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LIMITS TO SIZE
Volume Volume determines the amount metabolism in the cytoplasm Metabolism will require import of precursors Metabolism will result in the export of secretions And the export of excretory products © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Surface area Surface area will determine the exchange of materials between the cell and its environment Bigger cells will metabolise more But they will need more surface to support that metabolism And the sites of metabolism in bigger cells will be further from the surface of the cell © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Growing cells 1µm 2µm 3µm 4µm 5µm 6µm © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
How are surface area and volume affected by growth? SA/V Volume / µm 3 Surface area / µm 2 Size / µm © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Comparing Surface Area and Volume changes © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Surface Area:Volume Ratio © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Solving the problem Bigger cells have a greater metabolism than smaller cells BUT bigger cells have a proportionally less surface for exchange How to increase surface area with increasing size? © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Throw out extensions Microvilli of small intestine epithelium Image Credit
Flatten into a thin film Chick blastodisc Image Credits
Divide the cytoplasm into smaller volumes Early human embryos Zygote 8-cell Embryo Image Credit Image Credit
Multicellular organisms show the same adaptations Flowering plants have an extensive, branched rooting system to absorb water and minerals Image Credit
Multicellular organisms show the same adaptations Mammals have a long small intestine with internal folding to absorb digested food Image Credit C. Candalh, INSERM
The Cell and its basic components Dr. Vindman AP Biology Unit 2.
LIMITS TO SIZE © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS. Volume Volume determines the amount metabolism in the cytoplasm Metabolism will require import of precursors.
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Mitosis The division of the nucleus © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS.
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Cell Growth Limits to Cell Growth Two reasons why cells divide: DNA Overload Exchanging Materials.
Do cells have size limits?. Cells can range from 2µm to 200µm (10⁻⁶m). µm = millionth of a meter or m Most eukaryotic cells are about 10µm.
WHY DO CELLS DIVIDE? ITS ALL ABOUT SIZE WHY DO CELLS DIVIDE? (instead of just getting bigger) 1.Diffusion 2.DNA 3.Surface area-to-volume ratio.
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OSMOREGULATION CONTROL OF WATER BALANCE © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS.
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CELL DIVISION © 2006 Mesoblast Limited © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS.
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