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First Step to Success: An Intervention for Young Children with Problem Behavior Barbara Mitchell, Ph.D. MO SWPBS Tier 2/3 Consultant.

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Presentation on theme: "First Step to Success: An Intervention for Young Children with Problem Behavior Barbara Mitchell, Ph.D. MO SWPBS Tier 2/3 Consultant."— Presentation transcript:

1 First Step to Success: An Intervention for Young Children with Problem Behavior Barbara Mitchell, Ph.D. MO SWPBS Tier 2/3 Consultant

2 Outcomes By the end of this session participants will be able to… Explain the need for early intervention Describe components of the First Step to Success program Determine extent to which First Step may be a contextually appropriate intervention for staff and students in your setting. MO SW-PBS

3 Antisocial Behavior Consistent violation of behavioral expectations across a range of settings – Home – School – Neighborhood – Community (Walker et al., 1997) MO SW-PBS

4 Antisocial Behavior Examples include – Physical aggression – Tantrums – Hostile reactions to social initiations from peers – Defiance of adult directions – Vandalism – Disturbing and disrupting others – Pestering & Over-activity (Walker et al., 1997) MO SW-PBS

5 What Do We Know? Children who begin school with antisocial behavior patterns are at great risk for a number of negative long-term outcomes – School failure & dropout – Delinquency – Alcohol and drug use – Adult criminality – Dependence on welfare system – Higher death and injury rates MO SW-PBS

6 Path to Negative Long-Term Outcomes for At-Risk Children & Youth

7 What Do We Know? By grade 4 antisocial behavior should be treated as a chronic condition like diabetes (not cured, but managed) 50% will maintain disorder to adulthood – Life-course persistent antisocial behavior MO SW-PBS

8 What Do We Know? Punishment is not a solution Schools that use punishment alone as a primary tool have increased rates of – Aggression – Vandalism – Truancy – Dropout (Mayer & Sulzer-Azaroff, 1991) MO SW-PBS

9 What Do We Know? Early intervention in school, home and community is best hope for diverting from path of negative outcomes MO SW-PBS

10 Three Levels of Implementation A Continuum of Support for All Tier One All students Preventive, proactiv e Tier One All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Tier Two Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Tier Two Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Tier Three Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Tier Three Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems MO SW-PBS

11 First Step to Success Helping Young Children Overcome Antisocial Behavior Walker, Golly, Severson, Kavanaugh, Stiller, & Feil, 1997 Sopris West

12 First Step Description Early intervention program designed to help children who are at risk for developing aggressive or antisocial behavioral patterns. Teaches students to – get along with teachers and peers – engage in schoolwork in an appropriate manner MO SW-PBS

13 First Step Research Two studies met the IES What Works Clearinghouse evidence standards – Walker et al., 1998 & Walker et al., 2009 Evidence indicates First Step has – Positive effects on externalizing behaviors – Potentially positive effects on internalizing behavior, social outcomes, and academic performance behaviors (e.g., academic engaged time) MO SW-PBS

14 Implementation Guidelines Tier 2 intervention, targets students who already show signs of risk and/or maladaptive behavior – Coach works with one child at a time in a classroom, but in the same fashion for all students who participate Enhanced version for students with intensive needs is being developed MO SW-PBS

15 Implementation Guidelines Appropriate for students PreK – 3 – Preschool Kit – K-3 Kit Role of Coach is critical! – Meant to be a positive support Careful monitoring and follow-up required – Brief booster shots recommended MO SW-PBS

16 First Step Materials Implementation Guide homeBase Coach Guide Timer and stopwatch Overview video Lanyard to attach Green/Red cards Small Green/Red cards to take home Video tape Large Green/Red point cards for CLASS homeBase Parent Handbooks homeBase 3 parent bags homeBase Card Packs – Parent help and activity cards Stickers, markers, pen, paper MO SW-PBS

17 First Step Roles & Responsibilities CoachTeacherParentsStudent - Introduces program - Provides materials - Teaches behavior - Monitors progress - Phones parent - Leads homeBase - Teaches acceptable behavior - Provides encouragement and recognition - Monitors student behavior - Provides encouragement and recognition - Participates in HomeBase meetings - Practices skill building from HomeBase - Agrees to participate - Brings home green/red card - Joins in HomeBase activities MO SW-PBS

18 First Step Components Includes three interconnected modules: – First Step Screening Identifies problems of antisocial behavior – CLASS Contingencies for Learning Academic and Social Skills School intervention – homeBase Home intervention Leverages key social agents – Teacher and peers; Parents/Caregivers; Coach MO SW-PBS

19 Externalizing Behaviors Aggression to others or things Hyperactivity Non-compliance Disruptive Arguing Defiance Stealing Not following directions Calling out Which Children Are At Risk? MO SW-PBS

20 Internalizing Behaviors Exhibits unusual sadness Sleeps a lot Is teased or bullied by peers Does not participate in games Very shy or timid Acts fearful Does not stand up for self Withdrawn Avoids social interactions Which Children Are At Risk? MO SW-PBS

21 Early Detection - Screen Designed to identify children with elevated risk for developing antisocial behavior patterns – Screening options 1.Teacher nominations and rankings 2.Teacher nomination and ranking followed by teacher ratings using a 9-item scale 3.Teacher nomination and rankings; Teacher and parent ratings; and direct observations (Early Screening Project; ESP) MO SW-PBS

22 Nomination & Rank Order - Screen

23 Teacher Rating Scale - Screen

24 School Intervention - CLASS MO SW-PBS

25 School Intervention - CLASS Provided within a regular classroom context Requires a minimum of 30 program days for successful completion – Each program day has performance criterion that must be met before proceeding to next day of program – If criterion isnt met the program day is repeated (recycled) MO SW-PBS

26 General Procedures - CLASS Large green/red card is used to cue student – Green = keep doing what youre doing – Red = stop; think about what you need to do Feedback and points are awarded for specified intervals (stopwatch) – 80% or more of opportunities scored green gets class reward – e.g., 5 min extra recess, popcorn MO SW-PBS


28 General Procedures - CLASS Coach/Teacher contacts home daily to report on student progress Child takes green/red card with recorded score home each night Parent rewards child or provides encouragement for meeting goal the next day; signs card and returns it to school MO SW-PBS

29 Procedures Coach Phase - CLASS CoachTeacherParents Days Implements program with child in classroom -Communicates with parents daily -Completes green/red card; determines if goal is met -Provides verbal praise -Announces incentive to class -Supports delivery of incentive -Supports green/red card going home -Check for green/red card each day -Gives praise and incentive for making daily points -Remains neutral if child doesnt make daily points -Signs card and returns it to school. MO SW-PBS

30 Procedures Teacher Phase - CLASS CoachTeacherParents Days Implements weekly homeBase program; 6 sessions -Provides support and consultation to teacher -Takes over daily intervention implementation -Records information on monitoring form -Communicates daily with parents -Participates in weekly homeBase program with coach -Participates in daily homeBase activities w/ child -Provides praise, incentives, and monitors green/red card MO SW-PBS


32 Maintenance Phase - CLASS CoachTeacherParents Days 31 and Beyond -Continues homeBase program -Monitors childs progress -Provides consultation to teacher -Collects post intervention data -Works with Coach to maintain positive gains -Maintains communication with Parents -Continues homeBase program -Works with Teacher to maintain positive gains MO SW-PBS

33 School to Home Link - homeBase Coach meets with family for 6 weeks – min per week – Provides lessons for promoting school success Parents work with child – min per day – Skill building and practice; positive interactions – Parent uses help & activity cards MO SW-PBS

34 School to Home Link - homeBase Communicating and sharing school Cooperation Setting Limits Solving Problems Making Friends Developing Confidence MO SW-PBS

35 Parent Lesson - homeBase MO SW-PBS

36 Parent Help Card - homeBase MO SW-PBS

37 Parent Activity Card – homeBase MO SW-PBS

38 Parent Activity Card – homeBase MO SW-PBS

39 First Step Components Although the intervention components can stand alone and be used singly and independently, it is highly recommended that they be used in concert. The First Step program has maximal impact when implemented in this fashion. *Screen – CLASS - homeBase (Walker et al., 1997, p. 3) MO SW-PBS

40 Barriers to Effective Implementation Lack of stakeholder commitment – Concerns about screening children – Objections to utilizing rewards – Parent Support Constraints of school/class schedules – Needs to occur daily Limited resources – Coach, Time, Materials – hours over 3 months; $500 per student MO SW-PBS

41 Resources Missouri PBIS Website, Session 8B – Intervention Overview – Coach, Teacher, and Parent Roles *Documents provide a written description of the First Step intervention and key implementation responsibilities. MO SW-PBS

42 Resources First Step to Success Information – What Works Clearinghouse – sid=179 sid=179 OSEP Technical Assistance Center of PBIS – to_success.aspx to_success.aspx MO SW-PBS

43 Resources Purchase First Step to Success Materials – Preschool Edition Starter Kit - $178 Re-supply - $60 – School-Age Edition Starter Kit - $204 Re-supply - $50 to-success/ to-success/ MO SW-PBS

44 Resources First Step to Success Training Sessions – Two-day workshop (fall and spring) – October 17 or 30 – April 23 or 24 – Jefferson City Register through South Central & Heart of Missouri RPDC MO SW-PBS

45 Contact Information RPDC Regional and/or Tier 2/3 SWPBS Consultant Barb Mitchell, Tier 2/3 SWPBS Consultant – MO SW-PBS

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