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Reducing plagiarism through effective teaching and learning strategies A workshop developed for Bilkent University by Gordon Suddaby Supporting academic.

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Presentation on theme: "Reducing plagiarism through effective teaching and learning strategies A workshop developed for Bilkent University by Gordon Suddaby Supporting academic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reducing plagiarism through effective teaching and learning strategies A workshop developed for Bilkent University by Gordon Suddaby Supporting academic integrity Gordon Suddaby -

2 Overview In recent years, plagiarism has become an increasingly prominent issue in higher education and the three contributing factors are probably; growth in student numbers (and the related rise in the student/staff ratio) pressure on students time and balancing study with work to support their study availability of copyable material on the web. Gordon Suddaby -

3 So what is Plagiarism? Plagiarism is a broad term that applies to many different types of copying. This ranges from claiming authorship of an entire piece of work to misattribution or insufficient attribution of source papers. The latter is far more common: content being made available to scholars and academics through the internet and the ease with which it can be cut and pasted without rewording has, at least in part, contributed to this specific problem. Coupled with this, the discipline of recording all web sources and correctly referencing them is not easily undertaken. Finally, the pressures on academics to publish research to secure funding for future work and career advancement, in other words the publish or perish principle, has lead to a very small number of researchers taking short cuts in the past. Academic Plagiarism, by Rebecca Marsh, Head of Editorial, and Jenny Pickles, New Business Development Manager, at Emerald Group Publishing Limited Gordon Suddaby -

4 The following material draws on the following reference: Carroll, J. (2007), 2 nd edition, A Handbook for Deterring Plagiarism in Higher Education. Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development, Oxford Brookes University Gordon Suddaby -

5 Why do students plagiarise? As a group identify the sort of reasons that you believe motivate students to plagiarise Gordon Suddaby -

6 Why do students plagiarise? They have learnt to plagiarise in school They dont know that its not allowed They dont understand the rules They find the work too hard They are frightened of failure They deliberately cheat Gordon Suddaby -

7 What contributes to plagiarism? Academics make plagiarism more likely by: over assessment / bunched assessments not making requirements clear not distinguishing between collaboration and collusion not stressing (and rewarding with marks and high grades) what is valued not changing the task or requirements of assessments setting tasks beyond the capabilities of the students setting show you know rather than show you know why or show you know how assignments setting an assignments to a group that has one solution – so making copying easier Accessed from: on 23 rd December, Gordon Suddaby -

8 How can we deter plagiarism Two options: Using technology - plagiarism detection software such as Turnitin Course redesign and assessment – through a changed approach to teaching and assessment Gordon Suddaby -

9 Eliminate plagiarism by design By changing assessments: Good practice recommendation: rewrite/modify the assessment task each time the course is taught Gordon Suddaby -

10 Create individualised tasks Good practice recommendation: Design in assessment tasks with multiple solutions or set one that creates artefacts to capture individual effort. Gordon Suddaby -

11 Integrate assessment tasks Good practice recommendation: Integrate tasks so each builds on the other; design in checks that do not require teacher time but do require student effort. Be careful to only check, not assess the intermediate tasks. Set a variety of assessment tasks, choosing those less likely to already exist. Gordon Suddaby -

12 Inform students about; institutional policies and programme expectations Definitions of plagiarism, collusion and misconduct Reinforcing understanding of definitions for particular groups Defining collusion and informing students Good practice recommendations: Institutions should invest time and energy into reaching consensus on defining breaches of academic regulations then disseminate them widely to academics and students. Gordon Suddaby -

13 Induction and/or apprenticeship; Good practice recommendation: treat all instances of plagiarism formally with penalties and tariffs adjusted to fit student circumstances; inform students clearly of the policy, how they must comply and how they will be helped to do so (see section 10). Gordon Suddaby -

14 Teaching academic conventions Good practice recommendation: design in compulsory teaching sessions on academic writing and citation skills where students can apply the skills to discipline-specific content as part of their core assessment tasks. Gordon Suddaby -

15 Active learning methods to teach students Good practice recommendation: ensure that students are taught how to avoid plagiarism with active learning techniques, providing opportunities for discussion, practice and feedback; this instruction works best integrated into discipline-specific contexts. Gordon Suddaby -

16 Creating a climate of student involvement and interest Explanations and justifications for cheating Academic conduct as a model of good practice Good practice recommendation: Academic staff need to be seen to be adhering to the behaviours they ask of their students and taking steps to defend them from abuse. Gordon Suddaby -

17 Secure systems for recording and returning coursework Good practice recommendations: create administrative and institutional systems to collect, record and return coursework securely. Gordon Suddaby -

18 Using assessment to check authenticity To check the students work is authentic, you might organise: a random viva of a percentage of the cohort an open-book test an in-class or supervised task Use electronic detection tools - Turnitin Gordon Suddaby -

19 Other issues Staff development and training The effect of electronic detection on academic decisions Gordon Suddaby -

20 POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Using a separate procedure for disciplinary issues Good Practice Recommendation:- clearly define the respective roles of the Examination Board and the Disciplinary Procedure in cases of plagiarism, and any interrelation between them; ensure that all parties are aware of and adhere to their respective limits. Gordon Suddaby -

21 Consistent and effective application of the procedures Good Practice Recommendation:- give the responsibility for dealing with all cases of plagiarism to a small number of staff in each subject area, who are properly trained and who will work as a team across the institution. establish fast-track disciplinary procedures for dealing with minor and uncontested cases of plagiarism and clearly define the limits of their use. a simple disciplinary record keeping system that will enable you to monitor which plagiarism problems are occurring where, and how effective different strategies and initiatives are in addressing these problems. Gordon Suddaby -

22 Implementing a co-ordinated strategy against plagiarism a clear commitment from the highest levels of the University. a clear and appropriate regulatory framework for defining and dealing with academic misconduct; clearly defined roles and responsibilities access to support and specialist advice measures for embedding practice. targets and timetables a procedure for reviewing progress Gordon Suddaby -

23 Reconsider learning outcomes Good practice recommendation: reconsider the learning outcomes for the course and decrease those that ask for knowledge and understanding, substituting instead those that require analysis, evaluation and synthesis; consider adding information gathering to learning outcomes Gordon Suddaby -

24 Avoiding Plagiarism Ten Top Tips from the University of Leeds website that you as academics can give to students: Accessed from: On 23 December, 2009 Gordon Suddaby -

25 SEARCHING vs. RESEARCHING: Within your essays you are being asked to analyse and interpret. Use references to support your argument and dont just report or copy what you have found. Gordon Suddaby -

26 DEVELOP YOUR OWN STYLE & VOICE: This is an important part of what examiners are looking for. You have to use your own words, not those of another author. Gordon Suddaby -

27 PRESSURE TO GET THE GRADES: Attending University is not just about gaining the end result of a grade, but about gaining research and writing skills in the process. If you have any problems developing these skills, contact tutors (personal, programme director or module co- ordinator) and make use of other support systems available (handbooks, the Skills Centre, the International Centre). Gordon Suddaby -

28 PARAPHRASE, DONT PLAGIARISE: A footnote is not sufficient to indicate that any direct text you have used is not your own. Either put the sentences in quotation marks, or write them in your own words and include a footnote to the source. Gordon Suddaby -

29 NOTE-TAKING: When making notes from sources put direct quotations in quotation marks and always keep track of sources. This will ensure you do not accidentally plagiarise and also make collating your references easier when you are writing your essays. Gordon Suddaby -

30 FACTS: Common knowledge does not need to be cited but when in doubt reference your source. Gordon Suddaby -

31 CUT & PASTE: Either dont get into the habit of cutting and pasting from e- resources (the internet, electronic journals etc.) or put them directly into quotation marks and note the source. Gordon Suddaby -

32 DEADLINES: If you are having personal problems that mean you will have difficulty meeting essay deadlines, go and speak to the relevant person who can help (your personal tutor and the programme director). Gordon Suddaby -

33 WEB REOURCES: Make use of the examples, glossary, quiz and regulations on the LDU web pages. Gordon Suddaby -

34 HANDBOOKS: Look at the examples of paraphrasing, citing cases etc. The information is there for you to access: USE IT! Gordon Suddaby -

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