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Training School Personnel to Implement FBA/BIP

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1 Training School Personnel to Implement FBA/BIP
Sheldon Loman, PhD Kathleen Strickland-Cohen, PhD

2 Who’s here? Administrators? Teachers? Paraprofessionals?
Behavior Specialists? Higher Education Members? Other related services? Others?

3 FBA is…. an empirically supported practice that has been demonstrated to improve both the effectiveness & efficiency of behavioral interventions in schools Blair, Umbreit, & Bos, 1999; Carr et al., 1999; Ingram, Lewis-Palmer, & Sugai, 2005; Lee, Sugai, & Horner, 1999; Newcomer & Lewis, 2004.

4 Ingram, Lewis-Palmer & Sugai, 2005

5 Newcomer & Lewis, 2004

6 Challenges schools face today are not finding what works, but implementing what works. Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005 Since 1997 FBA has not been implemented widely in schools. Not due to lack of knowledge, but to practicality of use

7 Concern Basic Message:
Any time you feel overwhelmed the answer is likely to include investing in the training of others. As schools adopt Tier 2 and Tier 3 supports, the behavior specialists in the district are often overwhelmed with requests to conduct functional behavioral assessments and building behavior support plans.

8 District Behavior Support Specialist
Train and coach PBIS at all three tiers Support Teams building behavior support plans from Assessment information Train 1-2 people per school to conduct “basic” FBA/BSP

9 Maximizing Your Session Participation
Work with your team Consider first question: Where are we in our implementation?

10 Current Issues and Needs in Your District…
Do people already know how to do FBA in your schools? Can a district leader teach FBA/BSP procedures in a reasonable amount of time? Are the basic FBA/BSPs developed by school personnel valid for improving student behavior? Do our school teams understand the CRITICAL FEATURES of function-based interventions ? Do we have materials that are practical and effective for use by district specialists?

11 Maximizing Your Session Participation
Work with your team Consider 2nd question: What do I hope to learn?

12 We hope you will learn to…
Identify the research-base for the use of a practical approach to training school personnel to conduct FBA/BSPs Identify the procedures for school district behavior support specialists to use in training school personnel to conduct practical FBA/BSPs Identify a process for creating capacity in schools to support the development and implementation of function-based interventions

13 “Scaling Down to Scale up”
Scott, Alter, & McQuillan (2010) In order for FBA to be applied in typical classrooms we need to simplify the practices associated with effective FBA It is essential to use straightforward language, rationale, and examples of how FBA can be applied in the context of classroom

14 “Work Smarter NOT Harder…” By using the 4 “P”s
Proactively build capacity- Train 1-2 school personnel in each school with a “flexible” role to conduct FBA/BSPs for students with mild/moderate problem behaviors Parsimonious tools- Use simple tools and terminology that are relatable to school personnel Practical Trainings- Provide short training sessions that teach “less more thoroughly” based on established instructional practices Prioritized follow-up- Through use of quick in-training assessments to determine those participants that will require more follow-up coaching


16 Training Series 4 training sessions on conducting functional behavioral assessments (FBA) for students with mild to moderate behavioral problems in schools. The training series teaches participants to conduct interviews and observations in such a way as to precisely determine the relationship between student problem behavior and the context: What the problem behaviors are. When, Where, & Why a student’s problem behaviors occur. A summary of this information will help an individual student team develop effective behavioral supports that: -prevent problem behaviors from occurring -teach alternative behaviors -& effectively respond when problem behaviors occur.

17 Practical FBA process D.A.S.H.
Define behavior in observable & measurable terms Ask about behavior by interviewing staff & student -specify routines where & when behaviors occur -summarize where, when, & why behaviors occur See the behavior -observe the behavior during routines specified -observe to verify summary from interviews Hypothesize: a final summary of where, when & why behaviors occur Session #1 Session #2 Session #3 Session #4

18 Format of Practical FBA Training Sessions
Objectives Review Activities Checks for Understanding Comments/ Questions Tasks Key Points

19 Practical FBA vs Comprehensive FBA
Focus of this training series Practical FBA Comprehensive FBA For: Students with mild to moderate problem behaviors (behaviors that are NOT dangerous or occurring in many settings) Students with moderate to severe behavioral problems; may be dangerous and/or occurring in many settings What: Relatively simple and efficient process to guide behavior support planning Time-intensive process that also involves archival records review, family-centered planning, and collaboration with agencies outside of school Conducted by whom: School-based personnel (e.g., teachers, counselors, administrators) Professionals trained to conduct functional assessments with students with severe problem behaviors (e.g., school psychologists, behavior specialists)

20 Session #1: Defining & Understanding Behavior
Overview of the Practical FBA training series and introduces concepts, examples, and practice opportunities for participants to learn how to: (a) Define behavior (WHAT), (b) Identify events that predict WHEN & WHERE the specific behavior occurs (c) Identify the function of behavior (WHY), and (d) Construct functional behavioral summary statements TASK: Find someone at their site whom they may conduct a practice interview with next week.

21 Always start with the Behavior
1- Once you have defined the behaviors (the What) 2- & know the Where & When the behaviors occur #2 (Routine & Antecedents) 3- Then want to find out WHY (the outCome of the behavior…what happens right afterwards) 2 Antecedent/Trigger: When _____ happens…. 1 Behavior: the student does (what)__ 3 Consequence/OutCome ..because (why) ______

22 Rules for Defining Behavior
Definitions of behaviors need to be: Observable: The behavior is an action that can be seen. Measurable: The behavior can be counted or timed. Defined so clearly that a person unfamiliar with the student could recognize the behavior without any doubts!

23 Functions that behaviors serve
What is the pay-off of the problem behavior?

24 Create a Hypothesis Statement for Johnny’s Behavior
After interviewing Mr. Smith and conducting several observations of Johnny in the third grade classroom, the team determined that during less structured class time (free time, cooperative group art projects, etc.), Johnny tears up his paper and stomps his feet. After Johnny engages in this behavior his peers laugh at him. Routine: During __(some routine e.g.: _______________ Third grade classroom Consequence/OutCome: “Because..” Peers laugh at him Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoid Peer Attention Antecedent/Trigger: “When ..” Behavior: “Student does..” Less structured class time Tears up paper & stomps feet

25 Session #2: Investigating Behavior
Review content from the first session Instruction, modeling, and practice opportunities in conducting FACTS interviews with staff and students (modified from Borgmeier, 2005) Practice constructing behavioral summary statements from each interview. TASK: Complete a practice FACTS interview with a staff member at school site.

26 Hypothesis/Summary Statement
4 terms of Hypothesis/Summary Statement Setting Events/ “Set ups” Antecedent/ Trigger Problem Behavior Consequence/ Outcome Infrequent events that affect value of outcome Following events that maintain behaviors of concern Preceding events that trigger Observable behaviors of concern


28 Select #1 Ranked Answers to Insert into Summary
Have Teacher Rate the Statement

29 Follow-up Make sure to ask follow-up questions in the right column of Antecedents & Consequences section ANTECEDENT(s): Rank Order the strongest triggers/predictors of problem behavior in the routine above. Then ask corresponding follow-up question(s) to get a detailed understanding of triggers ranked #1 & 2. Environmental Features (Rank order strongest 2) Follow Up Questions – Get as Specific as possible 1 X a. task too hard ___ g. large group instruction ___ b. task too easy ___ h. small group work _X_ c. bored w/ task ___ i. unstructured time _X_ d. task too long ___ j. transitions ___ e. physical demand 2_X k. independent work 3_X f. correction/reprimand ___ l. with peers ___ m. Other, describe ______________________ _______________________________________ If a,b,c,d or e - describe task/demand in detail __writing sentences, paragraphs, letters, journals, etc. student cannot write because they don’t know how to read or spell fluently______________________ If f - describe purpose of correction, voice tone, volume etc. _________________________________________________ If g, h, I, j or k - describe setting/activity/content in detail ____Independent work involving writing or reading; works better in small groups if he doesn’t have to read or write____________ _________________________________________________ If l – what peers?

30 Session #3: Observing & Summarizing Behavior
Review content from previous training sessions & practice interviews from week before Instruction & practice opportunities (using videos) for participants to conduct ABC observations of students within routines identified as settings in which the problem behavior occurs most frequently (based upon the staff FACTS interviews). Participants practice constructing summary statements based upon data from their observations to verify or modify summary statements derived from their FACTS interviews. TASK: Complete a practice ABC observation at school site.

31 Videos used in training available from Sopris West:
Scott, T. M., Liaupsin, C., & Nelson, C. M. (2005). Team-based Functional Assessment and Intervention Planning: A Simplified Teaming Process. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.



34 Practical FBA ABC FAQ: “How many times should I observe the student in the routine?” Observe until you are convinced (about 5 to 10 occurrences of behavior OR 3 to 1 ratio verifying FACTS summary). You may have to go in on more than one day or period….but make sure you are going during identified routine. Need to be convinced your observation data are accurately representing situation

35 Session #4: Function-based Behavior Support Planning
Review of concepts, skills from first three sessions Review practice ABC observations & summarizing results Provide opportunities for participants to practice the skills that they have learned in conducting interviews, observations, and constructing behavioral summary statements Introduce the Competing Behavior Pathway and ideas for helping individual student support teams in designing function-based behavioral supports.

36 Competing Behavior Summary
Desired Behavior Typical Consequence Summary of Behavior Setting Event Antecedent Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequence Alternate Behavior

37 Neutralize/ eliminate setting events Add relevant & remove irrelevant triggers Teach alternative that is more efficient Add effective & & remove ineffective reinforcers

38 Summary of Behavior - Shane
Setting Event Antecedent Behavior Consequence Teacher/Staff Interview Summary Statement Academic Failure in previous class that day Difficult tasks, any word problems & most math operations Work refusal, doodling, not follow directives, yells at teacher, disruptive Avoid math task, doodling, work refusal, sent to office ABC Observation Summary Statement Negative relationship w/ teacher??? Teacher confrontation Work refusal, doodling, yells at teacher, disruptive Avoid teacher confrontation, avoid math task, to office Final Summary of Behavior (move to Behavior Plan) Negative relationship w/ teacher & previous academic failure Math task Avoid math task & teacher confrontation

39 Examination of Efficacy of Practical FBA
To determine if staff with flexible roles in schools (e.g., counselors, administrators) can be trained to conduct FBA for students with mild to moderate behavior problems (i.e., students with recurring problems that do not involve physical aggression or violent behaviors). To determine the efficacy and acceptability of Practical FBA methods and tools with school personnel.

40 Methods: 3 Phases of the Study
Phase 1- Practical FBA training on FBA tools & methods provided to 12 school professionals. -Pre- & Post-Tests of FBA knowledge Phase of the 12 Trained participants conducted an FBA according to procedures they were taught for one student within their school. -Using Practical FBA tools: interviewed, observed, and hypothesized summary of student behavior. Phase 3- Functional analyses conducted by researcher to test each participant’s hypothesis/summary statement -Experimental manipulations to determine the efficacy of the Practical FBA training .

41 Pre/Post Training FBA Knowledge
Results: Phase 1 Pre/Post Training FBA Knowledge 39% N=12 99% Inter-rater Total Agreement on 25% of tests. Overall Pretest M= 39.50% (SD=18.82%) Overall Posttest M= 92.55% (SD=7.22%)

42 Acceptability Ratings
Results: Phase 2 Acceptability Ratings Strongly Agree Agree Strongly disagree N=10

43 Comparison of Summary Statements Generated from Interviews
Results: Phase 3 Comparison of Summary Statements Generated from Interviews 9 out of 10 of the summary statements hypothesized by the FACTS interviews with teachers were verified by results of experimental functional analysis. The one FACTS summary statement that was not verified by FA actually resulted in further clarification from the direct observation. The school participant decided to use the results from the direct observation which resulted in a function that was verified by experimental functional analysis.

44 Participant 2 Hypothesis: Access Adult Attention
All 10 of the FAs confirmed the Hypothesis Statements

45 Contributions of Study
Use of Basic FBA v. Comprehensive FBA Proactive, Parsimonious, Practical School personnel can conduct “valid” FBAs for students with mild to moderate behavioral problems. Usefulness & acceptability of training/tools Utility of FACTS interview tool, but implications of essential direct observation validation Ideas on how to organize personnel within a school/district to implement best practices

46 How has Practical FBA been used?
Designed to be used by someone well-versed in FBA and behavioral principles (e.g., behavior specialist, school psychologist) to train school personnel. Springfield Public Schools trained instructional assistants, teachers, principals, vice principals, counselors, and specialists from elementary, middle, and high schools (over 40 in attendance). Rural Virginia K-8 School District (20 teachers and staff) Also being used in Australia, and Canada ….soon in Saudi Arabia??

47 Different Formats Used
Middle and High School Administrators and Counselors 4 sessions, 1.5 hours, 2 weeks apart K-12 educators – general education teachers, special education teachers, title reading teachers, classified employees 5 sessions, 2 hours, 2 weeks apart Elementary teams – principals, counselors, school psychologists, special education teachers 3 sessions, 1 half day followed by 2 sessions, 1. 5 hours, 1 week apart

48 Beyond Training to Professional Development
Teacher self nominations FBA support Walked through DASH assessment procedures Provide feedback on data assessment 1-3 hours of direct coaching

49 Teacher Evaluation of the Process
“…it really helped me to understand behavior and how to see things from a functional perspective” “Truly great professional development opportunity that changed the way I look at behaviors”

50 From Practical FBA to Practical Training on Function-based Interventions
The most important purpose of conducting FBA is to inform the development of Behavior Support Plans that directly address the FUNCTION of student behavior

51 FBA-BSP in Schools: How are we doing?
Growing body of research showing that FBA can be effectively conducted by typical school personnel (Crone, Hawken, & Bergstrom, 2007; Dukes, Rosenberg, & Brady, 2007; Loman, 2010; Maag & Larson, 2004; Renshaw et al., 2008; Scott, Nelson, & Zabala, 2003) However… Schools continue to struggle to utilize FBA information to build BSPs (Blood & Neel, 2007; Cook et al., 2007; Scott & Kamps, 2007; Scott, Liaupsin, Nelson, & McIntyre, 2005; Van Acker, Boreson, Gable, & Potterton, 2005) Plans the lack critical features and that even worse contain contraindicated strategies

52 Traditional BSP Development
Traditionally the role has been the responsibility of one individual with extensive knowledge of developing and implementing function-based interventions Lack of trained school-based personnel common concern (Borgmeier & Horner, 2006; Ducharme & Schecter, 2011; Hawken, Vincent, Schumann, 2008) Lack of contextual fit (Benazzi, Horner, & Good, 2006) Schools continue to rely on punitive consequences to for dealing with problem behavior (Cook et al., 2007; Ducharme & Schecter, 2011) Talk a bit about Benazzi study… members with knowledge of the student/school needed to produce BSPs with contextual fit

53 A Proactive Approach to Behavior Support Planning
Majority of problem behaviors that teams encounter do not require comprehensive FBA-BSP (Loman & Horner, in press) Using simplified FBA-BSP procedures that “match” the level and intensity of problem behavior Provide FBS at the first signs of persistent problem behavior Alternative that researchers have suggested , using Function based support proactively

54 Practical FBA Basic FBA: Complex FBA:
(Loman, S. & Borgmeier, C., 2010) Basic FBA: Behaviors and Maintaining Functions are Easily Defined and Identified Complex FBA: Behaviors and Maintaining Functions Vary, and are not Easily Defined and/or Identified

55 From “Basic FBA” to BSP:
Training Curriculum


57 Screening and Assessment

58 From “Practical FBA” to BSP Training Series
Intended for training school-based professionals who: Have an understanding of basic behavioral theory Have some training related to and experience with the FBA process Have the role/responsibility of leading team-based behavior support planning To give team leaders the skills that they need to develop plans that are both technically adequate and contextually relevant

59 Assessing Knowledge of Behavioral Theory
10 item pre-test Assessed ability to: Operationally define behavior Define reinforcement, extinction, response class, ect. Identify antecedents, consequences, and behavioral function Average score: 98.6% (range: ) All participants had previous training related to FBA

60 Assessing Knowledge of BSP Development
50 item pretest (Versions A & B) Assessed ability to: List the critical features of behavior support plans Identify missing or incorrect items on sample plan Discriminate between Function-Based, Neutral, and Contraindicated strategies

61 Average Score: 61% (Range: 43% – 69%)
In science, when asked to work with a partner or small group Jacob (6th grade) makes inappropriate comments, pushes materials off his desk and refuses to do his work. This is most likely on days when an altercation with a peer has occurred prior to science. Based on the data collected, the team agreed that the function of Jacob’s behavior is to avoid working with peers. Function-Based (FB)? Neutral (N)? or Contraindicated (C)? 1. ____ Teach student to appropriately request a break from working with his partner(s). 2. ____ When problem behavior occurs, allow student to work alone. 3. ____ Develop a behavior contract with the student specifying that if he works successfully with peers for a specified part of lab time, he can spend the remainder of class time working independently. 4. ____ Review class rules about respectful interactions with peers at the beginning of class. 5. ____ When problem behavior occurs, send student to resource classroom to the complete activity. 6. ____ When presenting assignments on days when Jacob has had a previous peer altercation, provide a choice of working either individually or with a peer partner. 7. ____ Provide tokens that can be exchanged for items at the school store when student engages in appropriate peer interactions. 8. ____ Provide pull-out social skills training 2 times per week for 20 minutes. FB C FB Average Score: 61% (Range: 43% – 69%) N C FB N N

62 Planning Instruction

63 Defining “What” to Teach
Focus on Performance Expectations What do we want learners to be able to DO? Concepts, principles, rules, strategies, or heuristics that facilitate the most efficient and broadest acquisition of knowledge Teach “Big Ideas” Focus on essential elements, not details

64 4 One-Hour Training Sessions
Session #1: Using FBA data to identify alternative and desired behavior Session #2: Identifying and selecting function-based prevention, teaching, and consequence strategies Session #3: Contextual fit, implementation and evaluation planning Session #4: Leading a BSP team

65 How to Teach Desired Skills
Critical Features of Instructional Design (Engleman & Carnine, 1991; Gilbert, 1978; Kame’enui, Carnine, Dixon, & Burns, 2007; Markle, 1969; Sidman & Stoddard, 1966) Primed Background Knowledge Explicitly tying knowledge that the learner brings to new information Conspicuous Strategies Teacher behavior that make instructional delivery and problem solving strategies explicit (e.g., advanced organizers, guided notes, highlighted text, verbalizing covert behavior) We already talked about “Big Ideas” as related to “what to teach”

66 Critical Features of Instructional Design, cont’d
Mediated Scaffolding Reduces the task complexity by structuring it into manageable chunks to increase successful task completion Gradual and planful removal of supports as learner becomes successful Judicious Review Distributed, cumulative, varied Strategic Integration Curriculum design that offers the learner an opportunity to successfully integrate several big ideas Can help students learn when to use specific knowledge beyond classroom application

67 Format for Training Sessions
Each of the 4 training sessions includes the following elements: Objectives: Content and skills participants will learn during the session Review: A review of terms and concepts (short answer, choral responding) Activities: Practice opportunities to better understand content and develop skills Checks for Understanding: Activities to check for understanding or identify points that need to be discussed or practiced further (*submitted to trainer at the end of each session) Like the Practical FBA training series, each of the sessions in this series contains: Obj: describing specific content and skills professionals will learn during the sessions Rev: Session 1: behavioral terms and concepts Subsequent sessions will begin with review from previous sessions

68 Example Training Slides
As part of your handouts is a more detailed description of the content that will be included in each session

69 Objectives for Session #1: Identifying Alternative and Desired Behaviors
By the end of this training session Team Leaders will be able to: Explain the difference between ‘mild to moderate’ and ‘severe/complex’ problem behaviors 2. Label the essential components of an FBA summary statement 3. Describe the three essential characteristics of alternative behavior 4. Identify examples and non-examples of appropriate alternative behaviors given sample scenarios 5. Construct an example summary statement including antecedents, behavior, consequence, and function, and provide examples of appropriate and inappropriate alternative behaviors

70 From FBA to BSP The most important purpose of conducting FBA is to inform the development of comprehensive Behavior Support Plans that directly address the FUNCTION of student behavior Start with FBA results, specifically the Summary Statement 70 70

71 Essential Components of FBA Summary Statements
The summary statement should include an observable description of: Targeted Routine Any identified Setting events / “Set-ups” Antecedents / “triggers” for problem behavior Operationally defined Problem Behavior Consequences that follow the problem behavior Primary Function of problem Behavior Multiple Functions = Multiple Summary Statements

72 Example Summary Statement for Ben’s Behavior
In Social Studies, when asked to read independently, Ben (a strong reader) often gets out of his seat, walks around the room, and jokes with peers. Ben’s peers laugh and talk to him as he walks by. This behavior is most likely to happen on days when Ben’s parents bring him to school (i.e., he doesn’t ride the bus with friends). Routine: Social Studies Setting event Antecedent Behavior Consequence Ben brought to school by parents Out of seat, walks around room, jokes with peers Peers laugh and talk to Ben Asked to read independently Function: Access peer attention 72

73 Activity 1 (page 10) Summary Statement for Jason’s Behavior:
When Jason is asked to outline a book chapter in Language Arts, he often argues, refuses to work and uses profanity which results in being sent to the office for ‘disrespect’. This behavior is more likely if Jason has an altercation with a peer on the bus on the way to school. (page 10) Routine: Language Arts Setting event Antecedent Behavior Consequence Arguing with teacher, refusing to work, profanity Peer altercation on bus on the way to school Teacher sends her to the office Function: ESCAPE TASK Asked to outline chapter 73

74 Sarah forgets to take medication Out of seat, faces at peers
Activity 2 What is wrong with / missing from this summary statement? Sarah often leaves her seat without permission, walks around the room and makes faces at peers. Sarah’s peers laugh or tell her to stop. This behavior is more likely if she has forgotten to take her medication before school. The function of Sarah’s behavior is to gain access to teacher attention and to escape tasks. Routine: _____________ Setting event Antecedent Behavior Consequence Attention from Peers Function: Adult Attention Escape from Tasks Sarah forgets to take medication Out of seat, faces at peers

75 Critical Components of Behavior Support Plans
#1: Complete Competing Behavior Pathway #2: Function-Based Preventive, Teaching, and Consequence Strategies #3: Implementation Plan #4: Evaluation Plan

76 Selecting the Alternative Behavior

77 Developing a Competing Behavior Pathway
Summary Statement: We already have this!!! Desired Behavior Natural Consequence Targeted Routine Setting Event Antecedent Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequence Alternative Behavior 77 77

78 This is what we want… But… start with the Alternative Behavior.
Desired Behavior Natural Consequence Targeted Routine Setting Event Antecedent Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequence Alternative Behavior But… start with the Alternative Behavior. 78 78

79 Why the Alternative Behavior?
3. Look how different this is from what’s happening now Why not go straight to the Desired Behavior? 4. The student is going to need to gain writing skills before being able to do this like peers 1. This is what we’re asking the student to do. Nadia Success, teacher acknowledgment Complete writing task Routine: Language Arts None Identified Asked to complete Independent writing tasks Crying, pushing papers off desk Sent to hall to ‘calm down’ Function: escape task Raise hand & ask for break 2. This is what the student wants now. 5. So… in the meantime we use the alternate behavior 79 79

80 Three Essential Characteristics of Alternative Behavior
Serves the same function as the problem behavior (reliably results in the same type of consequences as the problem behavior) Is easier to do than the problem behavior Requires less (or at least no more) physical effort than the problem behavior Is socially acceptable 80 80

81 Identifying Appropriate Alternative Behavior
When Pam is asked to work on long-division problems in math class, she argues, refuses to work, and uses profanity in order to avoid/escape the difficult task. 1. Serve same Function? Does it provide escape? Which is the best alternative behavior? Move to sit by another student Request adult attention Request an easier task/worksheet Ask if she can play on the computer instead Ask for a reward for completing the task 2. Is Behavior easier to do than problem behavior? 3. Is Behavior socially acceptable?

82 Identifying Appropriate Alternative Behavior
During independent reading time in language arts, Audrey makes noises, talks out, and walks around the room. The FBA has shown that this behavior is maintained by adult attention. Which is the best alternative behavior? Why/Why Not? Ask to sit at the teachers desk during reading Raise hand and ask for a break Request help/adult attention Ask for a reward for completing the task Request an easier task 1. Serve same Function? 2. Is it Easier? 3. Is it Socially Acceptable?

83 Activity 3 (page 12) Complete the next one on your own.
Please write ‘yes’ or ‘no’ for each option AND explain why or why not?

84 Identifying Appropriate Alternative Behavior
During independent seatwork, Ronnie makes inappropriate noises and makes faces at peers. Based on the data collected, the team agreed that the function of Ronnie’s behavior is to obtain peer attention. Which is the best alternative behavior? Ask the teacher for help Finish all work, then ask to talk to a peer Request help/adult attention Ask to work with a peer tutor Request an easier assignment

85 Evaluating Response to Instruction
As part of your handouts is a more detailed description of the content that will be included in each session

86 Evaluating Response to Instruction
On-going Formative Evaluation Utilize multiple response formats throughout Written responses Circle correct answer / Fill in the blank / short answer Choral responding Think, pair, share Culminating activities – used to adjust teaching

87 Checks for Understanding
Session #1 Checks for Understanding (Page 13 in Workbook)

88 Check #1 Critical Components of Behavior Support Plans
#1: ______________________________ ____________________ #2: Function-Based Behavior Support Strategies #3: Implementation Plan #4: Evaluation Plan

89 Check #2 List the three essential characteristics of alternative behavior: 1. _______________________________ 2. _______________________________ 3. _______________________________

90 Check #3 Write an example summary statement. Include the problem behavior, context/ routine, antecedents, maintaining consequence, and hypothesized function (use boxes provided). Based on your example, what would be: An suggested alternative behavior A alternative behavior that would not be likely to be effective

91 Identifying Function-Based Strategies
Session #2 Identifying Function-Based Strategies As part of your handouts is a more detailed description of the content that will be included in each session

92 Identifying Behavior Support Strategies
Setting Event Strategies Antecedent Teaching Strategies Consequences Strategies Eliminate or Neutralize Setting Events Prevent/Modify “Triggers”/ Prompts for Alt/Des Teach Alternate / Desired Behavior Reinforce Alt/Des Behavior Response to Problem Behavior/ Team identifies a range of strategies/ interventions to address: Prevention Teaching Consequences We consider the FUNCTION of the problem behavior when selecting these strategies.

93 Checks for Understanding
Session #2 Checks for Understanding (Page 26 in Workbook)

94 Manipulate Antecedent
Desired Behavior Complete writing assignment and turn in work Consequence Good grades, teacher acknowledgement Routine 1st Period Writing Setting Event Parent brings to school (does not interact with peers on bus) Antecedent Asked to finish homework or write in his journal independently Problem Behavior Out of seat (walking around room), making noises, and talking to peers Consequence/Function Access Peer Attention Peers laugh and talk with him, and talk about it after class Alternative Behavior Ask to work with a peer Setting Events Manipulate Antecedent Teach Behavior Alter Consequences Arrange time for positive adult attention before writing on days when student is brought by parent Remind student before independent-work time that he may choose to work quietly with a peer Allow student to sit with preferred peer in 1st period writing Teach student to appropriately ask to work with a peer Explicitly teach what “on-task” behavior looks like (and does not look like) in writing class Rewards Student can work with peer when asks appropriately Student can earn 5 minutes of free time with a peer, if stays on task for 90% of period for 5 consecutive days Response to Problem When student starts to get out of seat/engage in problem behavior, remind him to ask appropriately to work with a peer

95 Response to Instruction, cont’d
Summative Evaluation Final activity – given scenario and FBA summary statement, lead team in BSP development Posttest data Application in real settings (Woo Hoo!!!)

96 The Study

97 Purpose To assess if a four-part training series was sufficient to allow individuals with basic behavioral knowledge to master the skills needed to guide a school teams in using “Practical FBA” information to build formal behavior support plans that are: (a) Technically adequate (b) Contextually relevant (c) Effective in changing student behavior 97

98 Design by Phase Phase 1: From “Practical FBA” to BSP training series – 13 BSP Team Leaders Assess change in knowledge (descriptive) Phase 2: Six team leaders guided behavior support teams in development of BSP for 1 student BSPs assessed for technical adequacy and contextual fit (descriptive) Phase 3: Student BSPs implemented Direct observation data to assess: Impact on student behavior Fidelity of Implementation (experimental)

99 Results

100 Pre/Post-Test Results: Assessment of BSP Knowledge
Participant Pre Test Post Test Percent Change 1 63% (A) 96% (B) +33% 2 67% (A) 84% (B) +17% 3 69% (A) 94% (B) +25% 4 65% (A) 86% (B) +21% 5 60% (A) 88% (B) +28% 6 90% (B) +27% 7 43% (A) 82% (B) +39% 8 61% (B) 92% (A) +31% 9 63% (B) 82% (A) +19% 10 45% (B) 80% (A) +35% 11 67% (B) 90% (A) +23% 12 86% (A) 13 80% (B) 94% (A) +14% Mean 62% 88% +26%

101 Baseline Intervention % 10 sec intervals Non-concurrent: series are not linked in time, does control for amount of time spent in the baseline condition but does not control for other threats to internal validity associated with time. B/c plan development and start dates fell within the natural timeframe of the district. (We were able to take advantage of the natural order of things (so to speak) and did a bit of negotiating for staggered length of baseline and amount of time spent in intervention phase Fidelity of implementation – important to note that we cannot account for the level of implementation fidelity that took place when we were not present. Sessions

102 Baseline Intervention % 10 sec intervals All plans contained interventions that were directly related to the function of the individual student’s PB, also all BSPs met same technical adequacy criteria. Sessions

103 “Work Smarter NOT Harder…” By using the 4 “P”s
Proactively build capacity- Train 1-2 school personnel in each school with a “flexible” role to conduct FBA/BSPs for students with mild/moderate problem behaviors Parsimonious tools- Use simple tools and terminology that are relatable to school personnel Practical Trainings- Provide short training sessions that teach “less more thoroughly” based on established instructional practices Prioritized follow-up- Through use of quick in-training assessments to determine those participants that will require more follow-up coaching

104 Thank You for Attending!
More information please OR

105 Where are you in implementation process
Where are you in implementation process? Adapted from Fixsen & Blase, 2005 We think we know what we need so we are planning to move forward (evidence-based) Exploration & Adoption Let’s make sure we’re ready to implement (capacity infrastructure) Installation Let’s give it a try & evaluate (demonstration) Initial Implementation That worked, let’s do it for real (investment) Full Implementation Let’s make it our way of doing business (institutionalized use) Sustainability & Continuous Regeneration

106 Maximizing Your Session Participation
Work with your team Consider last 2 questions: What did I learn? What will I do with what I learned?

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