1. Verbal irony: saying the opposite of what one means 2. Dramatic irony: possession by the audience of knowledge which the character does not have 3. Irony of situation: discrepancy between what one anticipates and what actually comes to pass
SYMBOLISM A character, an action, a setting, or an object representing something else can be a symbol. Most often, the symbol in a story is an object that represents its owners character or situation, or both. Something that on the surface is its literal self but which also has another meaning or even several meanings.
FLASHBACK This is a writers technique in which the author interrupts the plot of the story to recreate an incident of an earlier time (goes back in time; giving the reader a memory). This device is often used to provide additional information to the reader.
FORESHADOWING This is a writers technique in which the author provides clues or hints as to what is going to happen later in the story. Its like the music in a scary movie when we know that something bad is about to happen.
SUSPENSE Suspense is a feeling of anticipation, uncertainty, and anxiety about the outcome of certain actions.
ALLUSION A significant reference, direct or indirect, to a work of literature, music, or art, as well as a historical event, person, or place.
Examples of an allusion He has the strength of Hercules. He has the speed of Superman.
ONOMATOPOEIA Onomatopoeia refers to words whose sound is suggestive of its meaning. Sizzle. Boom! Buzz.
SIMILE A simile is the comparison of two unlike things using the word 'like' or 'as' Last night Bob slept like a log.
METAPHOR A metaphor is like a simile. That is because it is a comparison that is made between things, which is not always likely or obvious. However, the explicit use of the word 'like' or 'as' which you see in a simile, is not used in a metaphor which is rather a comparison of two unlike things using the verb "to be".
Examples of a metaphor The inside of the car was a refrigerator. Life is a roller coaster.
HYPERBOLE Hyperbole is a figure of speech that uses an exaggerated or extravagant statement to create a strong emotional response. As a figure of speech it is not intended to be taken literally. Hyperbole is frequently used for humour.
Examples of hyperbole He's got tons of money. Her brain is the size of a pea. I will die if she asks me to dance. She is as big as an elephant! I'm so hungry I could eat a horse. I have told you a million times not to lie!
IMAGERY It is imagery that allows readers to involve their senses while reading. Your mind creates images (pictures) in your head = your minds eye. Your mind can also be reminded of sounds, touch, movement, smells, and tastes. Imagery is the mental picture or pictures that a writer creates. In fiction, imagery can involve any and all of the senses, and can have important symbolic value.
ASK YOURSELF What do you see while reading this story? What sounds do you hear? Is there anything to smell or taste? What do the surfaces feel like? Can you reach out and touch something?
Visual imagery: A dim light, a dirty rag, a golden daffodil
Auditory imagery: A pounding surf, a screeching siren
Tactile imagery: A scratchy beard, an ice- cold hand