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1 The ultimate goal in school improvement is for the people attached to the school to drive its continuous improvement for the sake of their own children.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The ultimate goal in school improvement is for the people attached to the school to drive its continuous improvement for the sake of their own children."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The ultimate goal in school improvement is for the people attached to the school to drive its continuous improvement for the sake of their own children and students. --Dr. Sam Redding

2 2 Effective Teaming Is like an orange. We (teachers) have to peel away the rind, teach through the zest and flesh to get to the seed. It is essential to look at the whole fruit because all parts lead to success. And they (the children) take that seed and replant it for further success.

3 3 Virginia Support for School Improvement Training for Instructional Leaders Session 3 January 20,21, 2011 Holiday Inn Koger Center – Richmond, VA

4 4 Session 3 Objectives Review the concepts of motivation and attribution as applied in a classroom Explore classroom management techniques for work time Explore monitoring and reporting student progress Explore interactive teaching strategies for small group instruction

5 5 Whole Class Instruction Motivation: Wanting to Learn

6 66 Lesson Objectives 1.Define motivation and what motivates students to learn. 2.Determine what a teacher can do to enhance students motivation to learn.

7 77 What is Motivation? Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain the initiation, direction, intensity, persistence, and quality of behavior, especially goal-directed behavior (Maehr & Meyer, 1997, pg. 3).

8 88 What is a Motive? Motive is the word we use to explain why someone does what he or she does. Motivation is measured by: Willingness to attempt. Persistence.

9 99 What are Your Motives for Teaching? 1.What motivated you to become a teacher? 2. What motivates you to persist in teaching?

10 10 What Motivates a Student to Learn? As much as 25% of the differences between students in their learning outcomes can be explained by differences in motivation. That is less than the effects of the teacher or of the home, but still large. And there is a circular effect: The school and home contribute to the students motivation to learn.

11 11 How Teachers Build Students Motivation to Learn Modeling, showing and sharing enthusiasm for learning and specific topics. Providing presentations that are clear, to the point, and interactive. Interacting socially and academically with individual students. Involving students in managing their learning toward clear objectives (Student Learning Plans, for example).

12 12 Motivation to Learn Extrinsic and Intrinsic Teachers can, however, develop and sustain [their] students motivation to learn from academic activities, their tendencies to find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and to try to get the intended learning benefits from them (Brophy, 2004, p. 15). Value learning and expect success.

13 13 Outside, Inside, Both Extrinsic Motivation: Motivated by reward or goal. Intrinsic Motivation: Motivated by internal satisfaction, interest. Both: Teacher uses extrinsic goal of mastery in a way that instills internal desire to learn. Not perform, but learn.

14 14 Attribution Theory: To What Does A Student Ascribe His Success/Failure? Constructive attribution: Student recognition of his/her effort, strategies chosen and applied, and his/her use of information available. I need to try harder, try a different approach, ask more/different questions. Destructive attribution: Student perception of his/her lack of innate ability. Im just not smart enough. Deflective attribution: Its not about me; its somebody elses fault…. The teacher doesnt like me. The test isnt fair.

15 15 Pursuit of Achievement Goals Learning for Mastery Goals: the teachers focus is on student mastery of a specified skill or bit of knowledge contained within a task--for successful completion of the task. Performance Goals: the focus is on evaluation, and the student is driven to preserve a positive self-perception and public reputation--in successfully completing the task. Work-avoidance Goals: refusal to accept the challenge of achievement is the focus of the student, especially when performance is emphasized.

16 16 Intrinsic Motivation The teacher can promote student self- determination/motivation/student engagement by influencing Relatedness (student perception of his/her connection to others, especially the teacher). Competence (student perception of his/her ability to master skills and content). Autonomy (student perception of having some control in his/her learning--deciding what to do and/or how to do it (effecting relevance)

17 17 Intrinsic Motivation What do relatedness, competence, and autonomy look like in the classroom?

18 18 From the Students Perspective: Relatedness: I belong in this classroom…; my teacher lets me know it every day. Correspondingly, we know that Teacher involvement influences student relatedness (Connell & Wellborn, 1991). Students respond, individually, to * The right blend of caring and expectations. * The confidence that the teacher knows me and thinks there is something special about Me. (The Student Learning Plan is my teachers plan for ME.) * The teachers social and academic interactions….

19 19 From the Students Perspective: Competence: I know I can be successful…; furthermore, my teacher thinks that I can and shows me that I can…. Correspondingly, we know that Teacher structure (design & implementation of meaningful learning activities; best practices in the teaching & learning process) influences student competence (Connell & Wellborn, 1991). Students respond to *The recognition of accomplishment based on evidence of effort and mastery. *Content that is challenging and interestingly presented at their individual performance levels.

20 20 From the Students Perspective: Autonomy: I have choices and can have some control over/responsibility toward my success…; furthermore, what Im doing centers on my reality…. Correspondingly, we know that Teacher autonomy support (provision of student choices & student voice within parameters) influences student autonomy (Connell & Wellborn, 1991). Students respond to *The opportunity to manage work tasks (during work time) and the responsibility for those tasks. * The choice and voice of relevance in managing tasks for which they are responsible.

21 21 What Can a Teacher Do? Show personal enthusiasm for learning. Provide each student with tasks and activities that are engaging for that student. Stimulate motivation with curiosity, suspense, cognitive conflict, making abstract content more personal. Scaffold student learning with clear goals, advance organizers, planning questions and differentiated activities. (Targeted learning tasks help build the competence that is required for Student Engagement.) Provide each student with formative feedback on his/her acquisition of knowledge and skills. Provide each student with some autonomy in completing his/her learning tasks. (Teacher autonomy support influences student autonomy required for Student Engagement.) Help each student develop constructive attributions for him/herself-- taking responsibility for his/her successes and failures. Show each student that s/he is valued by offering praise that is informative and appreciative. (This type praise helps influence the relatedness required Student Engagement.)

22 22 When do you experience Flow? Flow is characterized by a loss of self- consciousness and sense of time. We are happily and purposefully engaged in an activity that requires focus. When do you experience flow?

23 23 At-Risk and Minority Students At-risk students do especially well in classrooms with teachers who Offer warm, inviting social environments. Encourage students to learn from one another and appreciate different languages and traditions. Treat the cultures that students bring to school as assets that provide students with foundations of background knowledge. Think in terms of helping minority students to become fully bicultural rather than in terms of replacing one culture with another. (Brophy, 2004).

24 24 Apathetic Students Teachers can resocialize the attitudes and behavior of apathetic students by Developing and working within close relationships with them, Using contracting and incentive systems, Discovering and building on their existing interests, Intentionally expecting their positive attitude toward schoolwork, Engaging in appropriate reading activities.

25 25 What to do? Mastery for learning is successful with low achievers and underachievers. Targeted objectives Flexible time Feedback Multiple learning tasks Extrinsic rewards and contracts may be a necessary beginning point. Teacher must find right level of challenge interesting and doable, appropriate to the skill level.

26 26 Aspirations Remember that we are motivated more by what we want to be than by our past. Help students articulate their aspirations.

27 27

28 28 What Money Cant Buy article by Mike Schmoker Read your assigned section of the article. Discuss and answer the 2 questions on the next slide with members of your table team. Record your answers on a post it. Locate the poster with your assigned reading section and place post it there. Select one person to serve as spokesperson. Wait Time Activity: Read the entire article. Review the indicators. Write the number of the indicators that correspond to the text.

29 29 Questions for Schmoker Article 1. What were the 3 most important points presented by Schmoker in your assigned section? 2.Describe your teams reaction to Schmokers suggestions. Does your team agree with him? Why or why not? Wait Time Activity: List and/or describe the first steps in beginning this initiative in a school.

30 30 Classroom Management The most influential category, classroom management, includes group alerting, learner accountability, smooth transitions, and teacher with-it-ness. What Helps Students Learn? Wang, Haertel, and Walberg

31 31 Indicators: Classroom Management IIIC08-Teachers display classroom rules and procedures. IIIC09-Teachers correct students who do not follow classroom rules. IIIC10-Teachers reinforce classroom rules and procedures by positively teaching them.

32 Assessment of Classroom Management and Culture

33 33 Ideal Learning Environment Looks like?Sounds like? 33 Interact with the T-chart. Strengths: Underline the statements that you do well. Needs: Put a check beside the statements that you want to work on.

34 34 Best Practices: Bridge to CII The team will Review the Teachers Self Assessment for Student Engagement. Clarify and summarize in its own words the expectations of the component to which the team is assigned. Be ready to share how the team would use such a tool.

35 35 Work Time Consists of pre-planned activities designed by the Instructional Team via the Learning Plan Grid (LPG) Gives students time to practice and master concepts and skills already introduced Encourages self-directed learning Promotes motivating activities Provides efficient and flexible use of time Provides opportunities for focused and purposeful interaction

36 36 Examination of Guiding Principles for Differentiation and Work Time In designing work stations to effectively implement student work time activities in my classroom, there is evidence in my lesson plans that I have considered that 1. [ ] My instructional decisions support the mission and vision of this school. 2. [ ] My instructional decisions support my school improvement plan (SIP). 3. [ ] There are bodies of research to which my school subscribes that indicate that student engagement is influenced by (a) teacher involvement (that influences student relatedness: I know that my teacher cares about me because….); (b) teacher structure (that influences student competence: I know that I can do this work because my teacher thinks that I can and everything in this classroom is designed to help me succeed in doing it.); and (c) teacher autonomy support (that influences student autonomy: I know that I have choices in whether or not I am successful and those choices are relevant/related to my reality. (Connell & Wellborn, 1991; Baskerville, 2008). And student engagement influences student achievement and performance (Connell & Wellborn, 1991).

37 37 Examination of Guiding Principles for Differentiation and Work Time continued 4. [ ] Teaching with the brain in mind research (Eric Jensen, 1998) supports increasing intrinsic motivation – providing choices, making learning relevant and personal, and setting students up to experience success (in other words, influencing engagement). See # 3 of Guiding Principles. This can be done during student work time – provided that students can perceive relatedness. 5. [ ] My work time activities are an outgrowth of and/or are related to my instructional delivery. Materials are used for instruction first and then they may be used by my students during work time in their workstations – opportunities to teach/learn with the brain in mind. 6. [ ] Based on the design of my instructional teams unit plans and Learning Plan Grids (see Sample Learning Plan Grid – LPG) that come from those unit plans, I have meaningful work time activities that are aligned with my instruction that is aligned with SOL assessments and aligned with the prescribed assessment levels (i.e., if Reading SOL 5.5c -- Describe the development of plot and explain how conflicts are resolved – is assessed at the Comprehension Level of Blooms Taxonomy, then Prerequisite (P), Target (T), and Enhanced (E) students will eventually have to perform at or above that level to be successful with that SOL).

38 38 Examination of Guiding Principles for Differentiation and Work Time continued 7. [ ] My students can move from one performance group to the other based on Pre Test performance and subsequent assessments (i.e., a student who performs at the Prerequisite level on SOL 5.5 b or c may have performed at the Target on Enhance Level of 5.5 a). Prerequisite, Target, and Enhanced groups are fluid. 8. [ ] I follow the recommendation by The Center on Innovation and Improvement (CII) for 5 different modes of instruction for work stations: Independent (individually or sometimes in pairs); Computer Based (could be in pairs or otherwise); Student Directed (could be a cooperative learning group); Teacher Directed (TD) (Prerequisite performers may routinely need to start with the TD group); and Homework (that is also differentiated according to P, T, or E performance).

39 39 Examination of Guiding Principles for Differentiation and Work Time continued 9. [ ] I demonstrate awareness that students need explicit directions and routine opportunities to practice how to use work time in work stations effectively. Just as students practice what to do during a fire drill; they need to practice what to do during work time. Per Debbie Dillers Practice with Purpose (2005), teachers can guarantee success at work stations through lots of modeling, gradually turning over more responsibility to students. A List of I Cans can be helpful to students at each work station (i.e., At the Computer Based Work Station centering on Word Study, third grade students may find instructions relating: I Can (1) make four letter words, (2) make five letter words, (3) figure out the mystery word, (4) sort words that end in um and change to a for the plural. 10. [ ] I demonstrate awareness that my students need to have meaningful wait time activities available (instructional activities for students who complete assignments early (i.e., In your journal, complete the reflection questions that are posted on the wall – independent assignment.) Wait time activities may center on cumulative review that is requisite in work time activities. 11. [ ] Student engagement (via work time) influences student performance.

40 40 Examination of Guiding Principles for Differentiation and Work Time As a division team Examine the sample document, Guiding Principals for Work Time and Differentiating Instruction. Choose one principle and determine if it is A Very Important Point = VIP. New Information = NI. Connected to What the Team Already Believes or Knows = C. A Principle That Your Team Would Embrace At the School = E. Share the principle with the whole group, relating if it is VIP, NI, C, or E. Relate how you might use such a document, what you might add…. Wait Time Activity Review the Guidelines for Work Time and Whole-Class Instruction, pages 24 and 25 in Session 2 Manual.

41 41 SOL 5.5 b & c ALC: U IndependentComputer Based Student-Directed Group Teacher-Directed Group Homework Enhanced: TSW read & demonstrate comprehension of fiction b. Describe character development in fiction and poetry selections. c. Describe the development of plot and explain how conflicts are resolved. In your journal: Write why and how you might have changed the character development of the main character in the play, The Catch of the Day OR Write why you would not have changed it. With a partner at the computer station, choose two fiction selections (one poem) and compare how the authors developed the main character and the conflict and how s/he resolved the conflict. * *Character vs. Character? *Character vs. Society? *Character vs. Nature? Self? In your 12 noon cooperative group (interests), use the Character & Plot Development Rubric to write and present a skit that portrays a character & plot similar to those in the play, The Catch of the Day. The 12 noon cooperative group will review the rubric and expectations with the teacher before writing the skit as the student- directed activity. Be prepared to defend or criticize how the media might develop a cartoon character or a movie plot of your choice). List specific examples/actions. Target b. Describe character development in fiction and poetry selections. c. Describe the development of plot and explain how conflicts are resolved. In your journal, write two strategies that you would use in developing someones character. Explain why you would use those strategies. At the computer station read poem # 5, and tell how or if the author resolved the conflict of the main character. (Teacher has bookmarked selections from Using PX Books to Teach Plot Conflict for students to use as references.) In your 12 noon group, review the play, The Catch of the Day, list the five most important actions that develop the plot. Justify choices & list them in the Character & Plot Chart to discuss with teacher. Be prepared to discuss how you or the media might develop a cartoon character or a movie plot of your choice). List specific examples/actions. Prerequisite b. Describe character development in fiction and poetry selections. c. Describe the development of plot and explain how conflicts are resolved. From the assignment you completed with your partner at the computer, illustrate in sequence the actions that lead to resolution of the conflict. At the computer station, review with a partner your choice of a story (in TITYS folder) that shows how the author develops a character, a conflict, and a resolution of the conflict. Using the Character & Plot Chart, list in sequence the important actions that lead to the resolution. From Using PX Books to Teach.)Plot.) In your 12 noon cooperative group, compare what you wrote/discussed with your partner with what the other members of the group wrote/discussed with their partners. The group will review with the teacher ways that an author might develop a fictional character and conflict and resolve the characters conflict. (See Using Picture Books to Teach Plot Conflict; Conflict Map. Be prepared to defend your illustration – why you represented the characters the way you did, why you sequenced the actions the way you did, etc. Talk about how the media might do the same type thing. Learning Plan Grid Standard/Benchmark Code: _5.5 b & c_* *These SOL have been taught separately first. Assessment Level Code: U Target Objective Code: Red Enhanced Objective Code: Yellow Prerequisite Code: Green

42 42 The Virginia Model: Support for School Improvement Training for Instructional Leaders Session 2 Next Steps/Action Plan & Follow Up School Division_________________ School ________________________ School Contact ____________________________ and ____________________________________ Please list the actions you plan to implement when you return to your school/division. You will be asked to share experiences at the next session. For each action step you tried to implement, indicate successes and/or challenges associated with it. Effective Use of Data in Instructional Decisions

43 43 Monitoring and Reporting Progress Student learning is evaluated on an ongoing basis. Student work can be checked and given immediate feedback. Progress is recorded. Parents are informed with meaningful reports.

44 44 Flagged for Success Robyn R. Jackson Educational Leadership / October 2010 All groups will read The first 2 columns on page 18. Four Cardinal Rules for Establishing Red Flags and On the Mark (both on page 21). Each group will read a specified vignette and (a) reflect on the Indistar Indicators--identifying Indicators used by the teachers, (b) discuss how you would handle a similar situation, and (c) prepare to share your thinking.

45 45 Class Progress Chart Unit pre-test determines mastery of objectives for each student. The teacher Records pre-test results. Identifies the leveled learning activity to assign each student during Work Time. Identifies areas to focus instruction in teacher-directed small group. Helps keep track of whole class progress throughout the Unit of Instruction.

46 46 Student Learning Report (SLR) Is sent home to parents/guardians to report students progress in meeting aligned objectives at the end of the unit or a grading period (i.e., with the report card). Is used to support discussions at conference time.

47 47 Indicators: Teacher Directed Introduction IIIA08 – All teachers review the previous lesson. IIIA09 – All teachers clearly state the lessons topic, theme, and objectives. IIIA10 – All teachers stimulate interest in the topics. IIIA11- All teachers use modeling, demonstration, and graphics.

48 48 Indicators: Teacher-Directed Presentation IIIA13 – All teachers explain directly and thoroughly. IIIA14 – All teachers maintain eye contact. IIIA15 – All teachers speak with expression and a variety of vocal tones. IIIA16 – All teachers use prompting / cueing.

49 49 Indicators: Teacher-Directed Summary/Confirmation IIIA17 – All teachers re-teach when necessary. IIIA18 – All teachers review with drilling/class recitation. IIIA19 – All teachers review with questioning. IIIA20 – All teachers summarize key concepts.

50 50 Indicators: Teacher-Directed Interaction IIIA21- All teachers re-teach following questioning. IIIA25 – All teachers encourage students to paraphrase, summarize, and relate. IIIA26 – All teachers encourage students to check their own comprehension. IIIA27 – All teachers verbally praise students.

51 51 Interactive Teaching Involves using: Instructional Strategies Instructional Preparation Instructional Prompts Instructional Monitoring Instructional Materials Instructional Groups Instructional Application

52 52 Instructional Strategies Six Characteristics of Good Questions, page 35 in Session 3 Manual Pausing When Questioning. page 36 Six Alternatives to Questioning, page 36 Effective Demonstrations, page 37

53 53 Decision Making Pyramid

54 54 Instructional Preparation, page 38 Relate to personal experience Previewing information Advanced organizers Brainstorming Webbing Questioning techniques K-W-L strategies Predicting

55 55 Next Steps: Review and Evaluate Your Use of the Center for Innovation and Improvement Instructional Elements.

56 56 Instructional Prompts Graphic organizers Semantic organizers Outlines Mnemonics Analogy/Analogies Imagery Color coding Highlighting

57 57

58 58 Instructional Monitoring Anecdotal Records Progress Charts Self-Monitoring Checklists Rubrics Student Contracts Peer Reviews Conferences Portfolios

59 59

60 60 Instructional Materials Leveled materials Books on tapes Directions on tapes Tape recorders Personal computers Ipods Classroom libraries

61 61

62 62 Instructional Application Hands-On Activities Use of Technology Dramatizations Manipulatives Illustrations Graphics and charts Interviews/Survey Think-Alouds

63 63

64 64 Session 3 Objectives Review the concepts of motivation and attribution as applied in a classroom Explore classroom management techniques for work time Explore monitoring and reporting student progress Explore interactive teaching strategies for small group instruction

65 65 Session Closing Questions and remarks Next scheduled session – March 30, 31, 2011 (Holiday Inn Express Airport) Topics for Session 4: Metacognition, Interactive Teaching Strategies, Collegial Coaching, Personalizing Instruction, Home-School Communication and Homework Homework: Review responses to Interactive Teaching Indicators. Complete a Self Reflection Survey from DOE. Bring materials for sharing session.

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