3 FBA is….an empirically supported practice that has been demonstrated to improve both the effectiveness & efficiency of behavioral interventions in schoolsBlair, Umbreit, & Bos, 1999; Carr et al., 1999; Ingram, Lewis-Palmer, & Sugai, 2005; Lee, Sugai, & Horner, 1999; Newcomer & Lewis, 2004.
6 Challenges schools face today are not finding what works, but implementing what works. Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005Since 1997 FBA has not been implemented widely in schools.Not due to lack of knowledge, but to practicality of use
7 Concern Basic Message: Any time you feel overwhelmed the answer is likely to include investing in the training of others.As schools adopt Tier 2 and Tier 3 supports, the behavior specialists in the district are often overwhelmed with requests to conduct functional behavioral assessments and building behavior support plans.
8 District Behavior Support Specialist Train and coach PBIS at all three tiersSupport Teams building behavior support plans from Assessment informationTrain 1-2 people per school to conduct “basic” FBA/BSP
9 Maximizing Your Session Participation Work with your teamConsider first question:Where are we in our implementation?
10 Current Issues and Needs in Your District… Do people already know how to do FBA in your schools?Can a district leader teach FBA/BSP procedures in a reasonable amount of time?Are the basic FBA/BSPs developed by school personnel valid for improving student behavior?Do our school teams understand the CRITICAL FEATURES of function-based interventions ?Do we have materials that are practical and effective for use by district specialists?
11 Maximizing Your Session Participation Work with your teamConsider 2nd question:What do I hope to learn?
12 We hope you will learn to… Identify the research-base for the use of a practical approach to training school personnel to conduct FBA/BSPsIdentify the procedures for school district behavior support specialists to use in training school personnel to conduct practical FBA/BSPsIdentify a process for creating capacity in schools to support the development and implementation of function-based interventions
13 “Scaling Down to Scale up” Scott, Alter, & McQuillan (2010)In order for FBA to be applied in typical classrooms we need to simplify the practices associated with effective FBAIt is essential to use straightforward language, rationale, and examples of how FBA can be applied in the context of classroom
14 “Work Smarter NOT Harder…” By using the 4 “P”s Proactively build capacity- Train 1-2 school personnel in each school with a “flexible” role to conduct FBA/BSPs for students with mild/moderate problem behaviorsParsimonious tools- Use simple tools and terminology that are relatable to school personnelPractical Trainings- Provide short training sessions that teach “less more thoroughly” based on established instructional practicesPrioritized follow-up- Through use of quick in-training assessments to determine those participants that will require more follow-up coaching
16 Training Series4 training sessions on conducting functional behavioral assessments (FBA) for students with mild to moderate behavioral problems in schools.The training series teaches participants to conduct interviews and observations in such a way as to precisely determine the relationship between student problem behavior and the context:What the problem behaviors are.When, Where, & Why a student’s problem behaviors occur.A summary of this information will help an individual student team develop effective behavioral supports that:-prevent problem behaviors from occurring-teach alternative behaviors-& effectively respond when problem behaviors occur.
17 Practical FBA process D.A.S.H. Define behavior in observable & measurable termsAsk about behavior by interviewing staff & student-specify routines where & when behaviors occur-summarize where, when, & why behaviors occurSee the behavior-observe the behavior during routines specified-observe to verify summary from interviewsHypothesize: a final summary of where, when & why behaviors occurSession #1Session #2Session #3Session #4
18 Format of Practical FBA Training Sessions ObjectivesReviewActivitiesChecks for UnderstandingComments/QuestionsTasksKey Points
19 Practical FBA vs Comprehensive FBA Focus of this training seriesPractical FBAComprehensive FBAFor:Students with mild to moderate problem behaviors (behaviors that are NOT dangerous or occurring in many settings)Students with moderate to severe behavioral problems; may be dangerous and/or occurring in many settingsWhat:Relatively simple and efficient process to guide behavior support planningTime-intensive process that also involves archival records review, family-centered planning, and collaboration with agencies outside of schoolConducted by whom:School-based personnel (e.g., teachers, counselors, administrators)Professionals trained to conduct functional assessments with students with severe problem behaviors (e.g., school psychologists, behavior specialists)
20 Session #1: Defining & Understanding Behavior Overview of the Practical FBA training series and introduces concepts, examples, and practice opportunities for participants to learn how to:(a) Define behavior (WHAT),(b) Identify events that predict WHEN & WHERE the specific behavior occurs(c) Identify the function of behavior (WHY), and(d) Construct functional behavioral summary statementsTASK: Find someone at their site whom they may conduct a practice interview with next week.
21 Always start with the Behavior 1- Once you have defined the behaviors (the What) 2- & know the Where & When the behaviors occur #2 (Routine & Antecedents) 3- Then want to find out WHY (the outCome of the behavior…what happens right afterwards)2Antecedent/Trigger:When _____ happens….1Behavior:the student does (what)__3Consequence/OutCome..because (why) ______
22 Rules for Defining Behavior Definitions of behaviors need to be:Observable: The behavior is an action that can be seen.Measurable: The behavior can be counted or timed.Defined so clearly that a person unfamiliar with the student could recognize the behavior without any doubts!
23 Functions that behaviors serve What is the pay-off of the problem behavior?
24 Create a Hypothesis Statement for Johnny’s Behavior After interviewing Mr. Smith and conducting several observations of Johnny in the third grade classroom, the team determined that during less structured class time (free time, cooperative group art projects, etc.), Johnny tears up his paper and stomps his feet. After Johnny engages in this behavior his peers laugh at him.Routine: During __(some routine e.g.: _______________Third grade classroomConsequence/OutCome:“Because..”Peers laugh at himTherefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoidPeer AttentionAntecedent/Trigger:“When ..”Behavior:“Student does..”Less structured class timeTears up paper & stomps feet
25 Session #2: Investigating Behavior Review content from the first sessionInstruction, modeling, and practice opportunities in conducting FACTS interviews with staff and students(modified from Borgmeier, 2005)Practice constructing behavioral summary statements from each interview.TASK: Complete a practice FACTS interview with a staff member at school site.
26 Hypothesis/Summary Statement 4 terms ofHypothesis/Summary StatementSetting Events/“Set ups”Antecedent/TriggerProblemBehaviorConsequence/OutcomeInfrequent events that affect value of outcomeFollowing events that maintain behaviors of concernPreceding events that triggerObservable behaviors of concern
28 Select #1 Ranked Answers to Insert into Summary Have Teacher Rate the Statement
29 Follow-upMake sure to ask follow-up questions in the right column of Antecedents & Consequences sectionANTECEDENT(s): Rank Order the strongest triggers/predictors of problem behavior in the routine above. Then ask corresponding follow-up question(s) to get a detailed understanding of triggers ranked #1 & 2.Environmental Features (Rank order strongest 2)Follow Up Questions – Get as Specific as possible1 X a. task too hard ___ g. large group instruction___ b. task too easy ___ h. small group work_X_ c. bored w/ task ___ i. unstructured time_X_ d. task too long ___ j. transitions___ e. physical demand 2_X k. independent work3_X f. correction/reprimand ___ l. with peers___ m. Other, describe _____________________________________________________________If a,b,c,d or e - describe task/demand in detail __writing sentences, paragraphs, letters, journals, etc. student cannot write because they don’t know how to read or spell fluently______________________If f - describe purpose of correction, voice tone, volume etc. _________________________________________________If g, h, I, j or k - describe setting/activity/content in detail ____Independent work involving writing or reading; works better in small groups if he doesn’t have to read or write_____________________________________________________________If l – what peers?
30 Session #3: Observing & Summarizing Behavior Review content from previous training sessions & practice interviews from week beforeInstruction & practice opportunities (using videos) for participants to conduct ABC observations of students within routines identified as settings in which the problem behavior occurs most frequently (based upon the staff FACTS interviews).Participants practice constructing summary statements based upon data from their observations to verify or modify summary statements derived from their FACTS interviews.TASK: Complete a practice ABC observation at school site.
31 Videos used in training available from Sopris West: Scott, T. M., Liaupsin, C., & Nelson, C. M. (2005). Team-based Functional Assessment and Intervention Planning: A Simplified Teaming Process. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
34 Practical FBA ABC FAQ:“How many times should I observe the student in the routine?”Observe until you are convinced (about 5 to 10 occurrences of behavior OR 3 to 1 ratio verifying FACTS summary).You may have to go in on more than one day or period….but make sure you are going during identified routine.Need to be convinced your observation data are accurately representing situation
35 Session #4: Function-based Behavior Support Planning Review of concepts, skills from first three sessionsReview practice ABC observations & summarizing resultsProvide opportunities for participants to practice the skills that they have learned in conducting interviews, observations, and constructing behavioral summary statementsIntroduce the Competing Behavior Pathway and ideas for helping individual student support teams in designing function-based behavioral supports.
37 Neutralize/eliminatesettingeventsAdd relevant& removeirrelevanttriggersTeachalternativethat is moreefficientAdd effective && removeineffectivereinforcers
38 Summary of Behavior - Shane Setting EventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceTeacher/Staff Interview Summary StatementAcademic Failure in previous class that dayDifficult tasks, any word problems & most math operationsWork refusal, doodling, not follow directives, yells at teacher, disruptiveAvoid math task, doodling, work refusal, sent to officeABC Observation Summary StatementNegative relationship w/ teacher???Teacher confrontationWork refusal, doodling, yells at teacher, disruptiveAvoid teacher confrontation, avoid math task, to officeFinal Summary of Behavior (move to Behavior Plan)Negative relationship w/ teacher & previous academic failureMath taskAvoid math task & teacher confrontation
39 Examination of Efficacy of Practical FBA To determine if staff with flexible roles in schools (e.g., counselors, administrators) can be trained to conduct FBA for students with mild to moderate behavior problems (i.e., students with recurring problems that do not involve physical aggression or violent behaviors).To determine the efficacy and acceptability of Practical FBA methods and tools with school personnel.
40 Methods: 3 Phases of the Study Phase 1- Practical FBA training on FBA tools & methods provided to 12 school professionals. -Pre- & Post-Tests of FBA knowledge Phase of the 12 Trained participants conducted an FBA according to procedures they were taught for one student within their school. -Using Practical FBA tools: interviewed, observed, and hypothesized summary of student behavior. Phase 3- Functional analyses conducted by researcher to test each participant’s hypothesis/summary statement -Experimental manipulations to determine the efficacy of the Practical FBA training .
41 Pre/Post Training FBA Knowledge Results: Phase 1Pre/Post Training FBA Knowledge39%N=1299% Inter-rater Total Agreement on 25% of tests.Overall Pretest M= 39.50% (SD=18.82%)Overall Posttest M= 92.55% (SD=7.22%)
43 Comparison of Summary Statements Generated from Interviews Results: Phase 3Comparison of Summary Statements Generated from Interviews9 out of 10 of the summary statements hypothesized by the FACTS interviews with teachers were verified by results of experimental functional analysis.The one FACTS summary statement that was not verified by FA actually resulted in further clarification from the direct observation.The school participant decided to use the results from the direct observation which resulted in a function that was verified by experimental functional analysis.
44 Participant 2 Hypothesis: Access Adult Attention All 10 of the FAs confirmed the Hypothesis Statements
45 Contributions of Study Use of Basic FBA v. Comprehensive FBAProactive, Parsimonious, PracticalSchool personnel can conduct “valid” FBAs for students with mild to moderate behavioral problems.Usefulness & acceptability of training/toolsUtility of FACTS interview tool, but implications of essential direct observation validationIdeas on how to organize personnel within a school/district to implement best practices
46 How has Practical FBA been used? Designed to be used by someone well-versed in FBA and behavioral principles (e.g., behavior specialist, school psychologist) to train school personnel.Springfield Public Schools trained instructional assistants, teachers, principals, vice principals, counselors, and specialists from elementary, middle, and high schools (over 40 in attendance).Rural Virginia K-8 School District (20 teachers and staff)Also being used in Australia, and Canada….soon in Saudi Arabia??
47 Different Formats Used Middle and High School Administrators and Counselors4 sessions, 1.5 hours, 2 weeks apartK-12 educators – general education teachers, special education teachers, title reading teachers, classified employees5 sessions, 2 hours, 2 weeks apartElementary teams – principals, counselors, school psychologists, special education teachers3 sessions, 1 half day followed by 2 sessions, 1. 5 hours, 1 week apart
48 Beyond Training to Professional Development Teacher self nominationsFBA supportWalked through DASH assessment proceduresProvide feedback on data assessment1-3 hours of direct coaching
49 Teacher Evaluation of the Process “…it really helped me to understand behavior and how to see things from a functional perspective”“Truly great professional development opportunity that changed the way I look at behaviors”
50 From Practical FBA to Practical Training on Function-based Interventions The most important purpose of conducting FBA is to inform the development of Behavior Support Plans that directly address the FUNCTION of student behavior
51 FBA-BSP in Schools: How are we doing? Growing body of research showing that FBA can be effectively conducted by typical school personnel(Crone, Hawken, & Bergstrom, 2007; Dukes, Rosenberg, & Brady, 2007; Loman, 2010; Maag & Larson, 2004; Renshaw et al., 2008; Scott, Nelson, & Zabala, 2003)However…Schools continue to struggle to utilize FBA information to build BSPs(Blood & Neel, 2007; Cook et al., 2007; Scott & Kamps, 2007; Scott, Liaupsin, Nelson, & McIntyre, 2005; Van Acker, Boreson, Gable, & Potterton, 2005)Plans the lack critical features and that even worse contain contraindicated strategies
52 Traditional BSP Development Traditionally the role has been the responsibility of one individual with extensive knowledge of developing and implementing function-based interventionsLack of trained school-based personnel common concern (Borgmeier & Horner, 2006; Ducharme & Schecter, 2011; Hawken, Vincent, Schumann, 2008)Lack of contextual fit (Benazzi, Horner, & Good, 2006)Schools continue to rely on punitive consequences to for dealing with problem behavior (Cook et al., 2007; Ducharme & Schecter, 2011)Talk a bit about Benazzi study… members with knowledge of the student/school needed to produce BSPs with contextual fit
53 A Proactive Approach to Behavior Support Planning Majority of problem behaviors that teams encounter do not require comprehensive FBA-BSP (Loman & Horner, in press)Using simplified FBA-BSP procedures that “match” the level and intensity of problem behaviorProvide FBS at the first signs of persistent problem behaviorAlternative that researchers have suggested , using Function based support proactively
54 Practical FBA Basic FBA: Complex FBA: (Loman, S. & Borgmeier, C., 2010)Basic FBA:Behaviors and Maintaining Functions are Easily Defined and IdentifiedComplex FBA:Behaviors and Maintaining Functions Vary, and are not Easily Defined and/or Identified
58 From “Practical FBA” to BSP Training Series Intended for training school-based professionals who:Have an understanding of basic behavioral theoryHave some training related to and experience with the FBA processHave the role/responsibility of leading team-based behavior support planningTo give team leaders the skills that they need to develop plans that are both technically adequate and contextually relevant
59 Assessing Knowledge of Behavioral Theory 10 item pre-testAssessed ability to:Operationally define behaviorDefine reinforcement, extinction, response class, ect.Identify antecedents, consequences, and behavioral functionAverage score: 98.6% (range: )All participants had previous training related to FBA
60 Assessing Knowledge of BSP Development 50 item pretest (Versions A & B)Assessed ability to:List the critical features of behavior support plansIdentify missing or incorrect items on sample planDiscriminate between Function-Based, Neutral, and Contraindicated strategies
61 Average Score: 61% (Range: 43% – 69%) In science, when asked to work with a partner or small group Jacob (6th grade) makes inappropriate comments, pushes materials off his desk and refuses to do his work. This is most likely on days when an altercation with a peer has occurred prior to science. Based on the data collected, the team agreed that the function of Jacob’s behavior is to avoid working with peers.Function-Based (FB)? Neutral (N)? or Contraindicated (C)?1. ____ Teach student to appropriately request a break from working with his partner(s).2. ____ When problem behavior occurs, allow student to work alone.3. ____ Develop a behavior contract with the student specifying that if he works successfully with peers for a specified part of lab time, he can spend the remainder of class time working independently.4. ____ Review class rules about respectful interactions with peers at the beginning of class.5. ____ When problem behavior occurs, send student to resource classroom to the complete activity.6. ____ When presenting assignments on days when Jacob has had a previous peer altercation, provide a choice of working either individually or with a peer partner.7. ____ Provide tokens that can be exchanged for items at the school store when student engages in appropriate peer interactions.8. ____ Provide pull-out social skills training 2 times per week for 20 minutes.FBCFBAverage Score: 61% (Range: 43% – 69%)NCFBNN
63 Defining “What” to Teach Focus on Performance ExpectationsWhat do we want learners to be able to DO?Concepts, principles, rules, strategies, or heuristics that facilitate the most efficient and broadest acquisition of knowledgeTeach “Big Ideas”Focus on essential elements, not details
64 4 One-Hour Training Sessions Session #1: Using FBA data to identify alternative and desired behaviorSession #2: Identifying and selecting function-based prevention, teaching, and consequence strategiesSession #3: Contextual fit, implementation and evaluation planningSession #4: Leading a BSP team
65 How to Teach Desired Skills Critical Features of Instructional Design(Engleman & Carnine, 1991; Gilbert, 1978; Kame’enui, Carnine, Dixon, &Burns, 2007; Markle, 1969; Sidman & Stoddard, 1966)Primed Background KnowledgeExplicitly tying knowledge that the learner brings to new informationConspicuous StrategiesTeacher behavior that make instructional delivery and problem solving strategies explicit (e.g., advanced organizers, guided notes, highlighted text, verbalizing covert behavior)We already talked about “Big Ideas” as related to “what to teach”
66 Critical Features of Instructional Design, cont’d Mediated ScaffoldingReduces the task complexity by structuring it into manageable chunks to increase successful task completionGradual and planful removal of supports as learner becomes successfulJudicious ReviewDistributed, cumulative, variedStrategic IntegrationCurriculum design that offers the learner an opportunity to successfully integrate several big ideasCan help students learn when to use specific knowledge beyond classroom application
67 Format for Training Sessions Each of the 4 training sessions includes the following elements:Objectives: Content and skills participants will learn during the sessionReview: A review of terms and concepts (short answer, choral responding)Activities: Practice opportunities to better understand content and develop skillsChecks for Understanding: Activities to check for understanding or identify points that need to be discussed or practiced further (*submitted to trainer at the end of each session)Like the Practical FBA training series, each of the sessions in this series contains:Obj: describing specific content and skills professionals will learn during the sessionsRev: Session 1: behavioral terms and concepts Subsequent sessions will begin with review from previous sessions
68 Example Training Slides As part of your handouts is a more detailed description of the content that will be included in each session
69 Objectives for Session #1: Identifying Alternative and Desired Behaviors By the end of this training session Team Leaders will be able to:Explain the difference between ‘mild to moderate’ and ‘severe/complex’ problem behaviors2. Label the essential components of an FBA summary statement3. Describe the three essential characteristics of alternative behavior4. Identify examples and non-examples of appropriate alternative behaviors given sample scenarios5. Construct an example summary statement including antecedents, behavior, consequence, and function, and provide examples of appropriate and inappropriate alternative behaviors
70 From FBA to BSPThe most important purpose of conducting FBA is to inform the development of comprehensive Behavior Support Plans that directly address the FUNCTION of student behaviorStart with FBA results, specifically theSummary Statement7070
71 Essential Components of FBA Summary Statements The summary statement should include an observable description of:Targeted RoutineAny identified Setting events / “Set-ups”Antecedents / “triggers” for problem behaviorOperationally defined Problem BehaviorConsequences that follow the problem behaviorPrimary Function of problem BehaviorMultiple Functions = Multiple Summary Statements
72 Example Summary Statement for Ben’s Behavior In Social Studies, when asked to read independently, Ben (a strong reader) often gets out of his seat, walks around the room, and jokes with peers. Ben’s peers laugh and talk to him as he walks by. This behavior is most likely to happen on days when Ben’s parents bring him to school (i.e., he doesn’t ride the bus with friends).Routine:Social StudiesSetting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceBen brought to school by parentsOut of seat, walks around room, jokes with peersPeers laugh and talk to BenAsked to read independentlyFunction:Access peer attention72
73 Activity 1 (page 10) Summary Statement for Jason’s Behavior: When Jason is asked to outline a book chapter in Language Arts, he often argues, refuses to work and uses profanity which results in being sent to the office for ‘disrespect’. This behavior is more likely if Jason has an altercation with a peer on the bus on the way to school.(page 10)Routine:Language ArtsSetting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceArguing with teacher, refusing to work, profanityPeer altercation on bus on the way to schoolTeacher sends herto the officeFunction:ESCAPE TASKAsked to outline chapter73
74 Sarah forgets to take medication Out of seat, faces at peers Activity 2What is wrong with / missing from this summary statement?Sarah often leaves her seat without permission, walks around the room and makes faces at peers. Sarah’s peers laugh or tell her to stop. This behavior is more likely if she has forgotten to take her medication before school. The function of Sarah’s behavior is to gain access to teacher attention and to escape tasks.Routine: _____________Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceAttention from PeersFunction:Adult AttentionEscape from TasksSarah forgets to take medicationOut of seat, faces at peers
75 Critical Components of Behavior Support Plans #1: Complete Competing Behavior Pathway#2: Function-Based Preventive, Teaching, and Consequence Strategies#3: Implementation Plan#4: Evaluation Plan
77 Developing a Competing Behavior Pathway Summary Statement: We already have this!!!Desired BehaviorNatural ConsequenceTargeted RoutineSetting EventAntecedentProblem BehaviorMaintaining ConsequenceAlternative Behavior7777
78 This is what we want… But… start with the Alternative Behavior. Desired BehaviorNatural ConsequenceTargeted RoutineSetting EventAntecedentProblem BehaviorMaintaining ConsequenceAlternative BehaviorBut… start with the Alternative Behavior.7878
79 Why the Alternative Behavior? 3. Look how different this is from what’s happening nowWhy not go straight to the Desired Behavior?4. The student is going to need to gain writing skills before being able to do this like peers1. This is what we’re asking the student to do.NadiaSuccess, teacher acknowledgmentComplete writing taskRoutine: Language ArtsNone IdentifiedAsked to complete Independent writing tasksCrying, pushing papers off deskSent to hall to ‘calm down’ Function: escape taskRaise hand & ask for break2. This is what the student wants now.5. So… in the meantime we use the alternate behavior7979
80 Three Essential Characteristics of Alternative Behavior Serves the same function as the problem behavior (reliably results in the same type of consequences as the problem behavior)Is easier to do than the problem behaviorRequires less (or at least no more) physical effort than the problem behaviorIs socially acceptable8080
81 Identifying Appropriate Alternative Behavior When Pam is asked to work on long-division problems in math class, she argues, refuses to work, and uses profanity in order to avoid/escape the difficult task.1. Serve same Function? Does it provide escape?Which is the best alternative behavior?Move to sit by another studentRequest adult attentionRequest an easier task/worksheetAsk if she can play on the computer insteadAsk for a reward for completing the task2. Is Behavior easier to do than problem behavior?3. Is Behavior socially acceptable?
82 Identifying Appropriate Alternative Behavior During independent reading time in language arts, Audrey makes noises, talks out, and walks around the room. The FBA has shown that this behavior is maintained by adult attention.Which is the best alternative behavior? Why/Why Not?Ask to sit at the teachers desk during readingRaise hand and ask for a breakRequest help/adult attentionAsk for a reward for completing the taskRequest an easier task1. Serve same Function?2. Is it Easier?3. Is it Socially Acceptable?
83 Activity 3 (page 12) Complete the next one on your own. Please write ‘yes’ or ‘no’ for each option AND explain why or why not?
84 Identifying Appropriate Alternative Behavior During independent seatwork, Ronnie makes inappropriate noises and makes faces at peers. Based on the data collected, the team agreed that the function of Ronnie’s behavior is to obtain peer attention.Which is the best alternative behavior?Ask the teacher for helpFinish all work, then ask to talk to a peerRequest help/adult attentionAsk to work with a peer tutorRequest an easier assignment
85 Evaluating Response to Instruction As part of your handouts is a more detailed description of the content that will be included in each session
86 Evaluating Response to Instruction On-going Formative EvaluationUtilize multiple response formats throughoutWritten responsesCircle correct answer / Fill in the blank / short answerChoral respondingThink, pair, shareCulminating activities – used to adjust teaching
87 Checks for Understanding Session #1Checks for Understanding(Page 13 in Workbook)
88 Check #1 Critical Components of Behavior Support Plans #1: __________________________________________________#2: Function-Based Behavior Support Strategies#3: Implementation Plan#4: Evaluation Plan
89 Check #2List the three essential characteristics of alternative behavior:1. _______________________________2. _______________________________3. _______________________________
90 Check #3Write an example summary statement. Include the problem behavior, context/ routine, antecedents, maintaining consequence, and hypothesized function (use boxes provided).Based on your example, what would be:An suggested alternative behaviorA alternative behavior that would not be likely to be effective
91 Identifying Function-Based Strategies Session #2Identifying Function-Based StrategiesAs part of your handouts is a more detailed description of the content that will be included in each session
92 Identifying Behavior Support Strategies SettingEventStrategiesAntecedentTeaching StrategiesConsequences StrategiesEliminate or Neutralize Setting EventsPrevent/Modify“Triggers”/ Promptsfor Alt/DesTeach Alternate / Desired BehaviorReinforce Alt/Des BehaviorResponse to Problem Behavior/Team identifies a range of strategies/ interventions to address:PreventionTeachingConsequencesWe consider the FUNCTION of the problem behavior when selecting these strategies.
93 Checks for Understanding Session #2Checks for Understanding(Page 26 in Workbook)
94 Manipulate Antecedent Desired BehaviorComplete writing assignment and turn in workConsequenceGood grades, teacher acknowledgementRoutine 1st Period WritingSetting EventParent brings to school (does not interact with peers on bus)AntecedentAsked to finish homework or write in his journal independentlyProblem BehaviorOut of seat (walking around room), making noises, and talking to peersConsequence/FunctionAccess Peer AttentionPeers laugh and talk with him, and talk about it after classAlternative BehaviorAsk to work with a peerSetting EventsManipulate AntecedentTeach BehaviorAlter ConsequencesArrange time for positive adult attention before writing on days when student is brought by parentRemind student before independent-work time that he may choose to work quietly with a peerAllow student to sit with preferred peer in 1st period writingTeach student to appropriately ask to work with a peerExplicitly teach what “on-task” behavior looks like (and does not look like) in writing classRewardsStudent can work with peer when asks appropriatelyStudent can earn 5 minutes of free time with a peer, if stays on task for 90% of period for 5 consecutive daysResponse to ProblemWhen student starts to get out of seat/engage in problem behavior, remind him to ask appropriately to work with a peer
95 Response to Instruction, cont’d Summative EvaluationFinal activity – given scenario and FBA summary statement, lead team in BSP developmentPosttest dataApplication in real settings (Woo Hoo!!!)
97 PurposeTo assess if a four-part training series was sufficient to allow individuals with basic behavioral knowledge to master the skills needed to guide a school teams in using “Practical FBA” information to build formal behavior support plans that are:(a) Technically adequate(b) Contextually relevant(c) Effective in changing student behavior97
98 Design by PhasePhase 1: From “Practical FBA” to BSP training series – 13 BSP Team LeadersAssess change in knowledge (descriptive)Phase 2: Six team leaders guided behavior support teams in development of BSP for 1 studentBSPs assessed for technical adequacy and contextual fit (descriptive)Phase 3: Student BSPs implementedDirect observation data to assess:Impact on student behaviorFidelity of Implementation (experimental)
101 BaselineIntervention% 10 sec intervalsNon-concurrent: series are not linked in time, does control for amount of time spent in the baseline condition but does not control for other threats to internal validity associated with time.B/c plan development and start dates fell within the natural timeframe of the district. (We were able to take advantage of the natural order of things (so to speak) and did a bit of negotiating for staggered length of baseline and amount of time spent in intervention phaseFidelity of implementation – important to note that we cannot account for the level of implementation fidelity that took place when we were not present.Sessions
102 BaselineIntervention% 10 sec intervalsAll plans contained interventions that were directly related to the function of the individual student’s PB, also all BSPs met same technical adequacy criteria.Sessions
103 “Work Smarter NOT Harder…” By using the 4 “P”s Proactively build capacity- Train 1-2 school personnel in each school with a “flexible” role to conduct FBA/BSPs for students with mild/moderate problem behaviorsParsimonious tools- Use simple tools and terminology that are relatable to school personnelPractical Trainings- Provide short training sessions that teach “less more thoroughly” based on established instructional practicesPrioritized follow-up- Through use of quick in-training assessments to determine those participants that will require more follow-up coaching
104 Thank You for Attending! More information pleaseOR
105 Where are you in implementation process Where are you in implementation process? Adapted from Fixsen & Blase, 2005We think we know what we need so we are planning to move forward (evidence-based)Exploration & AdoptionLet’s make sure we’re ready to implement (capacity infrastructure)InstallationLet’s give it a try & evaluate (demonstration)Initial ImplementationThat worked, let’s do it for real (investment)Full ImplementationLet’s make it our way of doing business (institutionalized use)Sustainability & Continuous Regeneration
106 Maximizing Your Session Participation Work with your teamConsider last 2 questions:What did I learn?What will I do with what I learned?