Presentation on theme: "The Principalship: Vision to Action"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Principalship: Vision to Action Fred C. LunenbergBeverly J. Irby
2 Table of Contents (Click chapter title to navigate) Chapter 1: Cultivating Community, Culture and LearningChapter 2: Creating a Vision for LearningChapter 3: Curriculum Development and ImplementationChapter 4: Teaching and LearningChapter 5: Professional DevelopmentChapter 6: Student ServicesChapter 7: Organizational StructuresChapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker
3 Table of Contents (cont’d) (Click chapter title to navigate) Chapter 9: Developing Effective CommunicationChapter 10: The Principal and ChangeChapter 11: Budgeting and School FacilitiesChapter 12: Creating Safe SchoolsChapter 13: Human Resource ManagementChapter 14: Community RelationsChapter 15: The Principal and EthicsChapter 16: Political and Policy ContextChapter 17: Legal Issues
4 Chapter 1: Cultivating Community, Culture and Learning
5 Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standards for School LeadersReview the language of the seven standards in your text bookRe-write each in “plain” EnglishDiscuss the purpose of each standard; i.e. Why would the Consortium consider this a valuable standard?
6 The Role of the Principal Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and LearningThe Role of the PrincipalHistorically:A NEW APPROACH
7 LEADING FROM THE CENTER Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and LearningLEADING FROM THE CENTER
8 Compare and Contrast the Historic Approach to the New Approach Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and LearningCompare and Contrast the Historic Approach to the New ApproachHistoricPrincipal rules top-downLeadership dispersed according to authorityA “power over” approachPrincipal is the leaderNewPrincipal works collaborativelyLeadership dispersed according to competenceA “power to” approachPrincipal is the leader of leadersBriefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. What factors might have contributed to the shifting paradigm?
9 Creating a Professional Learning Community Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and LearningCreating a Professional Learning CommunityCreate a mission statement: Why does the school exist? What is its purpose?Develop a vision: What does the school wish to become?How can schools avoid the following?SCHOOL IMPROVEMENTtradition of isolation
10 Creating a Professional Learning Community (cont’d) Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and LearningCreating a Professional Learning Community (cont’d)Develop value statements: What attitudes and behaviors do stakeholders value and which will teachers pledge to demonstrate?Establish Goals:Concrete evidence of implementation of school improvementInfluenced by a district’s administratorsReflect a desired end resultBENEFITS TO SETTING GOALS
11 Setting clearly defined goals benefits all stakeholders by fostering… Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and LearningSetting clearly defined goals benefits all stakeholders by fostering…Commitment: individuals have a personal stake in outcomesStandards: enable principals to analyze performance objectivelyTargets: give individuals a concrete outcome, rather than a subjective oneMotivation: encourages individuals to perform at highest levels
12 What is the practical application of the vision setting process? Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and LearningWhat is the practical application of the vision setting process?A properly conceived vision serves as a filter for the myriad of daily decisions a principal is asked to make.VISIONWhat can be done about truancies?Decisions that benefit all stakeholders in an ethical and fair mannerWhat should we do about poor test scores?How should I handle Mr. Johnson’s yearly review?
13 Developing a Culture What is culture? Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and LearningDeveloping a CultureWhat is culture?The most common characteristics of culture:Consider heroes and heroines, traditions and rituals, and cultural networks
14 Maintaining School Culture Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and LearningMaintaining School CultureREMEMBER:If you do not carefullycreate and maintain thedesired school culture,it will create itself.Hire staff carefullyTrain staff in desired school cultureInstruct staff in technical aspects of jobReward staff for performances that reflect the values of the cultureAdhere closely to values of the cultureReinforce rites and rituals of cultureIdentify and make available staff to serve as role models
15 The Principal as Instructional Leader Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and LearningThe Principal as Instructional LeaderThe focus on results, the focus on student achievement, the focus on students learning at high levels - can only happen if teaching and learning become the central focus of the school and the central focus of the principal (Blase & Blase, 2003; Castallo, 2001; Lambert, 2003).
16 Shift instruction from teaching to learning… Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and LearningShift instruction from teaching to learning…Focus on learning: What is the difference between teaching and learning? What questions do you need to consider to facilitate this shift?Encourage Collaboration: Why is collaboration beneficial?Analyze Results: What type of data should be disaggregated and into what categories?
17 Shift instruction from teaching to learning… Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and LearningShift instruction from teaching to learning…Provide Support: What training do teachers need to facilitate this shift? What would the outcome of this support and shift look like in the classroom?Align Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment: How does this reflect NCLB? Despite criticisms of “teaching to a test,” what are the clear benefits to an assessment driven curriculum?
18 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
19 Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff.
20 Gaining a Perspective on the Vision: Considering the Future Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for LearningGaining a Perspective on the Vision: Considering the FutureIn addition to critical thinking and imagination, the following factors must be considered in creating a vision:The Global Society (poverty, race, gender, assimilation, etc.)Challenges in Learning (underachieving minority groups, physical and mental abuse, other sources of “education”)A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE VISION CHALLENGES PRINCIPALS TO EDUCATE ALL CHILDREN
21 Bringing the Vision Home to the School Culture Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for LearningBringing the Vision Home to the School CultureBasic tenants of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001:Schools are accountable for achievement of ALL studentsSchools must hire highly qualified teachersSchools implement research-based programs and practicesHow do these criteria impact how you would create a vision for your school?
22 Deeper Understanding of Individuals and the Organization Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for LearningThe Systemic VisionContextual AND dependent upon relationships:MISSION AND GOALS ACCOMPLISHEDDistrict Vision, Mission, and GoalsBeliefs, Attitudes, and Values (of the leader, faculty, staff, and community)Motivated StudentsRelationships BuiltDeeper Understanding of Individuals and the OrganizationCampus Vision, Mission, and GoalsCollaboratively Developed Action Plan for Accomplishing Goals
23 Creating a Vision The principal must consider: Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for LearningCreating a VisionThe principal must consider:Where has the school been?Where is the school currently?Where should the school be in the future?How do the conditions listed in figure 2-2 help a principal grow a vision? What roles do personal beliefs, values, and attitudes play in this growth?
24 The Leadership Framework as a Doorway to Creating a Vision Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for LearningThe Leadership Framework as a Doorway to Creating a VisionA leadership framework should include:Philosophy of educationPhilosophy of leadershipVision for learnersVision for teachersVision of organizationVision of professional growthMethod of vision attainmentWhy is the leadership framework a useful tool for creating a vision?
25 Shepherding the Vision Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for LearningShepherding the VisionBEWARE OF…TraditionScornNay-SayersComplacencyWearinessShort-range thinking
26 Shepherding the Vision (cont’d) Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for LearningShepherding the Vision (cont’d)Encourage…Building ownership in the visionThinking of the long-term benefitsSeeking input from stakeholdersBuilding confidence in stakeholdersStaying with the visionStaying focusedKeeping stakeholders alert to any changesDemonstrating how focus results in efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity
27 Mission Statements vs. Goal Statements Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for LearningMission Statements vs. Goal StatementsMission StatementsState the purpose of the school, both generally and specificallyGuide decision-making processesGuided by the vision and explain how it will be obtainedGoal StatementsBreak the mission and vision down into specific and measurable stepsThe tangible results a school is trying to achieveGuided by the mission and vision
28 Creating Goals to Obtain a Vision Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for LearningCreating Goals to Obtain a VisionConsider the hierarchy of goals: A means-end analysis can help a principal prioritize and organize goalsWhat is necessary for the hierarchy shown in figure 2-3 to operate cohesively in order to achieve a stated vision?
29 What Makes an Effective Goal? Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for LearningWhat Makes an Effective Goal?Clarity and specificityTime frameKey areasChallenging but realisticLinked to rewardsWhy are these criteria needed for a goal to be considered “effective”?
30 The Goal Setting Process Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for LearningThe Goal Setting ProcessRevise and UpdateSetting GoalsDeveloping Action PlansRecycleMonitoring PerformanceRevise and UpdateEvaluating Results
31 Common Problems with Goal Setting Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for LearningCommon Problems with Goal SettingLack of top-management supportTime-consumingExcessive paperworkOveremphasis on quantitative goalsAdministrative stylePrepackaged programsHow would you overcome each of these obstacles?
32 Tips for Effective Goal Setting Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for LearningTips for Effective Goal SettingDevelop a specific organizational structureCreate a positive leadership climateMaintain the means-ends chain of goalsTrain principalsEmphasize periodic feedback sessionsOnce goals have been set, the principal must determine HOW they will be obtained. This leads to…
33 Developing Plans for Attaining Goals Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for LearningOperational plans are developed at the lower levels of the district to specify the means toward achieving operational goals and supporting tactical planning activitiesTime Frame for PlansStanding plans are predetermined statements that help decision makers handle repetitive situations in a consistent mannerStrategic plans define the means by which the goals of the school are to be attainedTactical plans are designed to help execute strategic plans and to accomplish a specific part of the district’s strategyOperational PlanOperational PlanOperational PlanOperational PlanStanding PlansStanding PlansStanding PlansStanding PlansTactical PlanTactical PlanStrategic Plan
34 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
35 Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff.
36 Concepts and Models of Curriculum Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and ImplementationConcepts and Models of CurriculumConsider the traditional concepts and models of curriculum outlined in the first 15 pages of chapter 3.Which of these do you most closely align yourself? Why? What different visions and goals would emerge from each of these models?Now, let’s look at some more modern curriculum models…
37 Modern Models of Curriculum Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and ImplementationModern Models of CurriculumMost have an emphasis on “interdisciplinary courses, open-ended systems, intergenerational and inter-professional relationships, Socratic dialogue, multi-dimensional assessments, and multiculturalism” (McNabb, 1995).Most are open educational systemsConsider the above statements and the late 20th century definitions of curriculum in your textbook.How do modern models of curriculum reflect today’s society?A closer look…
38 The Irby and Lunenberg Model Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and ImplementationThe Irby and Lunenberg ModelCurriculum must be:Led by the principal but developed collaborativelyConsiderate of the communityResponsive to student needsConnected to vision and mission of the schoolReflective of the needs of a global societyAble to be assessed in terms of student performanceIntegrated systematically
39 Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation The Ornstein ModelSystemic approach: recognizes that the actions within the organization impact curriculum decisions7 categories to the model:Political ForcesKnowledge IndustryExternal GroupsContentInstructional ActivitiesEvaluationSupervision of CurriculumExamine Figure How do these 7 categories interact to create a model of curriculum?
40 The Eisner Model Five dimensions needed for successful schools: Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and ImplementationThe Eisner ModelFive dimensions needed for successful schools:The IntentionalThe StructuralThe CurriculumThe PedagogicalThe EvaluativeWhat is meant by each of these dimensions and how could they work together to create successful schools?
41 Relationship of Curriculum to Instruction Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and ImplementationRelationship of Curriculum to InstructionFunctions of a Curriculum PlanTo produce a curriculum for an identifiable populationTo implement the curriculum in a specific schoolTo appraise the effectiveness of the curriculum developedRead the 15 characteristics identified by Tomlinson and Allan. Why must a principal take these characteristics into consideration in order to make positive changes to the curriculum?
42 The Principal as the Curriculum and Instructional Leader Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and ImplementationThe Principal as the Curriculum and Instructional LeaderWhile the principal does not need to provide ALL of the curriculum leadership, the most effective ones collect information and use it to facilitate curriculum developmentIn order to share the responsibility for curriculum leadership a principal should:Allow teachers to take responsibility for curriculumArrange schedule to give teachers time to work on curriculumProvide staff developmentProvide resourcesCreate a community of learners (see Figure 13-9)
43 Curriculum Goals and Instructional Objectives Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and ImplementationCurriculum Goals and Instructional ObjectivesCurriculum Goals = broad, general statements to help develop programs of instructionWhat you WANT the students to doTo achieve teacher and staff “buy-in” a principal needs to offer:Data that support the need for changeInformation that supports the changes in similar contextsConnection between goals and achievement measuresFocus on usability, simplicity, and effectivenessClear relationships between changes and the visionOpportunities for teachers and staff to participate in goal and objective creationInstructional Objectives = required performance, conditions for behavior, and level of performanceWhat the student actually DOES
44 Curriculum Goals and Instructional Objectives (cont’d) Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and ImplementationCurriculum Goals and Instructional Objectives (cont’d)Classifying objectivesCognitiveKnowledgeComprehensionApplicationAnalysisSynthesisEvaluationAffectiveReceivingRespondingValuingOrganizationCharacterizationPsychomotorReflex movementsBasic-fundamental movementsPerceptual abilitiesPhysical abilitiesSkilled movementsNon-discursive communicationREMEMBER: OBJECTIVES MUST CORRELATE WITH THE CURRICULUMRefer to the 7 principles for selecting learning experiences to ensure that they foster active involvement in the learning process
45 Developing a Needs Assessment Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and ImplementationDeveloping a Needs AssessmentWhy a needs assessment?Assists with developing or revising curriculum and assessmentEnsures a dynamic and responsive curriculumGives teachers information about learnersAt the curriculum level, a needs assessment includes a(n):Review and analysis of standardsReview of curriculum from successful districtsInterview of students, teachers, and parentsReview of current students’ workReview of related literature and best practices
46 Aligning the Curriculum Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and ImplementationAligning the CurriculumAfter a needs assessment, curriculum alignment shows WHAT will be taught in all subject areas and at each grade levelCurriculum mapping provides scope and sequence of WHEN skills will be taughtCurriculum benchmarking provides periodic assessments and minimum standards of achievementCurriculum audits help identify strengths and gaps in instructional practicesInstructional differentiation attempts to determine which instructional methods are best for all learners
47 Focusing the Vision and the School’s Mission through Curriculum Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and ImplementationFocusing the Vision and the School’s Mission through CurriculumQUALITYEDUCATION“The principal is the curriculum or instructional specialist or leader who does have the understanding of philosophy, the clarity of vision, and the technical skills to move his/her programs toward meaningful activity.”Consider how the case study of Mauka Lani Elementary School exemplifies this alignment and call to action.VISIONCURRICULUM
48 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
49 Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff.
50 The Principal and Instructional Planning Chapter 4: Teaching and LearningThe Principal and Instructional PlanningInstructional planning should be a self-reflective toolHow does the cycle described in Figure 4-1 promote successful instructional planning?What are the benefits to instructional planning?
51 Benefits of Instructional Planning Chapter 4: Teaching and LearningBenefits of Instructional PlanningProvides a daily mapTargets learner benchmarksEnsures that teacher follows up on identified weaknessesReinforces teachers’ understanding of content knowledgeIntertwined with the curriculum alignment processBeyond instructional planning, what are the added positive outcomes of the above listed benefits?
52 The Principal and Instructional Planning (cont’d) Chapter 4: Teaching and LearningThe Principal and Instructional Planning (cont’d)Promoting Reflective Planning: What questions would you pose to a struggling teacher concerning goals, objectives, instructional activities, assessment, revision, and implementation?
53 The Principal and Instructional Planning (cont’d) Chapter 4: Teaching and LearningThe Principal and Instructional Planning (cont’d)THIS IS ONE OFTHE MAIN MANDATESOF NCLB!Using Student Data to Drive Instructional Planning: What are some of the obstacles that educators face in properly using student data to aid in instructional planning? How would you overcome these obstacles?Consider the anecdote of Dr. John Barrera. How does this example demonstrate the proper use of student data?REMEMBER!
54 The Principal and Instructional Planning (cont’d) Chapter 4: Teaching and LearningThe Principal and Instructional Planning (cont’d)Using Students’ Cultural Backgrounds in Instructional PlanningDo not use ONLY student achievement dataConsider also: Ethno-instruction and Differentiated InstructionWhy are these two strategies increasingly important in today’s classrooms?
55 Information Processing Chapter 4: Teaching and LearningInformation ProcessingRead the various theories of information processing as outlined in your text.Which theory/theories do you think best explain how people process information and why?Why is it important for a principal to have a working knowledge of these various theories?How could you develop these theories into practical applications at your school?
56 The Effective Schools Model Chapter 4: Teaching and LearningThe Effective Schools ModelWhat makes an “effective” school? Research shows the following…CLEAR AND FOCUSED MISSIONSTRONG INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIPHIGH EXPECTATIONSPOSITIVE HOME-SCHOOL RELATIONSFREQUENT MONITORINGSAFE AND ORDERLY ENVIRONMENTOPPORTUNITY TO LEARN
57 Effective Teaching Practices: The 12 Principles Chapter 4: Teaching and LearningEffective Teaching Practices: The 12 PrinciplesStudents can learn best within cohesive and caring communitiesStudents learn more when time is allocated to curriculum related eventsAll components of curriculum are aligned in a cohesive program designed to achieve specific goalsTeacher can prepare students for learning by providing initial structure
58 Effective Teaching Practices: The 12 Principles (cont’d) Chapter 4: Teaching and LearningEffective Teaching Practices: The 12 Principles (cont’d)Content is explained clearly and developed with emphasis on structure and connectionsQuestions are planned to engage students in sustained discourseStudents receive sufficient opportunities to practice and apply what they’ve learned and to receive feedbackTeacher provides assistance to enable students to engage in learning activities
59 Effective Teaching Practices: The 12 Principles (cont’d) Chapter 4: Teaching and LearningEffective Teaching Practices: The 12 Principles (cont’d)Teacher models and instructs students in learning and self-regulation strategiesStudents often benefit from working in pairs or small groupsTeacher uses variety of formal and informal assessment methodsTeacher establishes and follows through on appropriate expectations for learning outcomes
60 Conditions for Learning and Best Practices Chapter 4: Teaching and LearningConditions for Learning and Best PracticesConditions for LearningSchool is warm and invitingCurriculum includes fine artsStudents learn to be effective citizensStudents learn to develop skills for the workplaceSchool has smaller class sizesSupport staff is availableSchool reviews selfData and evidence drive decisionsWhy are these (and the other conditions listed) considered necessary conditions for learning? Can you think of any others?
61 Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning Models of ObservationRead the NCTAF’s 5 propositions deemed essential for accomplished teachingDo you agree that these 5 conditions are necessary? Why/why not?Can you think of any other essential propositions?How can a knowledge of these 5 propositions help a principal improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning at his/her school?
62 Models of Observation (cont’d) Chapter 4: Teaching and LearningModels of Observation (cont’d)Formative EvaluationSummative EvaluationClassroom ObservationsWalk-Through ObservationsPeer CoachingAs a teacher, which of these types of observation do/did you prefer? Why?As a principal, which of these types of observation do you think will be most helpful? Why?
63 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
64 Chapter 5: Professional Development Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff.
65 The Mission of Principals Related to Professional Development (PD) Chapter 5: Professional DevelopmentThe Mission of Principals Related to Professional Development (PD)Well read and educated in latest researchDefines own personal, professional growth needs according to dataScans needs of teachers, monitors instruction, and disaggregates dataThinks forward and consequentiallySolution focusedInitiates and implements collaboratively driven professional development planAnalyzes impact on campusSensitive to students and community“THE IDEAL PD PRINCIPAL”
66 The Principal’s Mission to Teachers’ PD Chapter 5: Professional DevelopmentThe Principal’s Mission to Teachers’ PDPLAN:Work with teachers to develop a comprehensive PD targeted at individual and collective needsPROVIDE:Resources (time and money) for teachers to be reflective about their practicesWhat is the advantage to this approach to teacher’s PD?
67 High Quality PD Consider Knowles observations: Chapter 5: Professional DevelopmentHigh Quality PDConsider Knowles observations:Adult learners need to be self-directedAdult learners display readiness to learn why they have a perceived needAdult learners desire immediate application of new skills and knowledgeDo you agree with Knowles’ findings? What are the implications of these findings on an effective PD program?
68 The Ten Principles of Effective PD Chapter 5: Professional DevelopmentEffective PD focuses on teachers as central to student learning, yet includes other members of the school communityEffective PD focuses on the individual, collegial, and organizational improvementEffective PD respects and nurtures the intellectual and leadership capacity of teachers, principals, and others in the school communityEffective PD reflects best available research and practice in teaching, learning, and leadershipEffective PD enables teachers to develop further expertise in subject content, teaching strategies, uses of technologies, and other essential elements in teaching to high standards
69 The Ten Principles of Effective PD (cont’d) Chapter 5: Professional DevelopmentEffective PD promotes continuous inquiry and improvement embedded in the daily life of schoolsEffective PD is planned collaboratively by those who will participate in and facilitate that developmentEffective PD requires substantial time and other resourcesEffective PD is driven by a coherent long-term planEffective PD is evaluated ultimately on the basis of its impact on teacher effectiveness and student learning; and this assessment guides subsequent professional development effortsWhat would a PD program that utilizes all of these principles look like?
70 The Principal’s Mission for Personal Professional Development Chapter 5: Professional DevelopmentThe Principal’s Mission for Personal Professional DevelopmentWhy is it essential that principals develop their own PD plan?Read the description of the PD Portfolio. What are the various components of the Portfolio and how do they work together to ensure that the principal embarks on a successful and effective PD plan?Review your own Portfolio (start one if you have not already). What components are missing or need to be updated?
71 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
72 Chapter 6: Student Services Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff.
73 Guidance and Counseling Services Chapter 6: Student ServicesGuidance and Counseling ServicesTo provide for the realization of student potentialitiesTo help children with developing problemsTo contribute to the development of the school’s curriculumTo provide teachers with technical assistanceTo contribute to the mutual adjustment of students and the schoolAssess the scope of the guidance and counseling services offered on your campus.
74 Guidance and Counseling Services (cont’d) Chapter 6: Student ServicesGuidance and Counseling Services (cont’d)Role of the CounselorPersonal/social issuesEducational issuesCareer planningMajor ServicesAssessmentInformationPlacement and follow-upCounseling (Directive, Nondirective, and Eclectic Counseling)
75 Guidance and Counseling Services (cont’d) Chapter 6: Student ServicesGuidance and Counseling Services (cont’d)When evaluating the program, consider…Student needsCooperationProcess and productBalanceStabilityFlexibilityQualified counselorsAdequate counselor-student ratioPhysical facilitiesRecordsUsing these 10 criteria, evaluate the guidance and counseling program at your school or one you have worked at in the past. How can these characteristics help you plan for an effective program at your school?
76 Attendance and Student Records Chapter 6: Student ServicesAttendance and Student RecordsCumulative records should contain:Personal data sheetParent’s reportChild’s self-conceptSociogramBehavior reportsStandardized test dataWhat is the purpose of ensuring that these artifacts appear in student’s cumulative record?
77 Evaluating Student Progress Chapter 6: Student ServicesEvaluating Student ProgressAs NCLB stresses AYP and accountability, evaluating student progress has become a critical role for the 21st century principal. Assessment can serve various purposes:Help student understand selfProvide information for education/vocational counselingHelp staff understand student populationEvaluate the academic progress of studentsHelp administrative staff appraise programsFacilitate curriculum revisionMake instructional management decisionsMake decisions about screening studentsMake program decisions
78 Evaluating Student Progress (cont’d) Chapter 6: Student ServicesEvaluating Student Progress (cont’d)While many bemoan the NCLB’s emphasis on testing, assessment clearly has its benefits if the testing program is well developedMinimum components of testing battery:Emerging reading testsLearning readiness testsIntelligence testsAchievement testsInterest and aptitude tests
79 Reporting to Parents/Family Chapter 6: Student ServicesReporting to Parents/FamilyAny teacher knows that grading has its difficulties. Among them are:Teacher variabilityUnreliable aptitude scores for all studentsPolicy variabilityVariety of alternatives to traditional methodsHow can a principal account for and deal with these difficulties?Compare your solutions with the following…
80 Methods of Reporting Grades Chapter 6: Student ServicesMethods of Reporting GradesPercentage methodLetter methodDescriptive methodPercentile methodThree-group methodRank methodT-score methodWhat are the benefits and draw-backs to each of these methods? In what circumstances would you use one method over another?
81 Extracurricular Activities Chapter 6: Student ServicesExtracurricular ActivitiesShouldn’t principals be concerned solely with the academic program at their school?Extracurricular activities are vital to help students develop skills and talents not readily tapped into in the traditional core subjects. Read the text’s explanation of the functions of these activities. Can you think of any others?NO
82 Special Education Services Chapter 6: Student ServicesSpecial Education ServicesKey Legislation:Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973Education for All Handicapped Act of 1975Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)Key Components of IDEA:Related ServicesDue ProcessDisciplineMake sure you are familiar with these terms and their legal implications. Remember that a principal must ensure the quality education of ALL students.
83 Chapter 6: Student Services Gifted EducationThe area of Gifted Education is growing rapidly and principals must be aware of how to best serve this special population. Gifted students will NOT thrive on their own; they need and deserve the services, attention, and resources to best develop their gifts and talents.Refer to Figure 6-2 for a list of options that will help to meet the needs of gifted students
84 Chapter 6: Student Services Bilingual EducationAs with the gifted population, students requiring bilingual services are also rapidly growingPrincipals must consider the following when creating an ESL program:State guidelinesStudent population to be servedDistrict resources
85 Bilingual Education (cont’d) Chapter 6: Student ServicesBilingual Education (cont’d)Principals must be aware of the following termsEarly-exitLate-exitImmersionDual immersionSubmersionDual-languageTwo-way
86 Bilingual Education (cont’d) Chapter 6: Student ServicesBilingual Education (cont’d)ESL Program Models:Pull OutClass PeriodShelter English or Content-based ProgramsStructured English ImmersionHigh Intensity Language Training ProgramsWhen would it be appropriate to use each of the above models?
87 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
88 Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.
89 Important Concepts of Organizational Structure Chapter 7: Organizational StructuresImportant Concepts of Organizational StructureJob SpecializationDepartmentalizationDelegationDecentralizationSpan of ManagementWhat do each of these terms mean and how do they help to explain the concept of an organizational structure?
90 Schools as Open Systems Chapter 7: Organizational StructuresSchools as Open SystemsSchools are open systems because… they interact with their environmentsInputs = human, financial, physical, and information resourcesTransformation Process = combining and coordinating resources to attain goalsOutputs = prepared and educated students, staff and community satisfactionFeedback = student, parent, staff, and community reaction to output
91 Leadership Functions Planning Monitoring Organizing Leading Chapter 7: Organizational StructuresLeadership FunctionsPlanningMonitoringOrganizingLeadingHow can an understanding of the interplay between these functions help a principal to more effectively manage the organizational structure of their school?
92 Administrative Roles Principal Activities: Chapter 7: Organizational StructuresAdministrative RolesPrincipal Activities:Heavy Workload at a Fast PaceVariety, Fragmentation, and BrevityOral CommunicationAre these activities unique to the role of the principal? Which of these do you find most daunting? Which of these comes naturally to you?
93 Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Management SkillsConceptual Skills: One’s mental ability to acquire, analyze, and interpret informationHuman Skills: One’s ability to motivate, facilitate, coordinate, lead, communicate, manage conflict, and get along with othersTechnical Skills: One’s ability to use knowledge, methods, and techniques of a specific disciplineConsider Figure 7-3. At what level would you place yourself? Your current administrators? How does one move “up” the hierarchy?
94 Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Effective PrincipalsTask Dimensions: Consider Sashkin and Huddle’s 13 task dimensions of a principal. How can you deliberately design your actions to build cultural as well as managerial linkages?Human Resource Activities: Consider the list of traits of ineffective administrators. Why would these be detriments to an effective principal and how could you correct each of these shortcomings?
95 Effective vs. Successful Administrators Chapter 7: Organizational StructuresEffective vs. Successful AdministratorsEffective = how well a principal was evaluated by subordinatesMost time on task-related communicationHuman resource managementSuccessful = rapid promotionLittle time on human resource managementGood at networkingPolitically savvyAre these findings surprising to you? What are their implications?
96 The Demise of Bureaucracy Chapter 7: Organizational StructuresThe Demise of BureaucracyWhat is the harm of bureaucracy? Explain why each of the following are seen as negative features to bureaucracy, especially in education.Division of labor and specializationReliance on rules and proceduresEmphasis on hierarchy of authorityLifelong careers and evaluationImpersonalitySo what are the alternatives?
97 Emergent Models of Organizational Structure Chapter 7: Organizational StructuresEmergent Models of Organizational StructureSystem 4 DesignSite Based ManagementTransformational LeadershipSynergistic Leadership TheoryTotal Quality Management (TQM)Read the description of each model carefully. Which one appeals to you the most and why? Regardless of which model you find most intriguing, consider…
98 10 Concepts Helpful in Restructuring the Content of Schooling Chapter 7: Organizational Structures10 Concepts Helpful in Restructuring the Content of SchoolingHeterogeneous groupingCooperative learningHigh expectations for allResponsiveness to student diversityEmphasis on active learningEssential curriculumAuthentic assessmentTechnology as a toolTime as a learning resourceDiverse pedagogy
99 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
100 Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.
101 The Nature of Decision Making Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision MakerThe Nature of Decision Making
102 The Decision Making Process Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision MakerThe Decision Making ProcessIdentifying the problemGenerating alternativesRecycle process as necessaryEvaluating alternativesChoosing an alternativeImplementing the decisionEvaluating decision effectiveness
103 The Rational Decision Maker Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision MakerThe Rational Decision MakerWhat is rational decision making?Problem is clearSingle goal is to be achievedAll alternatives and consequences are knownPreferences are clearPreferences are constant and stableNo time or cost constraintsFinal choice will maximize economic payoffDo these assumptions seem applicable to most school organizations you are aware of? Rationality seems limited, so…
104 Limits to Rationality Bounded Rationality: Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision MakerLimits to RationalityBounded Rationality:Decisions based on incomplete comprehension of the problemDecision makers will not succeed in generating all possible solutionsAlternatives are evaluated incompletelyUltimate decision must be based on criterion other than maximizationConsider: Satisfying, Heuristics, Primacy/Recency Effect, Bolstering the Alternative, Intuition, Incrementalizing, the Garbage-Can ModelHow can these processes compensate for the limits to rationality and allow a principal to make effective decisions?
105 Shared Decision Making Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision MakerShared Decision MakingOften committees, teams, councils, etc. must make decisions too. In these instances, an understanding of the shared decision making process is necessary.To help involve teachers in the process, consider Huddleston, Claspell, and Killion’s method:Readiness: prepare for shared decision makingExperimentation: build comfort in the decision making processRefinement: share the decision making processInstitutionalization: shared decision making becomes normThis process is not flawless. What are the advantages and disadvantages to shared decision making?
106 Advantages and Disadvantages to Shared Decision Making Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision MakerAdvantages and Disadvantages to Shared Decision MakingGreater sum total knowledgeGreater number of approaches to the problemGreater number of alternativesIncreased acceptance of a decisionBetter comprehension of a problem and decisionSocial pressures toward conformityIndividual dominationConflicting secondary goalsUndesirable compromisesAmbiguous responsibilityMore time neededObviously, a principal needs to carefully consider if the shared decision making process is appropriate for any given situation. Read Williams’s list of skills needed for effective site-based decision making. Do these tips seem “do-able”? Now read through the model provided in the text. While seemingly esoteric, what are the practical applications and advantages to this method?
107 Decision Making – Pattern Choice Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision MakerDecision Making – Pattern ChoiceAn alternative model to shared decision making, this approach focuses on a continuum of leadership from boss-centered to subordinate-centeredReview Figure 8-4 for a more detailed look at this approachThe principal must consider the forces in the leader, forces in the group members, forces in the situation, and long-run goals and strategy…
108 Decision Making – Pattern Choice (Cont’d) Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision MakerDecision Making – Pattern Choice (Cont’d)Forces in the leader that determine which of the patterns to choose from:Value systemConfidence in group membersLeadership inclinationsFeelings of security in uncertain situationForces in the group members that allow for greater freedom:High need for independenceReadiness to assume responsibilityHigh tolerance for ambiguityInterested in problemUnderstand goalsHave necessary knowledgeExpect to share in processForces in the situation that create pressure:The problemTime constraintsLong-run goals and strategy to consider:Raising level of motivationImproving quality of decisionsDeveloping teamwork and moraleFurthering individual developmentIncreasing readiness to accept changeThere is no formula for perfect decision making. An effective principal must consider the forces in a given situation and assess which should influence him or her in a given situation.
109 The Synergistic Decision Making Approach Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision MakerListeningActive listening with respect, consideration, and no judgmentRespondingParaphrase; be respectful; assume sincerity; avoid pre-judgmentReinforcingBuild on previous remarks to encourage a free, non-competitive, and diverse discussionClarifyingWhen confusion arises, phrase neutral questions, avoid condescension, avoid impatience, and do not assume you have the answerDo you think teachers would be receptive to this process? Why or why not?
110 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
111 Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.
112 The Communication Process Chapter 9: Developing Effective CommunicationThe Communication ProcessCommunication = the process of transmitting information from one person to anotherRead the tips in the text on planning a successful communication process. What have been the positive traits of past communication processes you have been involved in? Negative traits?EncodeSenderDecodeReceiverMessageFeedbackMediumNoise
113 Organizational Communication Chapter 9: Developing Effective CommunicationOrganizational CommunicationThe following slides will take a closer look at different categories of communication:DownwardUpwardHorizontalFormal Communication NetworksInformal Communication Networks
114 Downward Communication Chapter 9: Developing Effective CommunicationDownward CommunicationInformation transmits from higher to lower levelsPurposes of downward communicationImplement goals and strategiesJob instruction and rationaleProcedures and practicesPerformance feedbackSocializationWhat situations warrant downward communication? Which situations would be inappropriate?
115 Upward Communication Information transmits from lower to higher levels Chapter 9: Developing Effective CommunicationUpward CommunicationInformation transmits from lower to higher levelsTypes of information in upward communicationProblems and expectationsSuggestions for improvementPerformance reportsGrievances and disputesFinancial and accounting informationRead through the barriers to effective upward communication and the tips to improve it. What other barriers have you encountered in upward communication? What could a principal have done to overcome those barriers?
116 Horizontal Communication Chapter 9: Developing Effective CommunicationHorizontal CommunicationInformation transmits laterally or diagonally across lines of formal chain of command; essential for increasing coordinationCategories of horizontal communicationIntradepartmental problem solvingInterdepartmental coordinationStaff advice to line departments
117 Communication Networks Chapter 9: Developing Effective CommunicationCommunication NetworksThe three previous communication patterns can combine to form five common networksChain: line authority relationshipsY: two or more interacting members report to a single supervisorWheel: several non-interacting members report to a single supervisorCircle: members interact with adjoining members, but not othersAll-Channel: members interact with adjoining members and all othersWhat are the advantages and disadvantages to each of these communication networks?Informal network: The grapevine flows in all directions and is not fixed by any formal organizational chart
118 Managing Communication: Barriers Chapter 9: Developing Effective CommunicationProcess barriers: blocked communication with sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, or feedbackPhysical barriers: concrete and real factors that block communicationSemantic barriers: variations and misunderstandings of connotationsPsychosocial barriers: factors such as fields of experience, filtering, and psychological distance that inhibit effective communicationHow can you, as a principal, work to overcome these barriers? What has been the cause of communication breakdowns you have experienced in the past? How does your experience compare with the list of factors listed in the text?
119 Improving Communication Effectiveness Chapter 9: Developing Effective CommunicationAll members of the communication process are responsible for improving communicationWhat can a sender (a principal) do to improve communication with various stakeholders? Consider the Ten Commandments listed in the text.What can receivers do to improve communication? Again, consider the ten suggestions in the text.What is active listening?What can one do to improve giving responsive feedback?What types of non-verbal communication should one be aware of?Do the suggestions given in the text seem practical? Select at least one strategy posited from the questions posed above and explain how you would use it to improve your own communication. Then, go do it!
120 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
121 Chapter 10: The Principal and Change Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.
122 The Nature of Organizational Change Chapter 10: The Principal and ChangeThe Nature of Organizational ChangeWhile most systems tend toward the status quo, principals must anticipate and direct change positivelyExternal forces for change: the marketplace, laws and regulations, technology, labor markets, economic changes …what else?Internal forces for change: problems with processes or people…such as?And yet, there is often strong resistance to change…
123 Why Is Change Resisted? Why have you resisted change in the past? Chapter 10: The Principal and ChangeWhy Is Change Resisted?UncertaintyConcern over personal lossGroup resistanceDependenceTrustAwareness of weaknessesWhy have you resisted change in the past?What can a principal do to overcome this resistance?
124 Overcoming Resistance to Change Chapter 10: The Principal and ChangeOvercoming Resistance to ChangeSome strategies:Education and communicationParticipation and involvementFacilitation and supportNegotiation and agreementManipulation and cooptationExplicit and implicit coercionWhich of these strategies do you think would be most effective? Why? In what types of situations would you use each? What other strategies can you think of?
125 Getting Reform Right: What Works and What Doesn’t Chapter 10: The Principal and ChangeGetting Reform Right: What Works and What Doesn’tCurrent research suggests the following:Change is learningChange is a journey, not a blueprintProblems are our friendsChange is resource-hungryChange requires the power to manage itChange is systematicAll large-scale change is implemented locally
126 Managing Change Types of change agents: Change agent roles: Chapter 10: The Principal and ChangeManaging ChangeTypes of change agents:Outside pressure typePeople-change-technology typeAnalysis-for-the-top typeOrganization-development typeChange agent roles:ConsultingTrainingResearchWhat are some “real-world” examples of each of these types?When would a principal need to play each of these roles?
127 Managing Change (cont’d) Chapter 10: The Principal and ChangeManaging Change (cont’d)Common characteristics of effective changeHemophilyEmpathyLinkageProximityStructuringCapacityOpennessRewardEnergySynergyWhy are these desired characteristics of a change agent?
128 The Change Process Phase 1: Pressure and arousal Chapter 10: The Principal and ChangeThe Change ProcessPhase 1: Pressure and arousalPhase 2: Intervention and reorientationPhase 3: Diagnosis and recognitionPhase 4: Invention and commitmentPhase 5: Experimentation and searchPhase 6: Reinforcement and acceptanceNote that this model focuses on the role of the change agent (i.e. the principal). What would a principal actually be doing in each of these phases?
129 Promoting Successful School Change Chapter 10: The Principal and ChangePromoting Successful School ChangeBuild a visionCreate a positive climateMobilizeEngage community supportTrainProvide resourcesRemove barriersPlease note that the previous and subsequent chapters deal with each of these strategies.
130 Change Strategies Process Strategies Structural Strategies Chapter 10: The Principal and ChangeChange StrategiesProcess StrategiesSurvey feedbackTeam buildingProcess consultationQuality of work lifeStructural StrategiesGoal settingJob redesignQuality circlesStrategic planning
131 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
132 Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.
133 Basic Terms to Know Expenditures Current Expenses Capital Outlay Chapter 11: Budgeting and School FacilitiesBasic Terms to KnowExpendituresCurrent ExpensesCapital OutlayDebt ServiceRevenueFiscally Independent vs. Fiscally Dependent DistrictsFiscal Neutrality Standard
134 The Budgeting Process Board of Education Superintendent CFO AS AS AS Chapter 11: Budgeting and School FacilitiesThe Budgeting ProcessBoard of EducationSuperintendentCFOASASASBudget CommitteeDivision Head: ElementaryDivision Head: SecondaryElementary Building PrincipalSecondary Building Principal
135 Financial Controls What are the purposes of financial controls? Chapter 11: Budgeting and School FacilitiesFinancial ControlsWhat are the purposes of financial controls?Assist principals in acquiring, allocating, and evaluating the use of financial resourcesAllow districts to pay short- and long-term debtsProtect districts from theft, fraud, etc.Two types: internal control and financial audits
136 Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities Internal ControlThe policies and procedures used by a district to safeguard assets and verify accounting dataEffective internal control should include…Clear, formal organizationAccounts for each administrative unitHandling and record keeping of assets should not be done by the same employeeNo one person has control over all phases of any given transactionNo redundant work, but employees should check work
137 Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities Financial AuditsIndependent appraisal of district’s accounting, financial, and operational systemsTwo types…External: conducted by experts outside of the district to verify district accuracyInternal: conducted by district employees to examine the accuracy of financial reportsWhat would be the various advantages and disadvantages to external and internal audits?
138 AN ALTERNATIVE BUDGETING SYSTEM… Chapter 11: Budgeting and School FacilitiesZero-Base BudgetingA district starts the budgeting process at zero every yearNot just adjustments to last year’s budget; EVERY expenditure must be justifiedThree steps:Identify Decision UnitsDevelop Decision PackagesRank the Decision PackagesAN ALTERNATIVE BUDGETING SYSTEM…What parts of a district’s organization would be best served by zero-based budget and why?
139 Planning-Programming-Budgeting Systems Chapter 11: Budgeting and School FacilitiesPlanning-Programming-Budgeting SystemsSimilar to ZBB, but not all programs need be justifiedThe basic steps:Specify goalsSearch for relevant alternativesMeasure the costs of the programs for several yearsEvaluate the output of each programThe textbook states that “PPBS has not been the great tool in practice that its logic would imply.” Why might this be?
140 School Facilities Management Chapter 11: Budgeting and School FacilitiesSchool Facilities ManagementPrincipals in the 21st century must be aware of:Rising school infrastructure costsNew school constructs costsEnvironmental hazards inherent with aging facilities
141 School Infrastructure Costs Chapter 11: Budgeting and School FacilitiesSchool Infrastructure CostsInfrastructure = the physical facilities that make up a school building (plumbing, heating, electrical, sewer, etc.)Which areas do you think would have the schools in the best/worst condition?How much of one’s budget should be allocated to these costs?Experts say 5%, but most schools put aside only 3%Why are schools falling apart and why do repairs cost so much?
142 Age of facilities Energy prices Weather conditions Chapter 11: Budgeting and School FacilitiesAge of facilitiesEnergy pricesWeather conditionsDensity and vandalismNewer buildings“A ticking time bomb”: most educators and the public simply do not pay attention to the ailing infrastructure of America’s schools
143 Financing School Construction Chapter 11: Budgeting and School FacilitiesFinancing School ConstructionWith ever increasing public school enrollments, building new schools will become a large factor in many districts throughout the country. According to the text, what are some unique challenges that building new schools brings about? How are schools built today fundamentally different from schools built decades ago?
144 Environmental Hazards Chapter 11: Budgeting and School FacilitiesEnvironmental HazardsEvery principal should be aware of:AsbestosRadon gasSchool leadIndoor air qualityElectromagnetic fieldsWhat dangers do each of these hazards present and how might a principal safely handle each?
145 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
146 Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.
147 School Violence and Drug Use Chapter 12: Creating Safe SchoolsSchool Violence and Drug UseWhat does the research say?Read the bulleted points from the selected studies presented in the text.Do these findings surprise you? Why/why not?Brainstorm some action plans and strategies that a principal could implement to address the trends identified in these studies.
148 An Action Plan: 6 Strategies for Success Chapter 12: Creating Safe SchoolsAn Action Plan: 6 Strategies for SuccessPredict School ViolencePrevent School ViolenceFocus Resources on SchoolsStrengthen the SystemDevelop a Crisis Management PlanCreate an Orderly Climate for LearningThese strategies are, of course, not meant to be used in isolation of one another; a combination of all or some of the strategies, depending on your school climate, will surely help you create a safe school.
149 Strategy #1: Predict School Violence Chapter 12: Creating Safe SchoolsStrategy #1: Predict School ViolenceCollect and analyze dataIdentify problem students and provide supportIdentify problem teachers and provide support and training
150 Strategy #2: Prevent School Violence Chapter 12: Creating Safe SchoolsStrategy #2: Prevent School ViolenceToughen Weapons Laws: What specific policies should a principal advocate in order to achieve this?Deal with Violent Students: What specific strategies should a principal use?
151 Strategy #3: Focus Resources on Schools Chapter 12: Creating Safe SchoolsStrategy #3: Focus Resources on SchoolsFund the Basic Education ProgramTeach Violence PreventionEstablish Task ForcesHow could a principal implement this strategy considering the other financial demands a school faces?
152 Strategy #4: Strengthen the System Chapter 12: Creating Safe SchoolsStrategy #4: Strengthen the SystemImprove the Juvenile CodeCreate a State Center for the Prevention of School ViolenceHow, realistically, can a principal affect these systems that are seemingly out of their jurisdiction?
153 Strategy #5: Develop a Crisis Management Plan Chapter 12: Creating Safe SchoolsStrategy #5: Develop a Crisis Management PlanForm a School-wide Crisis Management TeamConduct an Ongoing, School-wide Safety AuditDevelop Policies and Procedures for Various EmergenciesConduct Safety DrillsDevelop a School-wide Discipline PlanProvide a Means for Students to Communicate Information to StaffTeach Students Alternatives to ViolenceEvaluate Administrative Practices of the SchoolUse Resources to Identify Students “At-Risk” for Violent BehaviorHow could you best communicate the need to follow these steps to a resistant staff?
154 Strategy #6: Create an Orderly Climate for Learning Chapter 12: Creating Safe SchoolsStrategy #6: Create an Orderly Climate for LearningEstablish and Emphasize GoalsEstablish Rules and ProceduresImprove Teacher-Student Relations in the ClassroomWhat specific rules and procedures would be most helpful in creating a safe school?What specific strategies can a principal and/or teacher use to improve teacher-student relations?
155 Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools Consider…What are the pros and cons of each of the six previous strategies?Beside creating safer schools, what are the other positive outcomes of these strategies?Which of the strategies (or combination of strategies) would you be most likely to implement in your school and why?Beyond these six strategies, what else can principals do to ensure that their school is a safe one?
156 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
157 Chapter 13: Human Resource Management Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.
158 The Human Resource Management Process Chapter 13: Human Resource ManagementRecruitmentSelectionLegal ConstraintsUnion DemandsStaff DevelopmentPerformance Appraisal
159 Chapter 13: Human Resource Management Recruitment of StaffBefore recruitment can commence, principals should:Analyze the job requirements: refer to job descriptions and job specificationsKnow and understand legal constraints involved in recruitment: consult Table 13-1Cultivate the sources of potential employees: promotion within a district, college placement offices, advertisements, referrals, job fairs, teacher recruitment consortiums
160 Selection of Staff Typical steps in staff selection: Chapter 13: Human Resource ManagementSelection of StaffTypical steps in staff selection:Preliminary screening of credentialsPreliminary interviewTestingReference ChecksIn-depth interviewPhysical examinationHiring decisionThe most complications usually arise in the interview process…
161 The Interview Process Typical problems: How to improve the process Chapter 13: Human Resource ManagementThe Interview ProcessTypical problems:Interviewer is unfamiliar with the jobInterviewers make premature decision based on first impressionsInterviewers impose personal biases on the applicantsHow to improve the process
162 A Better Interview Process Will Include… Chapter 13: Human Resource ManagementA Better Interview Process Will Include…Use of a structured interview formatExplicitly trained interviewersThe interview as ONE aspect of the selection processCandidates that are given interviews only after references are checkedCandidates whose files are screened for completenessSufficient time for each interviewMailing candidates two or three questions prior to interviewName cards placed in front of each interviewerAn evaluation form regarding the interview experience given to each candidateWhy would these tips aid in the selection process? Can you think of any other useful suggestions?
163 Chapter 13: Human Resource Management DO ASK ABOUT…Why applicant wants to teach at school/districtWhat can applicant bring to the school that is uniquely theirsWhy type of grading criteria is usedHow applicant keeps current in the fieldWhat has applicant done to develop professionallyWhat is applicant’s view of the relationship between faculty and administrationWhat are some other insightful and helpful interview questions that you can think of?
164 DO NOT ASK ABOUT… Age Financial condition Prior wage garnishments Chapter 13: Human Resource ManagementDO NOT ASK ABOUT…AgeFinancial conditionPrior wage garnishmentsHome ownershipDisabilitiesMarital statusWhere spouse worksPregnancy or medical historyAges of childrenMilitary experienceReligious observanceAncestry, nation of origin, place of birth, original language, etc.How applicant learned a foreign languageMembership in clubs that would indicate race, color, sex, etc.Names and addresses of relatives not working for the districtHow long applicant intends to work
165 Chapter 13: Human Resource Management Staff DevelopmentAssess Staff Development Needs: Review the three methods listed in the text. What are the benefits to these methods?Set Staff Development Goals: Why is an understanding of the three categories of objectives necessary for a principal seeking to improve staff development?Select Staff Development Methods: Examine the table that identifies widely used methods. Which of these (or combination thereof) do you think would be most effective and why?
166 Staff Development (cont’d) Chapter 13: Human Resource ManagementStaff Development (cont’d)Evaluate Staff Development Program: Why are the questions relating to staff development outcomes important to ask?Induct Beginning Teachers: Recall how it felt when you first became a teacher. What information do you wish you had been given? What specific strategies can principals use to aid beginning teachers?Improve Support for Beginning Teachers: Which of the recommendations listed to help principals work with beginning teachers could you most easily implement at your school? Can you think of any other specific strategies that would help achieve similar results?
167 Staff Performance Appraisal Chapter 13: Human Resource ManagementStaff Performance AppraisalAppraisal TechniquesNonjudgmental methodsJudgmental methodsCommon Rating ErrorsToo strict or lenientCentral tendencySingle dimensionHalo effectRecency of eventsPersonal bias and first impressions
168 Modern Appraisal Techniques Chapter 13: Human Resource ManagementModern Appraisal TechniquesClinical Supervision:Pre-observation conferenceObservationAnalysis and strategySupervision conferencePost-conferenceGoal SettingSupervisor and teacher meet to determine goalsSupervisor and teacher meet to appraise performance in terms of goals setAs a teacher, which appraisal techniques did/do you prefer? Why? As a principal, which do you think you will employ?
169 Union-Management Relations Chapter 13: Human Resource ManagementUnion-Management RelationsWhy must a principal work hard to create and maintain positive union-management relations?The Collective Bargaining ProcessBargaining team selectionNegotiationsIf negotiations are successful ratificationIf negotiations are not successful impasseMediationFact FindingArbitration
170 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
171 Chapter 14: Community Relations Standard 4: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by collaborating with families and other community members, responding to diverse community interests and needs, and mobilizing community resources.
172 The Principal as a “Boundary Spanner” Chapter 14: Community RelationsThe Principal as a “Boundary Spanner”A principal should be a bridge between the school and external constituencies
173 Leading Community Efforts during Catastrophe Chapter 14: Community RelationsLeading Community Efforts during CatastropheSchools become a lifeline. Why is this?What a principal can do:Establish means of communicationAssess damage quickly and make accommodationsPrioritize needs and establish authority to make decisionsAddress emotional and survival needs of staff and studentsArrange for training and support for mental health caregivers (prior to a catastrophe)Provide feedback to mediaIdentify and secure available resourcesAfter a catastrophe, encourage creative lesson planning that uses lessons learned
174 Leading School, Family, and Community Involvement Chapter 14: Community RelationsLeading School, Family, and Community InvolvementCommunity = just parentsWhat members of any given community might be most helpful to a school?Why is it important that a principal learn to serve as a leader of this community and not just the school?
175 Leading School, Family, and Community Involvement (cont’d) Chapter 14: Community RelationsLeading School, Family, and Community Involvement (cont’d)Epstein’s types of involvement:ParentingCommunicatingVolunteeringLearning at homeDecision makingCollaboration with communityComprehensive partnershipsCommunication avenues:Orientation meetingsNewslettersSchool handbookPrograms for familiesSuggestion boxHome visitsConferencesJournalsPersonal notesPhone callsResearch demonstrates that parental involvement is a key factor in students’ academic achievement, self-confidence, and attitude toward school. What can a principal do to encourage and promote parental involvement, especially for minority groups?What are the advantages and disadvantages to each of these avenues?
176 School-Community Relations Chapter 14: Community RelationsSchool-Community Relations“Educational public relations is a planned and systematic management function to help improve the programs and services of an educational organization. It relies on a comprehensive two-way communication process…[to] assist in interpreting public attitudes, identify and help shape policies and procedures in the public interest, and carry on involvement and information activities that earn public understanding and support.”The National School Public Relations Association
177 School-Community Relations (cont’d) Chapter 14: Community RelationsSchool-Community Relations (cont’d)To develop two-way communication and collaboration within a community, the NPSRA suggests:Anticipate problemsHandle all school publicationsWrite news releasesStay connected to budget processDevelop communication planConduct formal and informal research to gauge public opinionPromote school’s strengthsPublicize staff and student achievementAnswer request for informationProvide PR training for staffServe as liaison to community groupsWhat else can a principal do to create strong community relations?
178 Public Relations Strong PR programs follow these basic steps: Research Chapter 14: Community RelationsPublic RelationsStrong PR programs follow these basic steps:ResearchAction planCommunicateEvaluateRead “A Young Principal’s Story.” Identify and evaluate the principal’s use of this process. Compare this principal’s actions with those of the principal in “A Seasoned Principal’s Story.”
179 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
180 Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics Standard 5: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by acting with integrity, fairly, and in an ethical manner.
181 What Is an Ethical Principal? Chapter 15: The Principal and EthicsWhat Is an Ethical Principal?“One who, in the face of adversity, ambiguity, and challenge, will reflect on what is right by some set standard or code and will act in a rational and caring manner to resolve problems and conduct business.”Do you agree with the text’s definition(s) of an ethical principal? What are some of the obstacles that might prevent a principal from behaving ethically? How might you overcome those obstacles?
182 Philosophical Concepts of Ethics Chapter 15: The Principal and EthicsPhilosophical Concepts of EthicsRightsFreedomResponsibility and AuthorityDutyJusticeEquityCaringCharacter, Commitment, and FormalityConflict of InterestLoyaltyPrudenceCritiqueProfessionMoral ImperativeConsidering eachconcept individually,why must a principalbe aware of eachin order to behave ethically?
183 Ethical Behavior in Schools Chapter 15: The Principal and EthicsEthical Behavior in SchoolsPromoting Ethical Behavior in Athletic ProgramsWhy is this an issue? Has it become more of an issue in recent years? Why do you think this is?Consider:Athletes must be considered ends and not meansCompetition must be fairParticipation, leadership, resources, and rewards must be based on achievementActivity must be safe for participantsHow do these principles sustain traditional values? What other principles should an administrator be mindful of concerning athletics?
184 Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics Ethical Behavior in Schools: Promoting Ethical Behavior through Character EducationEducation Is an Inescapable Moral EnterpriseParents Are Primary Moral Educators of ChildrenCharacter Education Develops VirtuesTeachers, Principals, and Staff Are Central to Character EducationSchools Are Communities of VirtueCharacter Education Goes beyond Academic CurriculumCharacter Creation Is an Essential and Demanding Life TaskWhat are the benefits to character education and how can these 7 principles help you develop a character education program? Consider how you would work with your superintendent, school board, and other administrators.
185 National and State Codes of Ethics for Principals Chapter 15: The Principal and EthicsNational and State Codes of Ethics for PrincipalsRationale for a Code of EthicsProvide guidelines for conductEstablish accountability and protect studentsServe as catalyst for job improvementHow do the guidelines and self-assessment tools supplied by these national agencies support the rationale for a code of ethics?National Associations (click for website)American Association of School AdministratorsNational Association of Elementary School Principals and the National Association of Secondary School PrincipalsNational Education Association
186 National and State Codes of Ethics for Principals (cont’d) Chapter 15: The Principal and EthicsNational and State Codes of Ethics for Principals (cont’d)Review the sample state codes in the text.How do these codes support the concepts and principles discussed earlier in the chapter?Does your state supply a Code of Ethics for Educators? How does it help to ensure that educators and administrators behave in an ethical manner? Is there anything missing for your state’s code that you think would be helpful?
187 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
188 Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context Standard 6: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by understanding, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context.
189 Policy: A Historical Perspective Chapter 16: Political and Policy ContextPolicy: A Historical PerspectiveAs far as policy is concerned, what is the importance of the following terms and events?Brown vs. Board of EducationDifferentiated curriculumEquitySocio-economically disadvantagedPublic LawAccountabilityData-driven decision makingEnglish Language Learner
190 Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context Read the various definitions of policy in the text. What are the commonalities in these definitions? What is policy?Levels of relationship to policyOrientationDegreeResourcesActivityAutonomySocietal ValuesInstructional ValuesRationalePower Relationships
191 Policy Theory Systems Theory Chapter 16: Political and Policy ContextPolicy TheorySystems TheoryNeo-pluralist Advocacy Coalition and Interest Group TheoriesNeo-institutional TheoryCritical TheoryFeminist TheoryPostmodernismIdeological TheoriesWhat different insights regarding policy can be gleaned from each of the mentioned theories? Why is it important for a principal to have a working knowledge of these theories? What are the practical applications of these theories?
192 Dimensions of Policy Normative dimension Structural dimension Chapter 16: Political and Policy ContextDimensions of PolicyNormative dimensionStructural dimensionConstituentive dimensionTechnical dimensionTake a close look at Figure 16-2 to understand how these dimension interact to create policy
193 Politics What is your definition of politics? Chapter 16: Political and Policy ContextPoliticsWhat is your definition of politics?How does your definition compare to those given the text?Which of Apple’s groups would you place yourself in? The majority of teachers and staff at your school? The majority of the stakeholders in your community? Why is it important to identify these groups?Why must a principal be constantly aware of the politics of education?
194 Types of Educational Politics Chapter 16: Political and Policy ContextTypes of Educational PoliticsPluralist Maintenance PoliticsAdversarial PoliticsDemocratic PoliticsUnitary PoliticsConsolidated Principal PowerThe text states that “there are five perspectives on school politics that might be beneficial to principals to understand within their own political, school contexts.” What are the similarities and differences between these perspectives and how can an understanding of them be beneficial to a principal?
195 Politics: Working with the Superintendent and Other External Forces Chapter 16: Political and Policy ContextPolitics: Working with the Superintendent and Other External ForcesWhat is Davis’s take on the politics of principal evaluations? Why would this important opportunity for self-reflection cause tension between a principal and superintendent?Read the eight suggestions for working within political systems and with superintendents. Do you find these tips useful? Why/why not? Can you think of any other suggestions for working with the various political components of a district to ensure the quality education of all students?
196 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current ChapterProceed to Next ChapterEnd Presentation
197 Chapter 17: Legal IssuesStandard 6: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by understanding, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context.
198 Legal Basis for Public Education Chapter 17: Legal IssuesLegal Basis for Public EducationObviously, any administrator and educator needs to ensure that all of their actions are lawful. The following slides will briefly outline the various sources of educational law.
199 Sources of Law: Federal Chapter 17: Legal IssuesThe United States ConstitutionEducation is NOT specifically mentioned in the Constitution, so how can the federal government regulate it?Federal StatutesElementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965No Child Left Behind Act of 2002Civil Rights Acts of 1964 & 1991Federal Administrative AgenciesDepartment of EducationOffice of Civil RightsEqual Employment Opportunity CommissionEnvironmental Protection AgencyCase LawWhat power does the Supreme Court have concerning education?
200 Sources of Law: State State Constitutions State Statutes Chapter 17: Legal IssuesSources of Law: StateState ConstitutionsState StatutesState Administrative AgenciesCase LawLocal Level (school districts and service centers)What is the purpose and jurisdiction of each of the above sources for state education law?
201 Sources of Law: Judicial Chapter 17: Legal IssuesSources of Law: JudicialFederal CourtsState CourtsState Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtIntermediate Appellate CourtsU.S. Circuit Courts (13)Courts of General Jurisdiction(Superior and Circuit Courts)U.S. District Courts (89)Courts of Limited Jurisdiction (Municipal and Small Claims)
202 Chapter 17: Legal IssuesSchools and the StateThe following are the most common and pervasive issues administrators face concerning state and local legal authority in educationEqual Access ActReleased Time for Religious InstructionState Aid to Private SchoolsSchool FeesTransportationTextbooks, Courses, and SuppliesExtracurricular ActivitiesCompulsory School AttendanceResidency RequirementsChurch-State RelationsPrayer and Bible ReadingSilent PrayerPrayer at Graduation and Extracurricular Activities
203 Schools and the State (cont’d) Chapter 17: Legal IssuesSchools and the State (cont’d)State’s control over curriculum:School districts must offer curriculum prescribed by the legislature or lawRecent cases uphold district’s power to ban certain curriculum (but not for purely religious reasons)State-mandated performance testing:Strongly supported by NCLBMost controversy centers around using tests as graduation requirementsWhat can a principal do to minimize litigation in these matters?
204 Chapter 17: Legal IssuesStudents and the LawCan a student, legally, say whatever they want in a school? Why or why not? What is and is not protected by the First Amendment?Can a student, legally, dress any way they see fit while in school? Why or why not? What are regulations concerning health and safety standards, gang-related dress, controversial slogans, and school uniforms?
205 Students and the Law (cont’d) Chapter 17: Legal IssuesStudents and the Law (cont’d)Extracurricular ActivitiesConditions may be attached to participation in extracurricular activitiesStudent DisciplineWhat are the stipulations for suspensions, disciplinary transfers, and expulsions?27 states ban corporeal punishmentProtection from unreasonable search and seizure must be balanced with the need to maintain a safe school environment
206 Students and the Law (cont’d) Chapter 17: Legal IssuesStudents and the Law (cont’d)Students with disabilitiesAs discussed in Chapter 6, a principal must be very aware of the laws, acts, and legislation concerning students with disabilitiesThe most significant act, IDEA, assures that students with disabilities 1) receive a free appropriate education, 2) are prepared for employment and independent living, 3) have their rights protected, and 4) receive appropriate services from the state
207 Chapter 17: Legal IssuesTeachers and the LawCertification: What are the standards for certification in your state?Contracts:Offer and acceptanceCompetent partiesConsiderationLegal subject matterProper formTenure:Does your state provide tenure for teachers and other staff?Dismissal:Each state mandates proper procedure. What is your state’s procedure?
208 Teachers and the Law: Sexual Harassment Chapter 17: Legal IssuesLitigated under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972IncludesSexual briberySexual impositionGender harassmentSexual coercionSexual behaviorDiscourage with:No-tolerance policyWide dissemination of policyEasy complaint filingPrompt and objective investigationAppropriate remedial action
209 Teachers and the Law: Discrimination Chapter 17: Legal IssuesTeachers and the Law: DiscriminationFederal statutes prohibit discrimination based on:RaceGenderDisabilitiesAgeReligionPregnancy
210 Teachers and the Law: Collective Bargaining Chapter 17: Legal IssuesTeachers and the Law: Collective BargainingConstitution protects free association rights but does not guarantee collective bargainingBargaining issues to be aware of:Management rightsNarrow grievance definitionNo-strike provisionZipper clauseMaintenance of standardsJust causeReduction in forceWages and benefits
211 Teachers and the Law: Collective Bargaining (cont’d) Chapter 17: Legal IssuesTeachers and the Law: Collective Bargaining (cont’d)The Bargaining ProcessNegotiating team selectedNegotiations commenceIn the event of an impasse:MediationFact findingArbitrationBargaining Tactics:CounterproposalsTradeoffsCaucus
212 Chapter 17: Legal IssuesTort LiabilityTort = civil wrong (not contracts) for which a court can award damagesDefense against negligence:Contributory negligenceAssumption of riskComparative negligenceGovernmental immunityTo establish negligence:DutyStandard of careProximate causeInjury
213 Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Return to Table of Contents End Presentation
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