome graduates had limited formulariesSome graduates continued to have dependent prescriptive practice (i.e., supervised by a physician)
75Differences Between the PDP and APA Model PDP graduates advised against "short-cut" programs and considered that a year of intensive full-time clinical experience, including inpatient care, was essentialThis is more comprehensive than psychopharmacology training currently recommended by APA or availableThere is no inpatient requirement for training
76Doubts About Generalizing From the PDP Some of the DOD psychiatrists, physicians, and graduates doubt the safety and effectiveness of psychologists prescribing independently outside of the interdisciplinary team of the military contextThis concern has been echoed in a survey of military psychiatrists, non-psychiatric physicians, and social workersKlusman, L. E. (1998). Military health care providers' views on prescribing privileges for psychologists, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29,
77Questions About the DoD Do the relatively limited base rates of problems and tiny sample obscure genuine problems and suffer from Type II statistical problems (i.e., have inadequate statistical power to detect differences or problems)?Can we generalize from 10 trained in military hospitals to thousands of psychologists across the spectrum of settings with diverse and less healthy populations?If training is less rigorous, with less access to medical populations, would the DoD outcomes overestimate outcomes of how other psychologists would perform?
78Argument #2 About Prescription Privileges for Psychologists Most psychoactive medications are prescribed by physicians or others with less training in assessment or therapy than psychologistsAll other prescribing health professionals have relevant training in basic sciences: biology, chemistry, biochemistry, etc.Psychologists do not!Only 7% of psychology graduate students have the relevant scientific backgrounds (Tatman et al, 1997)
79Lack of Undergraduate and Graduate Preparation Only 27% of graduate students thought they had the undergraduate preparation to undertake preparation to prescribe (Tatman et al, 1997)Completed recommended biology & %chemistry units (Fox et al., 1992)> 4 units of undergraduate biology %> 4 units of undergraduate chemistry %Graduate course in psychopharmacology 25%
80Argument #2 (continued) All other prescribing professionals have years of training and experience in dealing with a wide range of side effects, adverse or toxic effects, drug interactions, and impact on other systemsPsychologists do not!Psychologists’ clinical skills provide fruitful opportunities for collaboration with prescribing health professionals but their lack of an educational foundation contraindicates prescribing themselves
81Argument #3 About Prescription Privileges for Psychologists There are misuses and abuses in medication prescriptions by physiciansSuch medication problems would not be remedied by giving psychologists prescription privilegesPsychologists would probably make similar errors, plus others due to their more limited training and experience with medications and physiological phenomena
82Knowledge Base and Clinical Proficiencies Required for Prescribing Psychopathology and Psychological Issues1Medical Status Prior to PrescribingResponse to Treatments1 The education and training of psychologists typically addresses this area onlyRobiner, W. N., Bearman, D. L., Berman, M., Grove, W. M., Colón, E., Armstrong, J., & Mareck, S. (2002). Prescriptive authority for psychologists: A looming health hazard? Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9,
83What Psychologists Know Psychopathology and Psychological IssuesPrimary psychiatric conditionsComorbid psychiatric conditionsPrevalence and course of psychiatric conditionsKnowledge of non-pharmacologic treatment options
84What Psychologists Don’t Know Medical Status Prior to PrescribingComorbid medical conditionsContraindicationsLong-term effects of medicationMedical effects of concurrent treatmentsdrug interactionsother treatments (e.g., dialysis, plasmapheresis)History of medication use
85What Psychologists Don’t Know Response to TreatmentsKnowledge of adverse reactionsside effects, toxic effectsAbility to recognize, diagnose, & treat adverse reactions.Ability to differentiate between physical and psychiatric effects of psychoactive agents and concurrent medicationsOther issues related to monitoring, titrating or discontinuing prescribed medications
86For example ...SSRIs can cause bleeding disorders, including GI and retinal hemorrhageEffexor overdoses have higher risk of mortality than SSRI overdosesOverdose with Celexa can cause life-threatening cardiac crises; > 6 deaths so farAbrupt clonazepam withdrawal can result in hypoglycemic coma in diabetics
87That is Just the Tip of the Iceberg SSRIs inhibit CYP2D6 activity and when combined with other drugs metabolized via the P450 enzyme system result in toxic serum concentrations of either or both drugs
88For Complex Patients Medication Management is Harder Since 2005, the FDA requires black box warning labels about the risk of antipsychotic use with the elderlySecond-generation, antipsychotic medications have black-box warnings noting that the drugs are associated with increased risk of death and other adverse effects in elderly patients(cardiac toxicity, stroke, infection, hyperglycemia)1.6- to 1.7-fold increase in mortality in the elderly
90Adverse Drug Reactions Mechanisms There are numerous mechanismsEffects of disease, genes, smoking, diet, receptor sensitivity alterations, etc.Drugs metabolized by the same P450 isozyme may competitively inhibit each other’s oxidation in the liver
91Argument #4 About Prescription Privileges for Psychologists People need medications in underserved areas where there are few psychiatristsThe geographic distribution of psychologists and psychiatrists are similarOther health providers in those areas prescribe and are open to collaboration with psychologistsRural family physicians have concerns about psychologists prescribing (Bell et al., 1995)Poor distribution may justify telehealth, or geographic redistribution, but not psychologist prescription privileges, which would lower standards of care for rural citizens
92Dubious Plan for Serving the Underserved APA Task Force’s expectation was that only “a small...minority of psychologists” would seek Level 3 psychopharmacology training (APA, 1992)There is no plan to redistribute prescribing psychologists to meet needs of underserved populations (May & Belsky, 1992)It would be an indirect, needlessly risky, and highly inefficient public policy response to rural areas’ shortage of psychopharmacologic prescribers (Robiner et al., 2002)
93If This Were Really About Serving the Underserved The energy and resources psychologists are currently investing into advancing the prescriptive privileges could be refocused on:Level 1 (basic knowledge) and 2 (collaboration) training andOn developing mechanisms to redistribute the psychology workforce to address legitimate societal needs (e.g., rural mental health)Advocating for training more psychiatrists
94Argument #5 About Prescription Privileges for Psychologists Some psychoactive medications are becoming safer and more efficaciousThis is why medications may be becoming more helpful, but does not justify psychologists prescribingMedications have side effects, toxic effects, addiction potential, long-term adverse effects, drug interactions, medical contraindications, and can result in death
95Argument #5 (safer meds continued) Can psychologists keep abreast of burgeoning medication issues-both psychoactive and non-psychoactive?Where will their time to keep up come from?
96Argument #6 About Prescription Privileges for Psychologists Opposition to prescription privileges is from the profession’s “conservative” membersDenigrating legitimate concerns through polarizing terms is not productive. It distracts attention from real issues, reduces dialogue, and focuses on emotional rather than rational issues
97Argument #7 About Prescription Privileges for Psychologists It’s just another fight with PsychiatryIt is a major controversy within psychology and with other specialties within medicine.Do psychologists really want to alienate the other APA and the AMA at a time when psychologists’ responses to other challenges within health care warrant greater unity?
98Psychiatric Nurses Oppose RxP Position Statement of the International Society of Psychiatric- Mental Health Nurses (ISPN)“…nurses have an ethical responsibility to oppose the extension of the psychologist’s role into the prescription of medications. This is not a turf issue or an attempt to limit a perceived competing profession. This belief is rooted in the ethical guidelines of our own profession. The professional standards for nursing require nurses who prescribe pharmacologic agents to have their prescriptive actions based on an awareness of pharmacological and physiological principles and knowledge…We should expect the same from other professionals.”
99From a MN Psychologist/NP “I oppose prescription…privileges for psychologists…In a previous professional 'incarnation' I was a nurse and nurse practitioner. During the 4 years of my undergraduate nursing education I took courses in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, biochemistry, embryology, microbiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology. This was just a warm-up for the in-depth physical assessment and illness-management skills I learned in the nurse practitioner program. My education deepened in clinical settings - during and after my formal training programs - where I was surrounded by more experienced nurse and physician colleagues with whom I was able to routinely consult. No two-year psychopharmacology course could duplicate the breadth and depth of this education - which I feel is the minimum necessary for safe medication management.”Kate Pfaffinger, Ph.D. (former NP) 3/23/08
100Psychologists Oppose RxP PSYCHOLOGISTS OPPOSED TO PRESCRIPTION PRIVILEGES FOR PSYCHOLOGISTS (POPPP)You can join at:
101Logistical Challenges to Training Psychologists to Prescribe Unproven curricula and educational paradigms for trainingLong-term outcomes remain unknownLimited number of psychology supervisors to train psychologists to prescribe safely and effectivelyOnly 35% of medical school psychologists reported having psychologist faculty who could teach or supervise psychopharmacology
102What Psychologists Don’t Know... May Hurt Somebody Biology, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, PhysiologyClinical MedicinePhysical Examination, Laboratory TestsHow to Understand and Integrate All of the Above in Decisions Involving MedicationsHow to Assess Contraindicated Conditions and Medication Side EffectsWhat They Don’t Know
103Psychologists’ Vs. Psychiatrists’ Knowledge Related to Prescribing
104As One Psychologist Turned Psychiatrist Observed The practice of psychology differs substantially from the practice of psychiatry“Studying the effects of medications on the kidney, the heart, and so forth is important for the use of many medications. Managing these effects is often crucial and has more to do with biochemistry and physiology than with psychology. I was surprised to discover how little about medication use has to do with psychological principles and how much of it is just medical.”Kingsbury, S.J. (1992). Some effects of prescribing privileges. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 3-5.
105He Also Observed“In my first month of residency training in psychiatry at a psychiatry emergency service I believe I saw more patients individually than in my entire graduate [Psychology] training.”Kingsbury, S. J. (1987). Cognitive differences between clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. American Psychologist, 42,
106Increasing Awareness of Adverse Effects The Federal Drug Administration currently receives 400,000 reports per year about adverse drug eventsPsychoactive medications have been described as presenting more complex drug interactions and adverse effects than any other class of drug (Hayes, 1998)Many people who take psychoactive medications also take other medications that complicate their careFewer than 30% who take an antidepressant take no other medications (Preskorn, 1999)
107Which of These Medication Effects or Contraindications Can Psychologists Diagnose? NONEAgranulocytosisBundle Branch BlockEosinophiliaHyperpyrexiaHyponatremiaLeukocytosisMyoglobinuriaOpisthotonusThrombocytopenia
108Additional Hazards Associated With Prescription Privileges for Psychologists Decreased quality of care for patientsIncreased professional liability rates for psychologistsIncreased licensing fees for psychologistsIncreased risks of chemical dependency in psychologists?Antagonism among psychologistsIncreased antagonism with physiciansOne article predicted a “Jihad” against psychology by psychiatry and medicine
109Why Don’t Majorities of Health Psychologists Support Prescribing? Only 27% hospital affiliated psychologists approve (Boswell et al., 1988)Only 23-30% of health psychologists approve (Piotrowski & Lubin, 1989)Only 43% of medical school psychologists approve (Robiner, Wedding, & Koehler, 1998)Does the limited support among psychologists in health settings relative to psychologists in other settings reflect better informed caution?
110Argument #8 About Prescription Privileges for Psychologists It’s the “natural evolution” or “logical” step for the professionEven though it should more realistically be characterized as “revolutionary” or “radical”It departs from psychology’s historic training paradigms and conceptualizations of psychopathology and interventionIt requires major shifts in focus, prerequisites, marked expansions of training and continuing education in key areas, reformulation of accreditation criteria, modification of regulatory structure, domains, and processes, expanded ethical guidelines, as well as uniform requirements that at least part of psychologists’ training occur within health care settings
111Prescription Privileges May Conflict With Darwin’s Notions of Evolution Survival depends on fitness for tasks undertaken and challenges facedEvolution does not favor inferior skillsEvolution does not forgive serious miscalculations
112The Evolution of Psychology Demands that Psychologists: Do what they do betterAdapt appropriately to changeRecognize their strengths and limitationsDevelop better understanding of psychopharmacologyCultivate collaborations with prescribers
113Questions to Consider- #1 If the job market for psychologists was more positive, would psychologists and trainees still wish to pursue prescription privileges?If prescribing ends up not being lucrative, or broadening marketability, would it still be being pursued? Even with prescription privileges, Psychiatry has been losing market shareAre nurse practitioners who prescribe compensated more generously than psychologists?
114Questions to Consider- #2 How would prescribing change the therapeutic relationship?How would psychologists deal with their obligation to provide 24-hour emergency coverage related to medications?How would RxP training detract from training in other dimensions of Psychology?
115Questions to Consider- #3 Do changes in psychologists’ earlier opposition to prescribing reflect desensitization to genuine hazards as a result of the profession’s marketing or “propaganda” campaignSSCP had to delete an anti-RxP statement from its website if it wanted to continue affiliation with APAAre there more appropriate ways for the profession to respond to current challenges to practitioners?Are there safer and more appropriate ways to assist patients who need medication get it?
116Questions to Consider- #4 After decrying the “medical model” for decades, why are psychologists now embracing prescription privileges?Can psychologists prescribe medications as safely as providers with more extensive medical training?Whenever mortalities or morbidities associated with psychologists’ prescriptions result in lawsuits, will juries agree it was a good idea?
117Questions to Consider- #5 How does not going to medical school/nurse practitioner training detract from understanding of medications and physical functioning?How does not going to medical school/nurse practitioner training affect skill and experience in prescribing?If psychologists wish to prescribe medications well, why don’t they pursue higher quality training?There generally are openings in good psychiatry residency programs
118Questions to Consider- #6 Would a psychologist be your first choice prescriber for psychoactive medications for yourself or a loved one?Why or why not?Who would be your first choice prescriber?
119If Psychologists Are Granted Prescription Privileges, Why Shouldn’t the...
121Current Focus on Medication Errors Psychologists’ lobbying for prescriptive authority is ironic in light of growing national concern about errors in prescribing medication (Classen, Pestotnik, Evans, Lloyd, & Burke, 1997).Medication errors are estimated to lead to <7,000 deaths annually(Phillips, Christenfeld, & Glynn, 1998).Among the many contributing factors to medication errors are inadequate knowledge and use of knowledge regarding drug therapy and inadequate recognition of important patient factors (e.g., impaired renal function, drug allergies) (Lesar et al., 1997).Lesar TS, Briceland L, Stein DS: Factors related to errors in medication prescribing. JAMA 1997;277(4):
122Along With Other Strategies, Avoiding Medication Errors Will Take Improved prescriber education (Lesar et al. 1997)Not creating a new category of prescribers with relatively less training (as psychologist prescribers would be)Short cuts in education seem likely to undermine patient care and contribute to medication errors along the patterns outlined by Lesar et al. (1997).
123Collaborating? Yes! Prescribing? No Achieving the APA Task Force’s goals for enhancing the care of patients needing medications does not require prescriptive authority for psychologistsPatients and other health professionals would benefit from psychologists’ increased knowledge related to psychopharmacology that would enhance the services they provide and their collaborations with prescribers
124Effects of Controversies “The diversity of our field often leads to different, strongly held opinions about which there appears to be little room for compromise….The contribution that a unified psychology can make to society and its own health is eroded and weakened by scientists and practitioners headed in different, sometimes opposite directions”Hargrove, S. (1997. March). We have only ourselves to fear. PsycCRITIQUES, 42(3).
125RxP Effects1 on State Psychological Associations State associations, that have already initiated an RxP initiative, report having to allocate all of their legislative dollars to the effortTennessee reported not having legislative dollars for other bills due to all efforts going towards RxPAPA has given $180K to 6 states due to lobbying costs of RxPDue to the expense several states said they are near a point of reconsidering whether to continue pursuing RxPStates with psychopharmacology training programs report a shortage of psychologist enrollees and have opened the training to nurses to meet their costs1Personal Communication from Willie Garrett, Ed.D. December 8, 2006 re: Directors of Professional Affairs strategic planning meeting