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The Principalship: Vision to Action Fred C. Lunenberg Beverly J. Irby.

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1 The Principalship: Vision to Action Fred C. Lunenberg Beverly J. Irby

2 Table of Contents (Click chapter title to navigate) Chapter 1: Cultivating Community, Culture and Learning Chapter 1: Cultivating Community, Culture and Learning Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning Chapter 5: Professional Development Chapter 5: Professional Development Chapter 6: Student Services Chapter 6: Student Services Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

3 Table of Contents (contd) (Click chapter title to navigate) Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication Chapter 10: The Principal and Change Chapter 10: The Principal and Change Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools Chapter 13: Human Resource Management Chapter 13: Human Resource Management Chapter 14: Community Relations Chapter 14: Community Relations Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context Chapter 17: Legal Issues Chapter 17: Legal Issues

4 Chapter 1: Cultivating Community, Culture and Learning Community CultureLearning

5 Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standards for School Leaders Review the language of the seven standards in your text book Review the language of the seven standards in your text book Re-write each in plain English Re-write each in plain English Discuss the purpose of each standard; i.e. Why would the Consortium consider this a valuable standard? Discuss the purpose of each standard; i.e. Why would the Consortium consider this a valuable standard? Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

6 The Role of the Principal Historically: Historically: A NEW APPROACH Principal Assistant principal Counselors Assistant principal Dean of Students Assistant principal Administrative Staff Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

7 LEADING FROM THE CENTER PRINCIPAL studentsstaffteachersparentscommunity Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

8 Compare and Contrast the Historic Approach to the New Approach Historic Historic Principal rules top-down Principal rules top-down Leadership dispersed according to authority Leadership dispersed according to authority A power over approach A power over approach Principal is the leader Principal is the leader New Principal works collaboratively Leadership dispersed according to competence A power to approach Principal is the leader of leaders Briefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. What factors might have contributed to the shifting paradigm? Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

9 Creating a Professional Learning Community Create a mission statement: Why does the school exist? What is its purpose? Create a mission statement: Why does the school exist? What is its purpose? Develop a vision: What does the school wish to become? Develop a vision: What does the school wish to become? How can schools avoid the following? How can schools avoid the following? tradition of isolation SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

10 Develop value statements: What attitudes and behaviors do stakeholders value and which will teachers pledge to demonstrate? Develop value statements: What attitudes and behaviors do stakeholders value and which will teachers pledge to demonstrate? Establish Goals: Establish Goals: Concrete evidence of implementation of school improvement Concrete evidence of implementation of school improvement Influenced by a districts administrators Influenced by a districts administrators Reflect a desired end result Reflect a desired end result Creating a Professional Learning Community (contd) BENEFITS TO SETTING GOALS Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

11 Setting clearly defined goals benefits all stakeholders by fostering… Commitment: individuals have a personal stake in outcomes Commitment: individuals have a personal stake in outcomes Standards: enable principals to analyze performance objectively Standards: enable principals to analyze performance objectively Targets: give individuals a concrete outcome, rather than a subjective one Targets: give individuals a concrete outcome, rather than a subjective one Motivation: encourages individuals to perform at highest levels Motivation: encourages individuals to perform at highest levels Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

12 What is the practical application of the vision setting process? A properly conceived vision serves as a filter for the myriad of daily decisions a principal is asked to make. A properly conceived vision serves as a filter for the myriad of daily decisions a principal is asked to make. VISIONVISION What should we do about poor test scores? How should I handle Mr. Johnsons yearly review? What can be done about truancies? Decisions that benefit all stakeholders in an ethical and fair manner Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

13 Developing a Culture What is culture? What is culture? The most common characteristics of culture: The most common characteristics of culture: CULTURE norms dominant values philosophyrulesfeelings observed behavioral regularities Consider heroes and heroines, traditions and rituals, and cultural networks Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

14 Maintaining School Culture 1. Hire staff carefully 2. Train staff in desired school culture 3. Instruct staff in technical aspects of job 4. Reward staff for performances that reflect the values of the culture 5. Adhere closely to values of the culture 6. Reinforce rites and rituals of culture 7. Identify and make available staff to serve as role models Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

15 The Principal as Instructional Leader The focus on results, the focus on student achievement, the focus on students learning at high levels - can only happen if teaching and learning become the central focus of the school and the central focus of the principal (Blase & Blase, 2003; Castallo, 2001; Lambert, 2003). The focus on results, the focus on student achievement, the focus on students learning at high levels - can only happen if teaching and learning become the central focus of the school and the central focus of the principal (Blase & Blase, 2003; Castallo, 2001; Lambert, 2003). Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

16 Shift instruction from teaching to learning… Focus on learning: What is the difference between teaching and learning? What questions do you need to consider to facilitate this shift? Focus on learning: What is the difference between teaching and learning? What questions do you need to consider to facilitate this shift? Encourage Collaboration: Why is collaboration beneficial? Encourage Collaboration: Why is collaboration beneficial? Analyze Results: What type of data should be disaggregated and into what categories? Analyze Results: What type of data should be disaggregated and into what categories? Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

17 Shift instruction from teaching to learning… Provide Support: What training do teachers need to facilitate this shift? What would the outcome of this support and shift look like in the classroom? Provide Support: What training do teachers need to facilitate this shift? What would the outcome of this support and shift look like in the classroom? Align Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment: How does this reflect NCLB? Despite criticisms of teaching to a test, what are the clear benefits to an assessment driven curriculum? Align Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment: How does this reflect NCLB? Despite criticisms of teaching to a test, what are the clear benefits to an assessment driven curriculum? Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning

18 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation

19 Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff.

20 Gaining a Perspective on the Vision: Considering the Future In addition to critical thinking and imagination, the following factors must be considered in creating a vision: In addition to critical thinking and imagination, the following factors must be considered in creating a vision: The Global Society (poverty, race, gender, assimilation, etc.) The Global Society (poverty, race, gender, assimilation, etc.) Challenges in Learning (underachieving minority groups, physical and mental abuse, other sources of education) Challenges in Learning (underachieving minority groups, physical and mental abuse, other sources of education) A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE VISION CHALLENGES PRINCIPALS TO EDUCATE ALL CHILDREN Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

21 Bringing the Vision Home to the School Culture Basic tenants of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: Basic tenants of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: Schools are accountable for achievement of ALL students Schools are accountable for achievement of ALL students Schools must hire highly qualified teachers Schools must hire highly qualified teachers Schools implement research-based programs and practices Schools implement research-based programs and practices How do these criteria impact how you would create a vision for your school? Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

22 The Systemic Vision Contextual AND dependent upon relationships: Contextual AND dependent upon relationships: Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning District Vision, Mission, and Goals Campus Vision, Mission, and Goals MISSION AND GOALS ACCOMPLISHED Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values (of the leader, faculty, staff, and community) Collaboratively Developed Action Plan for Accomplishing Goals Motivated Students Relationships Built Deeper Understanding of Individuals and the Organization

23 Creating a Vision The principal must consider: 1.Where has the school been? 2.Where is the school currently? 3.Where should the school be in the future? How do the conditions listed in figure 2-2 help a principal grow a vision? What roles do personal beliefs, values, and attitudes play in this growth? Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

24 The Leadership Framework as a Doorway to Creating a Vision A leadership framework should include: 1.Philosophy of education 2.Philosophy of leadership 3.Vision for learners 4.Vision for teachers 5.Vision of organization 6.Vision of professional growth 7.Method of vision attainment Why is the leadership framework a useful tool for creating a vision? Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

25 Shepherding the Vision BEWARE OF… Tradition Tradition Scorn Scorn Nay-Sayers Nay-Sayers Complacency Complacency Weariness Weariness Short-range thinking Short-range thinking Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

26 Shepherding the Vision (contd) Encourage… Building ownership in the vision Building ownership in the vision Thinking of the long-term benefits Thinking of the long-term benefits Seeking input from stakeholders Seeking input from stakeholders Building confidence in stakeholders Building confidence in stakeholders Staying with the vision Staying with the vision Staying focused Staying focused Keeping stakeholders alert to any changes Keeping stakeholders alert to any changes Demonstrating how focus results in efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity Demonstrating how focus results in efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

27 Mission Statements vs. Goal Statements Mission Statements State the purpose of the school, both generally and specifically State the purpose of the school, both generally and specifically Guide decision-making processes Guide decision-making processes Guided by the vision and explain how it will be obtained Guided by the vision and explain how it will be obtained Goal Statements Break the mission and vision down into specific and measurable steps The tangible results a school is trying to achieve Guided by the mission and vision Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

28 Creating Goals to Obtain a Vision Consider the hierarchy of goals: A means- end analysis can help a principal prioritize and organize goals Consider the hierarchy of goals: A means- end analysis can help a principal prioritize and organize goals What is necessary for the hierarchy shown in figure 2-3 to operate cohesively in order to achieve a stated vision? Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

29 What Makes an Effective Goal? Clarity and specificity Clarity and specificity Time frame Time frame Key areas Key areas Challenging but realistic Challenging but realistic Linked to rewards Linked to rewards Why are these criteria needed for a goal to be considered effective? Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

30 The Goal Setting Process Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Setting Goals Evaluating Results Developing Action Plans Revise and Update Monitoring PerformanceRevise and Update Recycle

31 Common Problems with Goal Setting Lack of top-management support Lack of top-management support Time-consuming Time-consuming Excessive paperwork Excessive paperwork Overemphasis on quantitative goals Overemphasis on quantitative goals Administrative style Administrative style Prepackaged programs Prepackaged programs How would you overcome each of these obstacles? Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

32 Tips for Effective Goal Setting Develop a specific organizational structure Develop a specific organizational structure Create a positive leadership climate Create a positive leadership climate Maintain the means-ends chain of goals Maintain the means-ends chain of goals Train principals Train principals Emphasize periodic feedback sessions Emphasize periodic feedback sessions Once goals have been set, the principal must determine HOW they will be obtained. This leads to… Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning

33 Developing Plans for Attaining Goals Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Time Frame for Plans Strategic Plan Tactical Plan Standing Plans Operational Plan Strategic plans define the means by which the goals of the school are to be attained Tactical plans are designed to help execute strategic plans and to accomplish a specific part of the districts strategy Operational plans are developed at the lower levels of the district to specify the means toward achieving operational goals and supporting tactical planning activities Standing plans are predetermined statements that help decision makers handle repetitive situations in a consistent manner

34 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation

35 Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff.

36 Concepts and Models of Curriculum Consider the traditional concepts and models of curriculum outlined in the first 15 pages of chapter 3. Consider the traditional concepts and models of curriculum outlined in the first 15 pages of chapter 3. Which of these do you most closely align yourself? Why? What different visions and goals would emerge from each of these models? Which of these do you most closely align yourself? Why? What different visions and goals would emerge from each of these models? Now, lets look at some more modern curriculum models… Now, lets look at some more modern curriculum models… Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

37 Modern Models of Curriculum Most have an emphasis on interdisciplinary courses, open-ended systems, intergenerational and inter-professional relationships, Socratic dialogue, multi- dimensional assessments, and multiculturalism (McNabb, 1995). Most have an emphasis on interdisciplinary courses, open-ended systems, intergenerational and inter-professional relationships, Socratic dialogue, multi- dimensional assessments, and multiculturalism (McNabb, 1995). Most are open educational systems Most are open educational systems Consider the above statements and the late 20 th century definitions of curriculum in your textbook. Consider the above statements and the late 20 th century definitions of curriculum in your textbook. How do modern models of curriculum reflect todays society? A closer look… Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

38 The Irby and Lunenberg Model Curriculum must be: Led by the principal but developed collaboratively Led by the principal but developed collaboratively Considerate of the community Considerate of the community Responsive to student needs Responsive to student needs Connected to vision and mission of the school Connected to vision and mission of the school Reflective of the needs of a global society Reflective of the needs of a global society Able to be assessed in terms of student performance Able to be assessed in terms of student performance Integrated systematically Integrated systematically Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

39 The Ornstein Model Systemic approach: recognizes that the actions within the organization impact curriculum decisions Systemic approach: recognizes that the actions within the organization impact curriculum decisions 7 categories to the model: 7 categories to the model: 1.Political Forces 2.Knowledge Industry 3.External Groups 4.Content 5.Instructional Activities 6.Evaluation 7.Supervision of Curriculum Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation Examine Figure 3-6. How do these 7 categories interact to create a model of curriculum?

40 The Eisner Model Five dimensions needed for successful schools: Five dimensions needed for successful schools: 1.The Intentional 2.The Structural 3.The Curriculum 4.The Pedagogical 5.The Evaluative Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation What is meant by each of these dimensions and how could they work together to create successful schools?

41 Relationship of Curriculum to Instruction Functions of a Curriculum Plan Functions of a Curriculum Plan To produce a curriculum for an identifiable population To produce a curriculum for an identifiable population To implement the curriculum in a specific school To implement the curriculum in a specific school To appraise the effectiveness of the curriculum developed To appraise the effectiveness of the curriculum developed Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation Read the 15 characteristics identified by Tomlinson and Allan. Why must a principal take these characteristics into consideration in order to make positive changes to the curriculum?

42 The Principal as the Curriculum and Instructional Leader While the principal does not need to provide ALL of the curriculum leadership, the most effective ones collect information and use it to facilitate curriculum development While the principal does not need to provide ALL of the curriculum leadership, the most effective ones collect information and use it to facilitate curriculum development In order to share the responsibility for curriculum leadership a principal should: In order to share the responsibility for curriculum leadership a principal should: Allow teachers to take responsibility for curriculum Allow teachers to take responsibility for curriculum Arrange schedule to give teachers time to work on curriculum Arrange schedule to give teachers time to work on curriculum Provide staff development Provide staff development Provide resources Provide resources Create a community of learners (see Figure 13-9) Create a community of learners (see Figure 13-9) Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

43 Curriculum Goals and Instructional Objectives Curriculum Goals = broad, general statements to help develop programs of instruction Curriculum Goals = broad, general statements to help develop programs of instruction What you WANT the students to do What you WANT the students to do Instructional Objectives = required performance, conditions for behavior, and level of performance What the student actually DOES Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation To achieve teacher and staff buy-in a principal needs to offer: 1.Data that support the need for change 2.Information that supports the changes in similar contexts 3.Connection between goals and achievement measures 4.Focus on usability, simplicity, and effectiveness 5.Clear relationships between changes and the vision 6.Opportunities for teachers and staff to participate in goal and objective creation

44 Curriculum Goals and Instructional Objectives (contd) Classifying objectives Classifying objectives Cognitive Cognitive 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation Affective Affective 1. Receiving 2. Responding 3. Valuing 4. Organization 5. Characterization Psychomotor 1. Reflex movements 2. Basic-fundamental movements 3. Perceptual abilities 4. Physical abilities 5. Skilled movements 6. Non-discursive communication REMEMBER: OBJECTIVES MUST CORRELATE WITH THE CURRICULUM Refer to the 7 principles for selecting learning experiences to ensure that they foster active involvement in the learning process Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

45 Developing a Needs Assessment Why a needs assessment? Why a needs assessment? Assists with developing or revising curriculum and assessment Assists with developing or revising curriculum and assessment Ensures a dynamic and responsive curriculum Ensures a dynamic and responsive curriculum Gives teachers information about learners Gives teachers information about learners At the curriculum level, a needs assessment includes a(n): At the curriculum level, a needs assessment includes a(n): 1.Review and analysis of standards 2.Review of curriculum from successful districts 3.Interview of students, teachers, and parents 4.Review of current students work 5.Review of related literature and best practices Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

46 Aligning the Curriculum After a needs assessment, curriculum alignment shows WHAT will be taught in all subject areas and at each grade level After a needs assessment, curriculum alignment shows WHAT will be taught in all subject areas and at each grade level Curriculum mapping provides scope and sequence of WHEN skills will be taught Curriculum mapping provides scope and sequence of WHEN skills will be taught Curriculum benchmarking provides periodic assessments and minimum standards of achievement Curriculum benchmarking provides periodic assessments and minimum standards of achievement Curriculum audits help identify strengths and gaps in instructional practices Curriculum audits help identify strengths and gaps in instructional practices Instructional differentiation attempts to determine which instructional methods are best for all learners Instructional differentiation attempts to determine which instructional methods are best for all learners Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

47 Focusing the Vision and the Schools Mission through Curriculum The principal is the curriculum or instructional specialist or leader who does have the understanding of philosophy, the clarity of vision, and the technical skills to move his/her programs toward meaningful activity. The principal is the curriculum or instructional specialist or leader who does have the understanding of philosophy, the clarity of vision, and the technical skills to move his/her programs toward meaningful activity. Consider how the case study of Mauka Lani Elementary School exemplifies this alignment and call to action. Consider how the case study of Mauka Lani Elementary School exemplifies this alignment and call to action. Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation

48 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation

49 Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff.

50 The Principal and Instructional Planning Instructional planning should be a self- reflective tool Instructional planning should be a self- reflective tool How does the cycle described in Figure 4-1 promote successful instructional planning? How does the cycle described in Figure 4-1 promote successful instructional planning? Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning What are the benefits to instructional planning?

51 Benefits of Instructional Planning Provides Provides a daily map Targets Targets learner benchmarks Ensures Ensures that teacher follows up on identified weaknesses Reinforces Reinforces teachers understanding of content knowledge Intertwined Intertwined with the curriculum alignment process Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning Beyond instructional planning, what are the added positive outcomes of the above listed benefits?

52 The Principal and Instructional Planning (contd) Promoting Reflective Planning: What questions would you pose to a struggling teacher concerning goals, objectives, instructional activities, assessment, revision, and implementation? Promoting Reflective Planning: What questions would you pose to a struggling teacher concerning goals, objectives, instructional activities, assessment, revision, and implementation? Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

53 The Principal and Instructional Planning (contd) Using Student Data to Drive Instructional Planning: What are some of the obstacles that educators face in properly using student data to aid in instructional planning? How would you overcome these obstacles? Using Student Data to Drive Instructional Planning: What are some of the obstacles that educators face in properly using student data to aid in instructional planning? How would you overcome these obstacles? Consider the anecdote of Dr. John Barrera. How does this example demonstrate the proper use of student data? Consider the anecdote of Dr. John Barrera. How does this example demonstrate the proper use of student data? REMEMBER! REMEMBER! Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

54 The Principal and Instructional Planning (contd) Using Students Cultural Backgrounds in Instructional Planning Using Students Cultural Backgrounds in Instructional Planning Do not use ONLY student achievement data Do not use ONLY student achievement data Consider also: Ethno-instruction and Differentiated Instruction Consider also: Ethno-instruction and Differentiated Instruction Why are these two strategies increasingly important in todays classrooms? Why are these two strategies increasingly important in todays classrooms? Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

55 Information Processing Read the various theories of information processing as outlined in your text. Read the various theories of information processing as outlined in your text. Which theory/theories do you think best explain how people process information and why? Which theory/theories do you think best explain how people process information and why? Why is it important for a principal to have a working knowledge of these various theories? Why is it important for a principal to have a working knowledge of these various theories? How could you develop these theories into practical applications at your school? How could you develop these theories into practical applications at your school? Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

56 The Effective Schools Model What makes an effective school? Research shows the following… What makes an effective school? Research shows the following… Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning CLEAR AND FOCUSED MISSION STRONG INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN FREQUENT MONITORING SAFE AND ORDERLY ENVIRONMENT POSITIVE HOME-SCHOOL RELATIONS HIGH EXPECTATIONS

57 Effective Teaching Practices: The 12 Principles 1. Students can learn best within cohesive and caring communities 2. Students learn more when time is allocated to curriculum related events 3. All components of curriculum are aligned in a cohesive program designed to achieve specific goals 4. Teacher can prepare students for learning by providing initial structure Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

58 5. Content is explained clearly and developed with emphasis on structure and connections 6. Questions are planned to engage students in sustained discourse 7. Students receive sufficient opportunities to practice and apply what theyve learned and to receive feedback 8. Teacher provides assistance to enable students to engage in learning activities Effective Teaching Practices: The 12 Principles (contd) Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

59 Effective Teaching Practices: The 12 Principles (contd) 9. Teacher models and instructs students in learning and self-regulation strategies 10. Students often benefit from working in pairs or small groups 11. Teacher uses variety of formal and informal assessment methods 12. Teacher establishes and follows through on appropriate expectations for learning outcomes Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

60 Conditions for Learning and Best Practices Conditions for Learning Conditions for Learning School is warm and inviting School is warm and inviting Curriculum includes fine arts Curriculum includes fine arts Students learn to be effective citizens Students learn to be effective citizens Students learn to develop skills for the workplace Students learn to develop skills for the workplace School has smaller class sizes School has smaller class sizes Support staff is available Support staff is available School reviews self School reviews self Data and evidence drive decisions Data and evidence drive decisions Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning Why are these (and the other conditions listed) considered necessary conditions for learning? Can you think of any others?

61 Models of Observation Read the NCTAFs 5 propositions deemed essential for accomplished teaching Read the NCTAFs 5 propositions deemed essential for accomplished teaching Do you agree that these 5 conditions are necessary? Why/why not? Do you agree that these 5 conditions are necessary? Why/why not? Can you think of any other essential propositions? Can you think of any other essential propositions? How can a knowledge of these 5 propositions help a principal improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning at his/her school? How can a knowledge of these 5 propositions help a principal improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning at his/her school? Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

62 Models of Observation (contd) Formative Evaluation Formative Evaluation Summative Evaluation Summative Evaluation Classroom Observations Classroom Observations Walk-Through Observations Walk-Through Observations Peer Coaching Peer Coaching As a teacher, which of these types of observation do/did you prefer? Why? As a principal, which of these types of observation do you think will be most helpful? Why? Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning

63 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation

64 Chapter 5: Professional Development Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff.

65 The Mission of Principals Related to Professional Development (PD) Well read and educated in latest research Chapter 5: Professional Development THE IDEAL PD PRINCIPAL Defines own personal, professional growth needs according to data Analyzes impact on campus Solution focused Sensitive to students and community Initiates and implements collaboratively driven professional development plan Scans needs of teachers, monitors instruction, and disaggregates data Thinks forward and consequentially

66 The Principals Mission to Teachers PD Chapter 5: Professional Development PLAN: Work with teachers to develop a comprehensive PD targeted at individual and collective needs PROVIDE: Resources (time and money) for teachers to be reflective about their practices What is the advantage to this approach to teachers PD?

67 High Quality PD Consider Knowles observations: Consider Knowles observations: Adult learners need to be self-directed Adult learners need to be self-directed Adult learners display readiness to learn why they have a perceived need Adult learners display readiness to learn why they have a perceived need Adult learners desire immediate application of new skills and knowledge Adult learners desire immediate application of new skills and knowledge Do you agree with Knowles findings? What are the implications of these findings on an effective PD program? Chapter 5: Professional Development

68 The Ten Principles of Effective PD 1. Effective PD focuses on teachers as central to student learning, yet includes other members of the school community 2. Effective PD focuses on the individual, collegial, and organizational improvement 3. Effective PD respects and nurtures the intellectual and leadership capacity of teachers, principals, and others in the school community 4. Effective PD reflects best available research and practice in teaching, learning, and leadership 5. Effective PD enables teachers to develop further expertise in subject content, teaching strategies, uses of technologies, and other essential elements in teaching to high standards Chapter 5: Professional Development

69 6. Effective PD promotes continuous inquiry and improvement embedded in the daily life of schools 7. Effective PD is planned collaboratively by those who will participate in and facilitate that development 8. Effective PD requires substantial time and other resources 9. Effective PD is driven by a coherent long-term plan 10. Effective PD is evaluated ultimately on the basis of its impact on teacher effectiveness and student learning; and this assessment guides subsequent professional development efforts Chapter 5: Professional Development The Ten Principles of Effective PD (contd) What would a PD program that utilizes all of these principles look like?

70 The Principals Mission for Personal Professional Development Why is it essential that principals develop their own PD plan? Why is it essential that principals develop their own PD plan? Read the description of the PD Portfolio. What are the various components of the Portfolio and how do they work together to ensure that the principal embarks on a successful and effective PD plan? Read the description of the PD Portfolio. What are the various components of the Portfolio and how do they work together to ensure that the principal embarks on a successful and effective PD plan? Review your own Portfolio (start one if you have not already). What components are missing or need to be updated? Review your own Portfolio (start one if you have not already). What components are missing or need to be updated? Chapter 5: Professional Development

71 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation

72 Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff. Chapter 6: Student Services

73 Guidance and Counseling Services To provide for the realization of student potentialities To provide for the realization of student potentialities To help children with developing problems To help children with developing problems To contribute to the development of the schools curriculum To contribute to the development of the schools curriculum To provide teachers with technical assistance To provide teachers with technical assistance To contribute to the mutual adjustment of students and the school To contribute to the mutual adjustment of students and the school Chapter 6: Student Services Assess the scope of the guidance and counseling services offered on your campus.

74 Guidance and Counseling Services (contd) Role of the Counselor Role of the Counselor Personal/social issues Personal/social issues Educational issues Educational issues Career planning Career planning Major Services Assessment Information Placement and follow-up Counseling (Directive, Nondirective, and Eclectic Counseling) Chapter 6: Student Services

75 When evaluating the program, consider… When evaluating the program, consider… Student needs Student needs Cooperation Cooperation Process and product Process and product Balance Balance Stability Stability Flexibility Flexibility Qualified counselors Qualified counselors Adequate counselor-student ratio Adequate counselor-student ratio Physical facilities Physical facilities Records Records Guidance and Counseling Services (contd) Using these 10 criteria, evaluate the guidance and counseling program at your school or one you have worked at in the past. How can these characteristics help you plan for an effective program at your school? Chapter 6: Student Services

76 Attendance and Student Records Cumulative records should contain: Cumulative records should contain: Personal data sheet Personal data sheet Parents report Parents report Childs self-concept Childs self-concept Sociogram Sociogram Behavior reports Behavior reports Standardized test data Standardized test data Chapter 6: Student Services What is the purpose of ensuring that these artifacts appear in students cumulative record?

77 Evaluating Student Progress As NCLB stresses AYP and accountability, evaluating student progress has become a critical role for the 21 st century principal. Assessment can serve various purposes: As NCLB stresses AYP and accountability, evaluating student progress has become a critical role for the 21 st century principal. Assessment can serve various purposes: Help student understand self Help student understand self Provide information for education/vocational counseling Provide information for education/vocational counseling Help staff understand student population Help staff understand student population Evaluate the academic progress of students Evaluate the academic progress of students Help administrative staff appraise programs Help administrative staff appraise programs Facilitate curriculum revision Facilitate curriculum revision Make instructional management decisions Make instructional management decisions Make decisions about screening students Make decisions about screening students Make program decisions Make program decisions Chapter 6: Student Services

78 Evaluating Student Progress (contd) While many bemoan the NCLBs emphasis on testing, assessment clearly has its benefits if the testing program is well developed While many bemoan the NCLBs emphasis on testing, assessment clearly has its benefits if the testing program is well developed Minimum components of testing battery: Minimum components of testing battery: 1. Emerging reading tests 2. Learning readiness tests 3. Intelligence tests 4. Achievement tests 5. Interest and aptitude tests Chapter 6: Student Services

79 Reporting to Parents/Family Any teacher knows that grading has its difficulties. Among them are: Any teacher knows that grading has its difficulties. Among them are: Teacher variability Teacher variability Unreliable aptitude scores for all students Unreliable aptitude scores for all students Policy variability Policy variability Variety of alternatives to traditional methods Variety of alternatives to traditional methods Chapter 6: Student Services How can a principal account for and deal with these difficulties? Compare your solutions with the following…

80 Methods of Reporting Grades Percentage method Percentage method Letter method Letter method Descriptive method Descriptive method Percentile method Percentile method Three-group method Three-group method Rank method Rank method T-score method T-score method What are the benefits and draw- backs to each of these methods? In what circumstances would you use one method over another? Chapter 6: Student Services

81 Extracurricular Activities Shouldnt principals be concerned solely with the academic program at their school? Shouldnt principals be concerned solely with the academic program at their school? Extracurricular activities are vital to help students develop skills and talents not readily tapped into in the traditional core subjects. Read the texts explanation of the functions of these activities. Can you think of any others? Extracurricular activities are vital to help students develop skills and talents not readily tapped into in the traditional core subjects. Read the texts explanation of the functions of these activities. Can you think of any others? Chapter 6: Student Services

82 Special Education Services Key Legislation: Key Legislation: Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Education for All Handicapped Act of 1975 Education for All Handicapped Act of 1975 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) Key Components of IDEA: Key Components of IDEA: Related Services Related Services Due Process Due Process Discipline Discipline Make sure you are familiar with these terms and their legal implications. Remember that a principal must ensure the quality education of ALL students. Make sure you are familiar with these terms and their legal implications. Remember that a principal must ensure the quality education of ALL students. Chapter 6: Student Services

83 Gifted Education The area of Gifted Education is growing rapidly and principals must be aware of how to best serve this special population. Gifted students will NOT thrive on their own; they need and deserve the services, attention, and resources to best develop their gifts and talents. The area of Gifted Education is growing rapidly and principals must be aware of how to best serve this special population. Gifted students will NOT thrive on their own; they need and deserve the services, attention, and resources to best develop their gifts and talents. Refer to Figure 6-2 for a list of options that will help to meet the needs of gifted students Refer to Figure 6-2 for a list of options that will help to meet the needs of gifted students Chapter 6: Student Services

84 Bilingual Education As with the gifted population, students requiring bilingual services are also rapidly growing As with the gifted population, students requiring bilingual services are also rapidly growing Principals must consider the following when creating an ESL program: Principals must consider the following when creating an ESL program: State guidelines State guidelines Student population to be served Student population to be served District resources District resources Chapter 6: Student Services

85 Bilingual Education (contd) Principals must be aware of the following terms Principals must be aware of the following terms Early-exit Early-exit Late-exit Late-exit Immersion Immersion Dual immersion Dual immersion Submersion Submersion Dual-language Dual-language Two-way Two-way Chapter 6: Student Services

86 ESL Program Models: ESL Program Models: Pull Out Pull Out Class Period Class Period Shelter English or Content-based Programs Shelter English or Content-based Programs Structured English Immersion Structured English Immersion High Intensity Language Training Programs High Intensity Language Training Programs Bilingual Education (contd) When would it be appropriate to use each of the above models? Chapter 6: Student Services

87 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation

88 Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment. Chapter 7: Organizational Structures The Big Cheese Jr. Cheese Asst. Cheese Assoc. Cheese

89 Important Concepts of Organizational Structure Job Specialization Job Specialization Departmentalization Departmentalization Delegation Delegation Decentralization Decentralization Span of Management Span of Management Chapter 7: Organizational Structures What do each of these terms mean and how do they help to explain the concept of an organizational structure?

90 Schools as Open Systems Schools are open systems because… they interact with their environments Schools are open systems because… they interact with their environments Inputs = human, financial, physical, and information resources Inputs = human, financial, physical, and information resources Transformation Process = combining and coordinating resources to attain goals Transformation Process = combining and coordinating resources to attain goals Outputs = prepared and educated students, staff and community satisfaction Outputs = prepared and educated students, staff and community satisfaction Feedback = student, parent, staff, and community reaction to output Feedback = student, parent, staff, and community reaction to output Chapter 7: Organizational Structures

91 Leadership Functions Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Planning How can an understanding of the interplay between these functions help a principal to more effectively manage the organizational structure of their school? OrganizingMonitoring Leading

92 Administrative Roles Principal Activities: Principal Activities: Heavy Workload at a Fast Pace Heavy Workload at a Fast Pace Variety, Fragmentation, and Brevity Variety, Fragmentation, and Brevity Oral Communication Oral Communication Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Are these activities unique to the role of the principal? Which of these do you find most daunting? Which of these comes naturally to you?

93 Management Skills Conceptual Skills: Ones mental ability to acquire, analyze, and interpret information Conceptual Skills: Ones mental ability to acquire, analyze, and interpret information Human Skills: Ones ability to motivate, facilitate, coordinate, lead, communicate, manage conflict, and get along with others Human Skills: Ones ability to motivate, facilitate, coordinate, lead, communicate, manage conflict, and get along with others Technical Skills: Ones ability to use knowledge, methods, and techniques of a specific discipline Technical Skills: Ones ability to use knowledge, methods, and techniques of a specific discipline Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Consider Figure 7-3. At what level would you place yourself? Your current administrators? How does one move up the hierarchy?

94 Effective Principals Task Dimensions: Consider Sashkin and Huddles 13 task dimensions of a principal. How can you deliberately design your actions to build cultural as well as managerial linkages? Task Dimensions: Consider Sashkin and Huddles 13 task dimensions of a principal. How can you deliberately design your actions to build cultural as well as managerial linkages? Human Resource Activities: Consider the list of traits of ineffective administrators. Why would these be detriments to an effective principal and how could you correct each of these shortcomings? Human Resource Activities: Consider the list of traits of ineffective administrators. Why would these be detriments to an effective principal and how could you correct each of these shortcomings? Chapter 7: Organizational Structures

95 Effective vs. Successful Administrators Effective = how well a principal was evaluated by subordinates Effective = how well a principal was evaluated by subordinates Most time on task- related communication Most time on task- related communication Human resource management Human resource management Successful = rapid promotion Little time on human resource management Good at networking Politically savvy Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Are these findings surprising to you? What are their implications?

96 The Demise of Bureaucracy What is the harm of bureaucracy? Explain why each of the following are seen as negative features to bureaucracy, especially in education. What is the harm of bureaucracy? Explain why each of the following are seen as negative features to bureaucracy, especially in education. Division of labor and specialization Division of labor and specialization Reliance on rules and procedures Reliance on rules and procedures Emphasis on hierarchy of authority Emphasis on hierarchy of authority Lifelong careers and evaluation Lifelong careers and evaluation Impersonality Impersonality Chapter 7: Organizational Structures So what are the alternatives?

97 Emergent Models of Organizational Structure System 4 Design System 4 Design Site Based Management Site Based Management Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership Synergistic Leadership Theory Synergistic Leadership Theory Total Quality Management (TQM) Total Quality Management (TQM) Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Read the description of each model carefully. Which one appeals to you the most and why? Regardless of which model you find most intriguing, consider…

98 10 Concepts Helpful in Restructuring the Content of Schooling Heterogeneous grouping Heterogeneous grouping Cooperative learning Cooperative learning High expectations for all High expectations for all Responsiveness to student diversity Responsiveness to student diversity Emphasis on active learning Emphasis on active learning Essential curriculum Authentic assessment Technology as a tool Time as a learning resource Diverse pedagogy Chapter 7: Organizational Structures

99 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation

100 Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment. Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

101 The Nature of Decision Making Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker Decision Making Making a choice from a number of options Purpose or goal achieved Understanding how a decision was reached

102 The Decision Making Process Identifying the problem Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker Generating alternatives Evaluating alternatives Choosing an alternative Implementing the decision Evaluating decision effectiveness Recycle process as necessary

103 The Rational Decision Maker What is rational decision making? What is rational decision making? Problem is clear Problem is clear Single goal is to be achieved Single goal is to be achieved All alternatives and consequences are known All alternatives and consequences are known Preferences are clear Preferences are clear Preferences are constant and stable Preferences are constant and stable No time or cost constraints No time or cost constraints Final choice will maximize economic payoff Final choice will maximize economic payoff Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker Do these assumptions seem applicable to most school organizations you are aware of? Rationality seems limited, so…

104 Limits to Rationality Bounded Rationality: Bounded Rationality: Decisions based on incomplete comprehension of the problem Decisions based on incomplete comprehension of the problem Decision makers will not succeed in generating all possible solutions Decision makers will not succeed in generating all possible solutions Alternatives are evaluated incompletely Alternatives are evaluated incompletely Ultimate decision must be based on criterion other than maximization Ultimate decision must be based on criterion other than maximization Consider: Satisfying, Heuristics, Primacy/Recency Effect, Bolstering the Alternative, Intuition, Incrementalizing, the Garbage-Can Model Consider: Satisfying, Heuristics, Primacy/Recency Effect, Bolstering the Alternative, Intuition, Incrementalizing, the Garbage-Can Model How can these processes compensate for the limits to rationality and allow a principal to make effective decisions? How can these processes compensate for the limits to rationality and allow a principal to make effective decisions? Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

105 Shared Decision Making Often committees, teams, councils, etc. must make decisions too. In these instances, an understanding of the shared decision making process is necessary. Often committees, teams, councils, etc. must make decisions too. In these instances, an understanding of the shared decision making process is necessary. To help involve teachers in the process, consider Huddleston, Claspell, and Killions method: To help involve teachers in the process, consider Huddleston, Claspell, and Killions method: Readiness: prepare for shared decision making Readiness: prepare for shared decision making Experimentation: build comfort in the decision making process Experimentation: build comfort in the decision making process Refinement: share the decision making process Refinement: share the decision making process Institutionalization: shared decision making becomes norm Institutionalization: shared decision making becomes norm This process is not flawless. What are the advantages and disadvantages to shared decision making? This process is not flawless. What are the advantages and disadvantages to shared decision making? Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

106 Advantages and Disadvantages to Shared Decision Making Greater sum total knowledge Greater sum total knowledge Greater number of approaches to the problem Greater number of approaches to the problem Greater number of alternatives Greater number of alternatives Increased acceptance of a decision Increased acceptance of a decision Better comprehension of a problem and decision Better comprehension of a problem and decision Social pressures toward conformity Individual domination Conflicting secondary goals Undesirable compromises Ambiguous responsibility More time needed Obviously, a principal needs to carefully consider if the shared decision making process is appropriate for any given situation. Read Williamss list of skills needed for effective site-based decision making. Do these tips seem do-able? Now read through the model provided in the text. While seemingly esoteric, what are the practical applications and advantages to this method? Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

107 Decision Making – Pattern Choice An alternative model to shared decision making, this approach focuses on a continuum of leadership from boss-centered to subordinate-centered An alternative model to shared decision making, this approach focuses on a continuum of leadership from boss-centered to subordinate-centered Review Figure 8-4 for a more detailed look at this approach Review Figure 8-4 for a more detailed look at this approach The principal must consider the forces in the leader, forces in the group members, forces in the situation, and long-run goals and strategy… The principal must consider the forces in the leader, forces in the group members, forces in the situation, and long-run goals and strategy… Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

108 Decision Making – Pattern Choice (Contd) Forces in the leader that determine which of the patterns to choose from: Forces in the leader that determine which of the patterns to choose from: Value system Value system Confidence in group members Confidence in group members Leadership inclinations Leadership inclinations Feelings of security in uncertain situation Feelings of security in uncertain situation Forces in the group members that allow for greater freedom: Forces in the group members that allow for greater freedom: High need for independence High need for independence Readiness to assume responsibility Readiness to assume responsibility High tolerance for ambiguity High tolerance for ambiguity Interested in problem Interested in problem Understand goals Understand goals Have necessary knowledge Have necessary knowledge Expect to share in process Expect to share in process Forces in the situation that create pressure: Forces in the situation that create pressure: The problem The problem Time constraints Time constraints Long-run goals and strategy to consider: Long-run goals and strategy to consider: Raising level of motivation Raising level of motivation Improving quality of decisions Improving quality of decisions Developing teamwork and morale Developing teamwork and morale Furthering individual development Furthering individual development Increasing readiness to accept change Increasing readiness to accept change There is no formula for perfect decision making. An effective principal must consider the forces in a given situation and assess which should influence him or her in a given situation. Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker

109 The Synergistic Decision Making Approach Listening Listening Active listening with respect, consideration, and no judgment Active listening with respect, consideration, and no judgment Responding Responding Paraphrase; be respectful; assume sincerity; avoid pre-judgment Paraphrase; be respectful; assume sincerity; avoid pre-judgment Reinforcing Reinforcing Build on previous remarks to encourage a free, non-competitive, and diverse discussion Build on previous remarks to encourage a free, non-competitive, and diverse discussion Clarifying Clarifying When confusion arises, phrase neutral questions, avoid condescension, avoid impatience, and do not assume you have the answer When confusion arises, phrase neutral questions, avoid condescension, avoid impatience, and do not assume you have the answer Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker Do you think teachers would be receptive to this process? Why or why not?

110 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation

111 Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment. Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication

112 The Communication Process Communication = the process of transmitting information from one person to another Communication = the process of transmitting information from one person to another Read the tips in the text on planning a successful communication process. What have been the positive traits of past communication processes you have been involved in? Negative traits? Read the tips in the text on planning a successful communication process. What have been the positive traits of past communication processes you have been involved in? Negative traits? Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication Encode Sender Decode Receiver Encode Message Feedback Medium Noise

113 Organizational Communication The following slides will take a closer look at different categories of communication: The following slides will take a closer look at different categories of communication:DownwardUpwardHorizontal Formal Communication Networks Informal Communication Networks Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication

114 Downward Communication Information transmits from higher to lower levels Information transmits from higher to lower levels Purposes of downward communication Purposes of downward communication Implement goals and strategies Implement goals and strategies Job instruction and rationale Job instruction and rationale Procedures and practices Procedures and practices Performance feedback Performance feedback Socialization Socialization What situations warrant downward communication? Which situations would be inappropriate? Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication

115 Upward Communication Information transmits from lower to higher levels Information transmits from lower to higher levels Types of information in upward communication Types of information in upward communication Problems and expectations Problems and expectations Suggestions for improvement Suggestions for improvement Performance reports Performance reports Grievances and disputes Grievances and disputes Financial and accounting information Financial and accounting information Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication Read through the barriers to effective upward communication and the tips to improve it. What other barriers have you encountered in upward communication? What could a principal have done to overcome those barriers?

116 Horizontal Communication Information transmits laterally or diagonally across lines of formal chain of command; essential for increasing coordination Information transmits laterally or diagonally across lines of formal chain of command; essential for increasing coordination Categories of horizontal communication Categories of horizontal communication Intradepartmental problem solving Intradepartmental problem solving Interdepartmental coordination Interdepartmental coordination Staff advice to line departments Staff advice to line departments Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication

117 Communication Networks The three previous communication patterns can combine to form five common networks The three previous communication patterns can combine to form five common networks 1.Chain: line authority relationships 2.Y: two or more interacting members report to a single supervisor 3.Wheel: several non-interacting members report to a single supervisor 4.Circle: members interact with adjoining members, but not others 5.All-Channel: members interact with adjoining members and all others Informal network: The grapevine flows in all directions and is not fixed by any formal organizational chart Informal network: The grapevine flows in all directions and is not fixed by any formal organizational chart What are the advantages and disadvantages to each of these communication networks? Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication

118 Managing Communication: Barriers Process barriers: blocked communication with sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, or feedback Process barriers: blocked communication with sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, or feedback Physical barriers: concrete and real factors that block communication Physical barriers: concrete and real factors that block communication Semantic barriers: variations and misunderstandings of connotations Semantic barriers: variations and misunderstandings of connotations Psychosocial barriers: factors such as fields of experience, filtering, and psychological distance that inhibit effective communication Psychosocial barriers: factors such as fields of experience, filtering, and psychological distance that inhibit effective communication Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication How can you, as a principal, work to overcome these barriers? What has been the cause of communication breakdowns you have experienced in the past? How does your experience compare with the list of factors listed in the text?

119 Improving Communication Effectiveness All members of the communication process are responsible for improving communication All members of the communication process are responsible for improving communication What can a sender (a principal) do to improve communication with various stakeholders? Consider the Ten Commandments listed in the text. What can a sender (a principal) do to improve communication with various stakeholders? Consider the Ten Commandments listed in the text. What can receivers do to improve communication? Again, consider the ten suggestions in the text. What can receivers do to improve communication? Again, consider the ten suggestions in the text. What is active listening? What is active listening? What can one do to improve giving responsive feedback? What can one do to improve giving responsive feedback? What types of non-verbal communication should one be aware of? What types of non-verbal communication should one be aware of? Do the suggestions given in the text seem practical? Select at least one strategy posited from the questions posed above and explain how you would use it to improve your own communication. Then, go do it! Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication

120 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation

121 Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment. Chapter 10: The Principal and Change

122 The Nature of Organizational Change While most systems tend toward the status quo, principals must anticipate and direct change positively While most systems tend toward the status quo, principals must anticipate and direct change positively External forces for change: the marketplace, laws and regulations, technology, labor markets, economic changes…what else? External forces for change: the marketplace, laws and regulations, technology, labor markets, economic changes…what else? Internal forces for change: problems with processes or people…such as? Internal forces for change: problems with processes or people…such as? And yet, there is often strong resistance to change… Chapter 10: The Principal and Change

123 Why Is Change Resisted? Uncertainty Uncertainty Concern over personal loss Concern over personal loss Group resistance Group resistance Dependence Dependence Trust Trust Awareness of weaknesses Awareness of weaknesses Chapter 10: The Principal and Change Why have you resisted change in the past? What can a principal do to overcome this resistance?

124 Overcoming Resistance to Change Some strategies: Some strategies: Education and communication Education and communication Participation and involvement Participation and involvement Facilitation and support Facilitation and support Negotiation and agreement Negotiation and agreement Manipulation and cooptation Manipulation and cooptation Explicit and implicit coercion Explicit and implicit coercion Chapter 10: The Principal and Change Which of these strategies do you think would be most effective? Why? In what types of situations would you use each? What other strategies can you think of?

125 Getting Reform Right: What Works and What Doesnt Current research suggests the following: Current research suggests the following: Change is learning Change is learning Change is a journey, not a blueprint Change is a journey, not a blueprint Problems are our friends Problems are our friends Change is resource-hungry Change is resource-hungry Change requires the power to manage it Change requires the power to manage it Change is systematic Change is systematic All large-scale change is implemented locally All large-scale change is implemented locally Chapter 10: The Principal and Change

126 Managing Change Types of change agents: Types of change agents: Outside pressure type Outside pressure type People-change-technology type People-change-technology type Analysis-for-the-top type Analysis-for-the-top type Organization-development type Organization-development type Change agent roles: Change agent roles: Consulting Consulting Training Training Research Research Chapter 10: The Principal and Change What are some real-world examples of each of these types? When would a principal need to play each of these roles?

127 Managing Change (contd) Common characteristics of effective change Common characteristics of effective change Hemophily Hemophily Empathy Empathy Linkage Linkage Proximity Proximity Structuring Structuring Capacity Capacity Openness Openness Reward Reward Energy Energy Synergy Synergy Why are these desired characteristics of a change agent? Chapter 10: The Principal and Change

128 The Change Process Phase 1: Pressure and arousal Phase 1: Pressure and arousal Phase 2: Intervention and reorientation Phase 2: Intervention and reorientation Phase 3: Diagnosis and recognition Phase 3: Diagnosis and recognition Phase 4: Invention and commitment Phase 4: Invention and commitment Phase 5: Experimentation and search Phase 5: Experimentation and search Phase 6: Reinforcement and acceptance Phase 6: Reinforcement and acceptance Chapter 10: The Principal and Change Note that this model focuses on the role of the change agent (i.e. the principal). What would a principal actually be doing in each of these phases?

129 Promoting Successful School Change Build a vision Build a vision Create a positive climate Create a positive climate Mobilize Mobilize Engage community support Engage community support Train Train Provide resources Provide resources Remove barriers Remove barriers Chapter 10: The Principal and Change Please note that the previous and subsequent chapters deal with each of these strategies.

130 Change Strategies Process Strategies Process Strategies Survey feedback Survey feedback Team building Team building Process consultation Process consultation Quality of work life Quality of work life Chapter 10: The Principal and Change Structural Strategies Structural Strategies Goal setting Goal setting Job redesign Job redesign Quality circles Quality circles Strategic planning Strategic planning

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132 Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment. Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

133 Basic Terms to Know Expenditures Expenditures Current Expenses Current Expenses Capital Outlay Capital Outlay Debt Service Debt Service Revenue Revenue Fiscally Independent vs. Fiscally Dependent Districts Fiscally Independent vs. Fiscally Dependent Districts Fiscal Neutrality Standard Fiscal Neutrality Standard Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

134 The Budgeting Process Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities Board of Education Superintendent Division Head: Elementary Division Head: Secondary CFOAS Elementary Building Principal Secondary Building Principal Budget Committee

135 Financial Controls What are the purposes of financial controls? What are the purposes of financial controls? Assist principals in acquiring, allocating, and evaluating the use of financial resources Assist principals in acquiring, allocating, and evaluating the use of financial resources Allow districts to pay short- and long-term debts Allow districts to pay short- and long-term debts Protect districts from theft, fraud, etc. Protect districts from theft, fraud, etc. Two types: internal control and financial audits Two types: internal control and financial audits Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

136 Internal Control The policies and procedures used by a district to safeguard assets and verify accounting data The policies and procedures used by a district to safeguard assets and verify accounting data Effective internal control should include… Effective internal control should include… 1. Clear, formal organization 2. Accounts for each administrative unit 3. Handling and record keeping of assets should not be done by the same employee 4. No one person has control over all phases of any given transaction 5. No redundant work, but employees should check work Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

137 Financial Audits Independent appraisal of districts accounting, financial, and operational systems Independent appraisal of districts accounting, financial, and operational systems Two types… Two types… External: conducted by experts outside of the district to verify district accuracy External: conducted by experts outside of the district to verify district accuracy Internal: conducted by district employees to examine the accuracy of financial reports Internal: conducted by district employees to examine the accuracy of financial reports What would be the various advantages and disadvantages to external and internal audits? Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

138 Zero-Base Budgeting A district starts the budgeting process at zero every year A district starts the budgeting process at zero every year Not just adjustments to last years budget; EVERY expenditure must be justified Not just adjustments to last years budget; EVERY expenditure must be justified Three steps: Three steps: 1. Identify Decision Units 2. Develop Decision Packages 3. Rank the Decision Packages What parts of a districts organization would be best served by zero-based budget and why? AN ALTERNATIVE BUDGETING SYSTEM… Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

139 Planning-Programming-Budgeting Systems Similar to ZBB, but not all programs need be justified Similar to ZBB, but not all programs need be justified The basic steps: The basic steps: 1. Specify goals 2. Search for relevant alternatives 3. Measure the costs of the programs for several years 4. Evaluate the output of each program The textbook states that PPBS has not been the great tool in practice that its logic would imply. Why might this be? Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

140 School Facilities Management Principals in the 21 st century must be aware of: Principals in the 21 st century must be aware of: Rising school infrastructure costs Rising school infrastructure costs New school constructs costs New school constructs costs Environmental hazards inherent with aging facilities Environmental hazards inherent with aging facilities Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

141 School Infrastructure Costs Infrastructure = the physical facilities that make up a school building (plumbing, heating, electrical, sewer, etc.) Infrastructure = the physical facilities that make up a school building (plumbing, heating, electrical, sewer, etc.) Which areas do you think would have the schools in the best/worst condition? Which areas do you think would have the schools in the best/worst condition? How much of ones budget should be allocated to these costs? How much of ones budget should be allocated to these costs? Experts say 5%, but most schools put aside only 3% Experts say 5%, but most schools put aside only 3% Why are schools falling apart and why do repairs cost so much? Why are schools falling apart and why do repairs cost so much? Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

142 1. Age of facilities 2. Energy prices 3. Weather conditions 4. Density and vandalism 5. Newer buildings 6. A ticking time bomb: most educators and the public simply do not pay attention to the ailing infrastructure of Americas schools Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

143 Financing School Construction With ever increasing public school enrollments, building new schools will become a large factor in many districts throughout the country. According to the text, what are some unique challenges that building new schools brings about? How are schools built today fundamentally different from schools built decades ago? With ever increasing public school enrollments, building new schools will become a large factor in many districts throughout the country. According to the text, what are some unique challenges that building new schools brings about? How are schools built today fundamentally different from schools built decades ago? Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

144 Environmental Hazards Every principal should be aware of: Every principal should be aware of: Asbestos Asbestos Radon gas Radon gas School lead School lead Indoor air quality Indoor air quality Electromagnetic fields Electromagnetic fields What dangers do each of these hazards present and how might a principal safely handle each? Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities

145 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation

146 Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment. Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools

147 School Violence and Drug Use What does the research say? What does the research say? Read the bulleted points from the selected studies presented in the text. Read the bulleted points from the selected studies presented in the text. Do these findings surprise you? Why/why not? Do these findings surprise you? Why/why not? Brainstorm some action plans and strategies that a principal could implement to address the trends identified in these studies. Brainstorm some action plans and strategies that a principal could implement to address the trends identified in these studies. Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools

148 An Action Plan: 6 Strategies for Success 1. Predict School Violence 2. Prevent School Violence 3. Focus Resources on Schools 4. Strengthen the System 5. Develop a Crisis Management Plan 6. Create an Orderly Climate for Learning These strategies are, of course, not meant to be used in isolation of one another; a combination of all or some of the strategies, depending on your school climate, will surely help you create a safe school. Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools

149 Strategy #1: Predict School Violence Collect and analyze data Collect and analyze data Identify problem students and provide support Identify problem students and provide support Identify problem teachers and provide support and training Identify problem teachers and provide support and training Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools

150 Strategy #2: Prevent School Violence Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools Toughen Weapons Laws: What specific policies should a principal advocate in order to achieve this? Toughen Weapons Laws: What specific policies should a principal advocate in order to achieve this? Deal with Violent Students: What specific strategies should a principal use? Deal with Violent Students: What specific strategies should a principal use?

151 Strategy #3: Focus Resources on Schools Fund the Basic Education Program Fund the Basic Education Program Teach Violence Prevention Teach Violence Prevention Establish Task Forces Establish Task Forces Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools How could a principal implement this strategy considering the other financial demands a school faces?

152 Strategy #4: Strengthen the System Improve the Juvenile Code Improve the Juvenile Code Create a State Center for the Prevention of School Violence Create a State Center for the Prevention of School Violence Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools How, realistically, can a principal affect these systems that are seemingly out of their jurisdiction?

153 Strategy #5: Develop a Crisis Management Plan Form a School-wide Crisis Management Team Form a School-wide Crisis Management Team Conduct an Ongoing, School-wide Safety Audit Conduct an Ongoing, School-wide Safety Audit Develop Policies and Procedures for Various Emergencies Develop Policies and Procedures for Various Emergencies Conduct Safety Drills Conduct Safety Drills Develop a School-wide Discipline Plan Develop a School-wide Discipline Plan Provide a Means for Students to Communicate Information to Staff Provide a Means for Students to Communicate Information to Staff Teach Students Alternatives to Violence Teach Students Alternatives to Violence Evaluate Administrative Practices of the School Evaluate Administrative Practices of the School Use Resources to Identify Students At-Risk for Violent Behavior Use Resources to Identify Students At-Risk for Violent Behavior Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools How could you best communicate the need to follow these steps to a resistant staff?

154 Strategy #6: Create an Orderly Climate for Learning Establish and Emphasize Goals Establish and Emphasize Goals Establish Rules and Procedures Establish Rules and Procedures Improve Teacher-Student Relations in the Classroom Improve Teacher-Student Relations in the Classroom Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools What specific rules and procedures would be most helpful in creating a safe school? What specific strategies can a principal and/or teacher use to improve teacher-student relations?

155 Consider… What are the pros and cons of each of the six previous strategies? What are the pros and cons of each of the six previous strategies? Beside creating safer schools, what are the other positive outcomes of these strategies? Beside creating safer schools, what are the other positive outcomes of these strategies? Which of the strategies (or combination of strategies) would you be most likely to implement in your school and why? Which of the strategies (or combination of strategies) would you be most likely to implement in your school and why? Beyond these six strategies, what else can principals do to ensure that their school is a safe one? Beyond these six strategies, what else can principals do to ensure that their school is a safe one? Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools

156 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation

157 Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment. Chapter 13: Hu man Resource Management

158 The Human Resource Management Process Recruitment Staff Development Selection Performance Appraisal Legal Constraints Union Demands Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

159 Recruitment of Staff Before recruitment can commence, principals should: Before recruitment can commence, principals should: Analyze the job requirements: refer to job descriptions and job specifications Analyze the job requirements: refer to job descriptions and job specifications Know and understand legal constraints involved in recruitment: consult Table 13-1 Know and understand legal constraints involved in recruitment: consult Table 13-1 Cultivate the sources of potential employees: promotion within a district, college placement offices, advertisements, referrals, job fairs, teacher recruitment consortiums Cultivate the sources of potential employees: promotion within a district, college placement offices, advertisements, referrals, job fairs, teacher recruitment consortiums Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

160 Selection of Staff Typical steps in staff selection: 1.Preliminary screening of credentials 2.Preliminary interview 3.Testing 4.Reference Checks 5.In-depth interview 6.Physical examination 7.Hiring decision The most complications usually arise in the interview process… Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

161 The Interview Process Typical problems: Typical problems: Interviewer is unfamiliar with the job Interviewer is unfamiliar with the job Interviewers make premature decision based on first impressions Interviewers make premature decision based on first impressions Interviewers impose personal biases on the applicants Interviewers impose personal biases on the applicants How to improve the process Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

162 A Better Interview Process Will Include… Use of a structured interview format Use of a structured interview format Explicitly trained interviewers Explicitly trained interviewers The interview as ONE aspect of the selection process The interview as ONE aspect of the selection process Candidates that are given interviews only after references are checked Candidates that are given interviews only after references are checked Candidates whose files are screened for completeness Candidates whose files are screened for completeness Sufficient time for each interview Sufficient time for each interview Mailing candidates two or three questions prior to interview Mailing candidates two or three questions prior to interview Name cards placed in front of each interviewer Name cards placed in front of each interviewer An evaluation form regarding the interview experience given to each candidate An evaluation form regarding the interview experience given to each candidate Why would these tips aid in the selection process? Can you think of any other useful suggestions? Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

163 DO ASK ABOUT… Why applicant wants to teach at school/district Why applicant wants to teach at school/district What can applicant bring to the school that is uniquely theirs What can applicant bring to the school that is uniquely theirs Why type of grading criteria is used Why type of grading criteria is used How applicant keeps current in the field How applicant keeps current in the field What has applicant done to develop professionally What has applicant done to develop professionally What is applicants view of the relationship between faculty and administration What is applicants view of the relationship between faculty and administration What are some other insightful and helpful interview questions that you can think of? Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

164 DO NOT ASK ABOUT… Ancestry, nation of origin, place of birth, original language, etc. Ancestry, nation of origin, place of birth, original language, etc. How applicant learned a foreign language How applicant learned a foreign language Membership in clubs that would indicate race, color, sex, etc. Membership in clubs that would indicate race, color, sex, etc. Names and addresses of relatives not working for the district Names and addresses of relatives not working for the district How long applicant intends to work How long applicant intends to work Age Age Financial condition Financial condition Prior wage garnishments Prior wage garnishments Home ownership Home ownership Disabilities Disabilities Marital status Marital status Where spouse works Where spouse works Pregnancy or medical history Pregnancy or medical history Ages of children Ages of children Military experience Military experience Religious observance Religious observance Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

165 Staff Development Assess Staff Development Needs: Review the three methods listed in the text. What are the benefits to these methods? Assess Staff Development Needs: Review the three methods listed in the text. What are the benefits to these methods? Set Staff Development Goals: Why is an understanding of the three categories of objectives necessary for a principal seeking to improve staff development? Set Staff Development Goals: Why is an understanding of the three categories of objectives necessary for a principal seeking to improve staff development? Select Staff Development Methods: Examine the table that identifies widely used methods. Which of these (or combination thereof) do you think would be most effective and why? Select Staff Development Methods: Examine the table that identifies widely used methods. Which of these (or combination thereof) do you think would be most effective and why? Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

166 Staff Development (contd) Evaluate Staff Development Program: Why are the questions relating to staff development outcomes important to ask? Evaluate Staff Development Program: Why are the questions relating to staff development outcomes important to ask? Induct Beginning Teachers: Recall how it felt when you first became a teacher. What information do you wish you had been given? What specific strategies can principals use to aid beginning teachers? Induct Beginning Teachers: Recall how it felt when you first became a teacher. What information do you wish you had been given? What specific strategies can principals use to aid beginning teachers? Improve Support for Beginning Teachers: Which of the recommendations listed to help principals work with beginning teachers could you most easily implement at your school? Can you think of any other specific strategies that would help achieve similar results? Improve Support for Beginning Teachers: Which of the recommendations listed to help principals work with beginning teachers could you most easily implement at your school? Can you think of any other specific strategies that would help achieve similar results? Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

167 Staff Performance Appraisal Appraisal Techniques Appraisal Techniques Nonjudgmental methods Nonjudgmental methods Judgmental methods Judgmental methods Common Rating Errors Common Rating Errors Too strict or lenient Too strict or lenient Central tendency Central tendency Single dimension Single dimension Halo effect Halo effect Recency of events Recency of events Personal bias and first impressions Personal bias and first impressions Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

168 Modern Appraisal Techniques Clinical Supervision: Clinical Supervision: 1.Pre-observation conference 2.Observation 3.Analysis and strategy 4.Supervision conference 5.Post-conference Goal Setting Goal Setting 1.Supervisor and teacher meet to determine goals 2.Supervisor and teacher meet to appraise performance in terms of goals set Chapter 13: Human Resource Management As a teacher, which appraisal techniques did/do you prefer? Why? As a principal, which do you think you will employ?

169 Union-Management Relations Why must a principal work hard to create and maintain positive union-management relations? Why must a principal work hard to create and maintain positive union-management relations? The Collective Bargaining Process The Collective Bargaining Process Bargaining team selection Bargaining team selection Negotiations Negotiations If negotiations are successful ratification If negotiations are successful ratification If negotiations are not successful impasse If negotiations are not successful impasse 1. Mediation 2. Fact Finding 3. Arbitration Chapter 13: Human Resource Management

170 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation

171 Standard 4: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by collaborating with families and other community members, responding to diverse community interests and needs, and mobilizing community resources. Chapter 14: Community Relations

172 The Principal as a Boundary Spanner A principal should be a bridge between the school and external constituencies A principal should be a bridge between the school and external constituencies Chapter 14: Community Relations

173 Leading Community Efforts during Catastrophe Schools become a lifeline. Why is this? Schools become a lifeline. Why is this? What a principal can do: What a principal can do: Establish means of communication Establish means of communication Assess damage quickly and make accommodations Assess damage quickly and make accommodations Prioritize needs and establish authority to make decisions Prioritize needs and establish authority to make decisions Address emotional and survival needs of staff and students Address emotional and survival needs of staff and students Arrange for training and support for mental health caregivers (prior to a catastrophe) Arrange for training and support for mental health caregivers (prior to a catastrophe) Provide feedback to media Provide feedback to media Identify and secure available resources Identify and secure available resources After a catastrophe, encourage creative lesson planning that uses lessons learned After a catastrophe, encourage creative lesson planning that uses lessons learned Chapter 14: Community Relations

174 Leading School, Family, and Community Involvement Community = just parents Community = just parents What members of any given community might be most helpful to a school? What members of any given community might be most helpful to a school? Why is it important that a principal learn to serve as a leader of this community and not just the school? Why is it important that a principal learn to serve as a leader of this community and not just the school? Chapter 14: Community Relations

175 Leading School, Family, and Community Involvement (contd) Epsteins types of involvement: Epsteins types of involvement: Parenting Parenting Communicating Communicating Volunteering Volunteering Learning at home Learning at home Decision making Decision making Collaboration with community Collaboration with community Comprehensive partnerships Comprehensive partnerships Communication avenues: Orientation meetings Newsletters School handbook Programs for families Suggestion box Home visits Conferences Journals Personal notes Phone calls Research demonstrates that parental involvement is a key factor in students academic achievement, self- confidence, and attitude toward school. What can a principal do to encourage and promote parental involvement, especially for minority groups? What are the advantages and disadvantages to each of these avenues? Chapter 14: Community Relations

176 School-Community Relations Educational public relations is a planned and systematic management function to help improve the programs and services of an educational organization. It relies on a comprehensive two-way communication process…[to] assist in interpreting public attitudes, identify and help shape policies and procedures in the public interest, and carry on involvement and information activities that earn public understanding and support. Educational public relations is a planned and systematic management function to help improve the programs and services of an educational organization. It relies on a comprehensive two-way communication process…[to] assist in interpreting public attitudes, identify and help shape policies and procedures in the public interest, and carry on involvement and information activities that earn public understanding and support. The National School Public Relations Association The National School Public Relations Association Chapter 14: Community Relations

177 School-Community Relations (contd) Anticipate problems Anticipate problems Handle all school publications Handle all school publications Write news releases Write news releases Stay connected to budget process Stay connected to budget process Develop communication plan Develop communication plan Conduct formal and informal research to gauge public opinion Conduct formal and informal research to gauge public opinion Promote schools strengths Publicize staff and student achievement Answer request for information Provide PR training for staff Serve as liaison to community groups Chapter 14: Community Relations To develop two-way communication and collaboration within a community, the NPSRA suggests: What else can a principal do to create strong community relations?

178 Public Relations Strong PR programs follow these basic steps: Strong PR programs follow these basic steps: 1.Research 2.Action plan 3.Communicate 4.Evaluate Read A Young Principals Story. Identify and evaluate the principals use of this process. Compare this principals actions with those of the principal in A Seasoned Principals Story. Read A Young Principals Story. Identify and evaluate the principals use of this process. Compare this principals actions with those of the principal in A Seasoned Principals Story. Chapter 14: Community Relations

179 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation

180 Standard 5: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by acting with integrity, fairly, and in an ethical manner. Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics

181 What Is an Ethical Principal? One who, in the face of adversity, ambiguity, and challenge, will reflect on what is right by some set standard or code and will act in a rational and caring manner to resolve problems and conduct business. One who, in the face of adversity, ambiguity, and challenge, will reflect on what is right by some set standard or code and will act in a rational and caring manner to resolve problems and conduct business. Do you agree with the texts definition(s) of an ethical principal? What are some of the obstacles that might prevent a principal from behaving ethically? How might you overcome those obstacles? Do you agree with the texts definition(s) of an ethical principal? What are some of the obstacles that might prevent a principal from behaving ethically? How might you overcome those obstacles? Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics

182 Philosophical Concepts of Ethics Rights Rights Freedom Freedom Responsibility and Authority Responsibility and Authority Duty Duty Justice Justice Equity Equity Caring Caring Character, Commitment, and Formality Conflict of Interest Loyalty Prudence Critique Profession Moral Imperative Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics Considering each concept individually, why must a principal be aware of each in order to behave ethically?

183 Ethical Behavior in Schools Promoting Ethical Behavior in Athletic Programs Promoting Ethical Behavior in Athletic Programs Why is this an issue? Has it become more of an issue in recent years? Why do you think this is? Why is this an issue? Has it become more of an issue in recent years? Why do you think this is? Consider: Consider: 1. Athletes must be considered ends and not means 2. Competition must be fair 3. Participation, leadership, resources, and rewards must be based on achievement 4. Activity must be safe for participants Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics How do these principles sustain traditional values? What other principles should an administrator be mindful of concerning athletics?

184 Ethical Behavior in Schools: Promoting Ethical Behavior through Character Education 1. Education Is an Inescapable Moral Enterprise 2. Parents Are Primary Moral Educators of Children 3. Character Education Develops Virtues 4. Teachers, Principals, and Staff Are Central to Character Education 5. Schools Are Communities of Virtue 6. Character Education Goes beyond Academic Curriculum 7. Character Creation Is an Essential and Demanding Life Task What are the benefits to character education and how can these 7 principles help you develop a character education program? Consider how you would work with your superintendent, school board, and other administrators. Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics

185 National and State Codes of Ethics for Principals Rationale for a Code of Ethics Rationale for a Code of Ethics Provide guidelines for conduct Provide guidelines for conduct Establish accountability and protect students Establish accountability and protect students Serve as catalyst for job improvement Serve as catalyst for job improvement Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics National Associations (click for website) National Associations (click for website) American Association of School Administrators American Association of School Administrators American Association of School Administrators American Association of School Administrators National Association of Elementary School Principals and the National Association of Secondary School Principals National Association of Elementary School Principals and the National Association of Secondary School Principals National Association of Elementary School Principals National Association of Secondary School Principals National Association of Elementary School Principals National Association of Secondary School Principals National Education Association National Education Association National Education Association National Education Association How do the guidelines and self-assessment tools supplied by these national agencies support the rationale for a code of ethics?

186 National and State Codes of Ethics for Principals (contd) Review the sample state codes in the text. Review the sample state codes in the text. How do these codes support the concepts and principles discussed earlier in the chapter? How do these codes support the concepts and principles discussed earlier in the chapter? Does your state supply a Code of Ethics for Educators? How does it help to ensure that educators and administrators behave in an ethical manner? Is there anything missing for your states code that you think would be helpful? Does your state supply a Code of Ethics for Educators? How does it help to ensure that educators and administrators behave in an ethical manner? Is there anything missing for your states code that you think would be helpful? Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics

187 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation

188 Standard 6: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by understanding, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context. Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context

189 Policy: A Historical Perspective As far as policy is concerned, what is the importance of the following terms and events? As far as policy is concerned, what is the importance of the following terms and events? Brown vs. Board of Education Differentiated curriculum Equity Socio-economically disadvantaged Public Law 94-142 Accountability Data-driven decision making English Language Learner Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context

190 Policy Read the various definitions of policy in the text. What are the commonalities in these definitions? What is policy? Read the various definitions of policy in the text. What are the commonalities in these definitions? What is policy? Levels of relationship to policy Levels of relationship to policy Orientation Orientation Degree Degree Resources Resources Activity Activity Autonomy Autonomy Societal Values Societal Values Instructional Values Instructional Values Rationale Rationale Power Relationships Power Relationships Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context

191 Policy Theory Systems Theory Systems Theory Neo-pluralist Advocacy Coalition and Interest Group Theories Neo-pluralist Advocacy Coalition and Interest Group Theories Neo-institutional Theory Neo-institutional Theory Critical Theory Critical Theory Feminist Theory Feminist Theory Postmodernism Postmodernism Ideological Theories Ideological Theories Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context What different insights regarding policy can be gleaned from each of the mentioned theories? Why is it important for a principal to have a working knowledge of these theories? What are the practical applications of these theories?

192 Dimensions of Policy Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context Normative dimension Normative dimension Structural dimension Structural dimension Constituentive dimension Constituentive dimension Technical dimension Technical dimension Take a close look at Figure 16-2 to understand how these dimension interact to create policy Take a close look at Figure 16-2 to understand how these dimension interact to create policy

193 Politics What is your definition of politics? What is your definition of politics? How does your definition compare to those given the text? How does your definition compare to those given the text? Which of Apples groups would you place yourself in? The majority of teachers and staff at your school? The majority of the stakeholders in your community? Why is it important to identify these groups? Which of Apples groups would you place yourself in? The majority of teachers and staff at your school? The majority of the stakeholders in your community? Why is it important to identify these groups? Why must a principal be constantly aware of the politics of education? Why must a principal be constantly aware of the politics of education? Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context

194 Types of Educational Politics Pluralist Maintenance Politics Pluralist Maintenance Politics Adversarial Politics Adversarial Politics Democratic Politics Democratic Politics Unitary Politics Unitary Politics Consolidated Principal Power Consolidated Principal Power The text states that there are five perspectives on school politics that might be beneficial to principals to understand within their own political, school contexts. What are the similarities and differences between these perspectives and how can an understanding of them be beneficial to a principal? Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context

195 Politics: Working with the Superintendent and Other External Forces What is Daviss take on the politics of principal evaluations? Why would this important opportunity for self-reflection cause tension between a principal and superintendent? What is Daviss take on the politics of principal evaluations? Why would this important opportunity for self-reflection cause tension between a principal and superintendent? Read the eight suggestions for working within political systems and with superintendents. Do you find these tips useful? Why/why not? Can you think of any other suggestions for working with the various political components of a district to ensure the quality education of all students? Read the eight suggestions for working within political systems and with superintendents. Do you find these tips useful? Why/why not? Can you think of any other suggestions for working with the various political components of a district to ensure the quality education of all students? Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context

196 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation

197 Standard 6: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by understanding, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context. Chapter 17: Legal Issues

198 Legal Basis for Public Education Obviously, any administrator and educator needs to ensure that all of their actions are lawful. The following slides will briefly outline the various sources of educational law. Obviously, any administrator and educator needs to ensure that all of their actions are lawful. The following slides will briefly outline the various sources of educational law. Chapter 17: Legal Issues

199 Sources of Law: Federal The United States Constitution The United States Constitution Education is NOT specifically mentioned in the Constitution, so how can the federal government regulate it? Education is NOT specifically mentioned in the Constitution, so how can the federal government regulate it? Federal Statutes Federal Statutes Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 Civil Rights Acts of 1964 & 1991 Civil Rights Acts of 1964 & 1991 Federal Administrative Agencies Federal Administrative Agencies Department of Education Department of Education Office of Civil Rights Office of Civil Rights Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Protection Agency Case Law Case Law What power does the Supreme Court have concerning education? What power does the Supreme Court have concerning education? Chapter 17: Legal Issues

200 Sources of Law: State State Constitutions State Constitutions State Statutes State Statutes State Administrative Agencies State Administrative Agencies Case Law Case Law Local Level (school districts and service centers) Local Level (school districts and service centers) Chapter 17: Legal Issues What is the purpose and jurisdiction of each of the above sources for state education law?

201 Sources of Law: Judicial Federal Courts Federal Courts Chapter 17: Legal Issues U.S. Supreme Court U.S. Circuit Courts (13) U.S. District Courts (89) State Courts State Courts State Supreme Court Intermediate Appellate Courts Courts of General Jurisdiction (Superior and Circuit Courts) Courts of Limited Jurisdiction (Municipal and Small Claims)

202 Schools and the State Compulsory School Attendance Compulsory School Attendance Residency Requirements Residency Requirements Church-State Relations Church-State Relations Prayer and Bible Reading Prayer and Bible Reading Silent Prayer Silent Prayer Prayer at Graduation and Extracurricular Activities Prayer at Graduation and Extracurricular Activities Chapter 17: Legal Issues Equal Access Act Equal Access Act Released Time for Religious Instruction Released Time for Religious Instruction State Aid to Private Schools State Aid to Private Schools School Fees School Fees Transportation Transportation Textbooks, Courses, and Supplies Textbooks, Courses, and Supplies Extracurricular Activities Extracurricular Activities The following are the most common and pervasive issues administrators face concerning state and local legal authority in education

203 Schools and the State (contd) States control over curriculum: States control over curriculum: School districts must offer curriculum prescribed by the legislature or law School districts must offer curriculum prescribed by the legislature or law Recent cases uphold districts power to ban certain curriculum (but not for purely religious reasons) Recent cases uphold districts power to ban certain curriculum (but not for purely religious reasons) State-mandated performance testing: Strongly supported by NCLB Most controversy centers around using tests as graduation requirements Chapter 17: Legal Issues What can a principal do to minimize litigation in these matters?

204 Students and the Law Can a student, legally, say whatever they want in a school? Why or why not? What is and is not protected by the First Amendment? Can a student, legally, say whatever they want in a school? Why or why not? What is and is not protected by the First Amendment? Can a student, legally, dress any way they see fit while in school? Why or why not? What are regulations concerning health and safety standards, gang-related dress, controversial slogans, and school uniforms? Can a student, legally, dress any way they see fit while in school? Why or why not? What are regulations concerning health and safety standards, gang-related dress, controversial slogans, and school uniforms? Chapter 17: Legal Issues

205 Students and the Law (contd) Extracurricular Activities Extracurricular Activities Conditions may be attached to participation in extracurricular activities Conditions may be attached to participation in extracurricular activities Student Discipline Student Discipline What are the stipulations for suspensions, disciplinary transfers, and expulsions? What are the stipulations for suspensions, disciplinary transfers, and expulsions? 27 states ban corporeal punishment 27 states ban corporeal punishment Protection from unreasonable search and seizure must be balanced with the need to maintain a safe school environment Protection from unreasonable search and seizure must be balanced with the need to maintain a safe school environment Chapter 17: Legal Issues

206 Students and the Law (contd) Students with disabilities Students with disabilities As discussed in Chapter 6, a principal must be very aware of the laws, acts, and legislation concerning students with disabilities As discussed in Chapter 6, a principal must be very aware of the laws, acts, and legislation concerning students with disabilities The most significant act, IDEA, assures that students with disabilities 1) receive a free appropriate education, 2) are prepared for employment and independent living, 3) have their rights protected, and 4) receive appropriate services from the state The most significant act, IDEA, assures that students with disabilities 1) receive a free appropriate education, 2) are prepared for employment and independent living, 3) have their rights protected, and 4) receive appropriate services from the state Chapter 17: Legal Issues

207 Teachers and the Law Certification: What are the standards for certification in your state? Certification: What are the standards for certification in your state? Contracts: Contracts: Offer and acceptance Offer and acceptance Competent parties Competent parties Consideration Consideration Legal subject matter Legal subject matter Proper form Proper form Tenure: Tenure: Does your state provide tenure for teachers and other staff? Does your state provide tenure for teachers and other staff? Dismissal: Dismissal: Each state mandates proper procedure. What is your states procedure? Each state mandates proper procedure. What is your states procedure? Chapter 17: Legal Issues

208 Teachers and the Law: Sexual Harassment Litigated under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 Litigated under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 Includes Includes Sexual bribery Sexual bribery Sexual imposition Sexual imposition Gender harassment Gender harassment Sexual coercion Sexual coercion Sexual behavior Sexual behavior Chapter 17: Legal Issues Discourage with: No-tolerance policy No-tolerance policy Wide dissemination of policy Wide dissemination of policy Easy complaint filing Easy complaint filing Prompt and objective investigation Prompt and objective investigation Appropriate remedial action Appropriate remedial action

209 Teachers and the Law: Discrimination Federal statutes prohibit discrimination based on: Federal statutes prohibit discrimination based on: Race Race Gender Gender Disabilities Disabilities Age Age Religion Religion Pregnancy Pregnancy Chapter 17: Legal Issues

210 Teachers and the Law: Collective Bargaining Constitution protects free association rights but does not guarantee collective bargaining Constitution protects free association rights but does not guarantee collective bargaining Bargaining issues to be aware of: Bargaining issues to be aware of: Management rights Management rights Narrow grievance definition Narrow grievance definition No-strike provision No-strike provision Zipper clause Zipper clause Maintenance of standards Maintenance of standards Just cause Just cause Reduction in force Reduction in force Wages and benefits Wages and benefits Chapter 17: Legal Issues

211 Teachers and the Law: Collective Bargaining (contd) The Bargaining Process The Bargaining Process Negotiating team selected Negotiating team selected Negotiations commence Negotiations commence In the event of an impasse: In the event of an impasse: 1. Mediation 2. Fact finding 3. Arbitration Bargaining Tactics: Bargaining Tactics: Counterproposals Counterproposals Tradeoffs Tradeoffs Caucus Caucus Chapter 17: Legal Issues

212 Tort Liability Tort = civil wrong (not contracts) for which a court can award damages Tort = civil wrong (not contracts) for which a court can award damages To establish negligence: Duty Duty Standard of care Standard of care Proximate cause Proximate cause Injury Injury Defense against negligence: Contributory negligence Contributory negligence Assumption of risk Assumption of risk Comparative negligence Comparative negligence Governmental immunity Governmental immunity Chapter 17: Legal Issues

213 Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter End Presentation


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