Presentation on theme: "The ultimate goal in school improvement is for the"— Presentation transcript:
1The ultimate goal in school improvement is for the people attached to theschool to drive itscontinuous improvementfor the sake of their ownchildren and students.--Dr. Sam ReddingSession Leader willWelcome participants.Review quote by Sam Redding.Share Effective Teaming analogy.
2Effective TeamingIs like an orange. We (teachers) have to peel away the rind, teach through the zest and flesh to get to the seed. It is essential to look at the whole fruit because all parts lead to success. And they (the children) take that seed and replant it for further success.Session Leader willReview analogy.Ask team to create own analogy comparing the team to a fruit, vegetable, or zoo animal.
3Virginia Support for School Improvement Training for Instructional LeadersSession 3January 20,21, 2011Holiday Inn Koger Center – Richmond, VASession Leader willMake introductions.Review materials and suggested readings.Describe training session.Explain the “Parking Lot.”
4Session 3 ObjectivesReview the concepts of motivation and attribution as applied in a classroomExplore classroom management techniques for work timeExplore monitoring and reporting student progressExplore interactive teaching strategies for small group instructionSession leader will review objectives for Session 3.
5Whole Class Instruction Motivation: Wanting to Learn Summary Notes:The session leader willRefer participants to the Whole Class Instruction bookmark provided by theCenter on Innovation and Improvement.Refer participants to pages in the Session 3 Manual, Guidelines for Teacher Directed Instruction. These pages provide for a thorough explanation of Think, Know, Show.Explain Think, Know, Show.
6Lesson ObjectivesDefine motivation and what motivates students to learn.Determine what a teacher can do to enhance students’ motivation to learn.Session Leader will review the objectives for motivation.6
7What is Motivation?“Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain the initiation, direction, intensity, persistence, and quality of behavior, especially goal-directed behavior” (Maehr & Meyer, 1997, pg. 3).Summary Notes:The session leader willAsk participants to read in unison the quote on the slide and reflect on its meaning.Explain that Wigfield & Eccles wrote that motivation is a characteristic of the individual but also the result of the home and school environmental contexts that the individual encounters.7
8What is a Motive?“Motive” is the word we use to explain why someone does what he or she does.Motivation is measured by:Willingness to attempt.Persistence.Session Leader will review components of motivation.Summary NotesWhen presented with a challenge or task, how willing are we to attempt it?How persistent are we in sticking with it to the end?Both willingness and persistence are indications of the strength of motivation.Motivation is something we can only detect indirectly; we assume from a student’s willingness to tackle a new task and persist with it that the student is “motivated” toward it.8
9What are Your Motives for Teaching? What motivated you to become a teacher?2. What motivates you to persist in teaching?Session Leader willAsk participants to consider the two questions and share their motives for becoming a teacher with a partner at their table.Ask volunteers to share.9
10What Motivates a Student to Learn? As much as 25% of the differences between students in their learning outcomes can be explained by differences in motivation.That is less than the effects of the teacher or of the home, but still large.And there is a circular effect: The school and home contribute to the student’s motivation to learn.Session Leader will discuss importance of motivation.Summary NotesAs much as 25% of the differences in student learning can be attributed tostudent motivation.The teacher and the home are greater contributors to student performance.There is a circular effect: the school, the home and motivation.Motivation is measured by willingness to try and persistence.10
11How Teachers Build Students’ Motivation to Learn Modeling, showing and sharing enthusiasm for learning and specific topics.Providing presentations that are clear, to the point, and interactive.Interacting socially and academically with individual students.Involving students in managing their learning toward clear objectives (Student Learning Plans, for example).Session Leader will review key points from slide.
12Motivation to Learn Extrinsic and Intrinsic Teachers can, however, “develop and sustain [their] students’ motivation to learn from academic activities, their tendencies to find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and to try to get the intended learning benefits from them”(Brophy, 2004, p. 15).Value learning and expect success.Session leader will ask participants toRead Brophy’s quote silently and reflect on the meaningRestate (on a post it note) the thought in their own words.Share with a neighbor their thought and the meaning it has for the students we teach.Summary NotesRemind participants that students are evaluated and graded on their efforts.These actions mitigate against purely intrinsic motivation.12
13Outside, Inside, BothExtrinsic Motivation: Motivated by reward or goal.Intrinsic Motivation: Motivated by internal satisfaction, interest.Both: Teacher uses extrinsic goal of mastery in a way that instills internal desire to learn. Not perform, but learn.Session Leader will review extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.Summary NotesExtrinsic Motivation:Teachers use external reinforcement (positive and negative) to control or manage student behavior. Grades, gold stars, special privileges, verbal praise, and public honors are the carrots of the classroom.By offering a reward for learning or for following classroom rules, we may unintentionally “kill off the interest in the very thing we are bribing them to do: (Kohn, p. 72) A goal is devalued if external reward is attached to it.Intrinsic Motivation: Learners are motivated to learn when success is a part of the process. When teachers provide opportunities for competence and success through work time experiences, students are motivated by their success in learning – not in performing for evaluation.13
14Attribution Theory: To What Does A Student Ascribe His Success/Failure? Constructive attribution: Student recognition of his/her effort, strategies chosen and applied, and his/her use of information available.“I need to try harder, try a different approach, ask more/different questions.”Destructive attribution: Student perception of his/her lack of innate ability.“I’m just not smart enough.”Deflective attribution: It’s not about me; it’s somebody else’s fault….“The teacher doesn’t like me.” “The test isn’t fair.”Session Leader will review attribution theory.Summary NotesTo what does a student ascribe his/her success or failure?Through interactions with students, teachers give signals that reinforce attributions whether they are constructive, destructive, or deflective.Constructive attribution: students needs have been met, and the student accepts responsibility for his actions even when he makes a mistake. His perspective is I can do this, I just need to take care of that one thing. And that’s not a problem because I know that I can get the help I need.A teacher’s asking key questions and shaping the acceptable responses will help students view learning as a process over which they exercise considerable control; they perceive some autonomy; they perceive some control over their success.The teacher might ask: What do you think you need to do to reach this objective? Why do you think you did so well on the first part of the test? Teacher and student are delving into metacognition!!Destructive attribution:Student perceives that he can not succeed, and learning to him is not a process. You either have the right answer or the wrong answer, And I’m just not smart enough to get it right. He perceives no competence, and therefore his perception is that s/he is just not smart enough.Deflective attribution: The student has not been engaged in the learning process and accepts no responsibility for learning, It is the teacher’s fault; the test isn’t fair; I’m just not lucky.14
15Pursuit of Achievement Goals Learning for Mastery Goals: the teacher’s focus is on student mastery of a specified skill or bit of knowledge contained within a task--for successful completion of the task.Performance Goals: the focus is on evaluation, and the student is driven to preserve a positive self-perception and public reputation--in successfully completing the task.Work-avoidance Goals: refusal to accept the challenge of achievement is the focus of the student, especially when performance is emphasized.Session Leader will review pursuit of achievement goals.Summary NotesAnother way of looking at this is thatLearning for Mastery Goals focus on Formative Assessment.Performance Goals focus on Summative Assessment.Work Avoidance results when the learner does not want to be “exposed” for his perceived inability to perform.Rather than merely responding habitually to stimuli (rewards), a person acts to pursue goals.When we as teachers focus more on learning as a process rather than focusing on performance, we will facilitate less of the work avoidance goals because students will be focused on the process.Building student competence has to be more about providing opportunities to learn and falter during work time and providing formative feedback during that time.15
16Intrinsic MotivationThe teacher can promote student self-determination/motivation/student engagement by influencingRelatedness (student perception of his/her connection to others, especially the teacher).Competence (student perception of his/her ability to master skills and content).Autonomy (student perception of having some control in his/her learning--deciding what to do and/or how to do it (effecting relevance)Session Leader will discuss relatedness, competence, and autonomy that influence student engagement.Summary NotesConnell and Wellborn (1991), Klem and Connell (2004), Skinner and Belmont (1993) call this student engagement relating thatTeacher involvement influences student relatedness.Teacher structure (best practices) influences student competence.Teacher autonomy support influences student autonomy.All three student autonomy, student competence, and student relatedness influence student engagement.It is not enough to have student relatedness. Students can feel relatedness all day and not have opportunities to experience competence, and we still do not have engagement or motivation.Students may have choices (within parameters) and not feel relatedness and still not be engaged or motivated.It is all three – acting in concert that will influence engagement or motivation!!And we know that engagement influences performance and achievement.16
17Intrinsic MotivationWhat do relatedness, competence, and autonomy look like in the classroom?Session Leader will ask participants to reflect on the question.
18From the Student’s Perspective: Relatedness: “I belong in this classroom…; my teacher lets me know it every day.”Correspondingly, we know thatTeacher involvement influences student relatedness (Connell & Wellborn, 1991).Students respond, individually, to* The right blend of caring and expectations.* The confidence that the teacher “knows meand thinks there is something special aboutMe.” (The Student Learning Plan is my teacher’s planfor ME.)* The teacher’s social and academic interactions….Session Leader will explain what Relatedness, Competence, and Autonomy look like to the student.
19From the Student’s Perspective: Competence: “I know I can be successful…; furthermore, my teacher thinks that I can and shows me that I can….”Correspondingly, we know thatTeacher structure (design & implementation of meaningful learning activities; best practices in the teaching & learning process) influences student competence (Connell & Wellborn, 1991).Students respond to*The recognition of accomplishment based onevidence of effort and mastery.*Content that is challenging and interestinglypresented at their individual performance levels.Session Leader will explain what Relatedness, Competence, and Autonomy look like to the student.
20From the Student’s Perspective: Autonomy: “I have choices and can have some control over/responsibility toward my success…; furthermore, what I’m doing centers on my reality….”Correspondingly, we know thatTeacher autonomy support (provision of student choices & student voice within parameters) influences student autonomy (Connell & Wellborn, 1991).Students respond to*The opportunity to manage work tasks (during worktime) and the responsibility for those tasks.* The choice and voice of relevance in managing tasksfor which they are responsible.Session Leader will explain what Relatedness, Competence, and Autonomy look like to the student.
21What Can a Teacher Do? Show personal enthusiasm for learning. Provide each student with tasks and activities that are engaging for that student. Stimulate motivation with curiosity, suspense, cognitive conflict, making abstract content more personal. Scaffold student learning with clear goals, advance organizers, planning questions and differentiated activities. (Targeted learning tasks help build the competence that is required for Student Engagement.)Provide each student with “formative feedback” on his/her acquisition of knowledge and skills.Provide each student with some autonomy in completing his/her learning tasks. (Teacher autonomy support influences student autonomy required for Student Engagement.)Help each student develop constructive attributions for him/herself--taking responsibility for his/her successes and failures.Show each student that s/he is valued by offering praise that is informative and appreciative. (This type praise helps influence the relatedness required Student Engagement.)Session Leader will review what a teacher can do to motivate students and influence engagement and constructive attribution .Summary NotesThere is a positive and significant correlation between teacher practices and student engagement (Baskerville 2008).Student engagement influences student performance and achievement (Connell & Wellborn 1991).The keys to improved academic achievement are professional practices of teachers and leaders, not the economic, ethnic, or linguistic characteristics of the students (Reeves 2005).Teacher classroom practices can have an effect on student achievement equal to or exceeding socioeconomic status (Wenglinsky 2002).21
22When do you experience Flow? Flow is characterized by a loss of self-consciousness and sense of time. We are happily and purposefully engaged in an activity that requires focus.When do you experience flow?Session Leader willDefine flow using definition from slide.Ask participants to tell when they experience flow.Summary NotesWhen students are experiencing flow during Work Time, they may not be aware of any visitors entering the classroom.22
23At-Risk and Minority Students At-risk students do especially well in classrooms with teachers whoOffer warm, inviting social environments.Encourage students to learn from one another and appreciate different languages and traditions.Treat the cultures that students bring to school as assets that provide students with foundations of background knowledge.Think in terms of helping minority students to become fully bicultural rather than in terms of replacing one culture with another. (Brophy, 2004).Session Leader will review information.Summary NotesAll students, but especially at-risk students, do best with teachers whoShare warm, personal interactions with themHold high expectations for their academic progressRequire them to perform up to their capabilities and see that they progress asfar as they are able.These teachers break through social class differences, cultural differences, language differences, and other potential barriers to communication in order to form close relationships with at-risk students, but they use these relationships to maximize the students’ academic progress, not merely to provide friendship or sympathy to them.23
24Apathetic StudentsTeachers can resocialize the attitudes and behavior of apathetic students byDeveloping and working within close relationships with them,Using contracting and incentive systems,Discovering and building on their existing interests,Intentionally expecting their positive attitude toward schoolwork,Engaging in appropriate reading activities.Session Leader will review the importance of the teacher in changing the attitudes and behavior of apathetic students to improve their academic performance.Summary NotesSuccessful teachers willBuild relationshipsBe warm and caringUse contracts and incentives (individual and/or group)Determine and build on individual and/or group interestsExpect positive attitudes and behaviorEngage students in appropriate reading activitiesEngaging in reading can help close the gap for students from families of high poverty and low educational background ( Guthrie, Schafer, & Huang, 2001).24
25What to do?Mastery for learning is successful with low achievers and underachievers.Targeted objectivesFlexible timeFeedbackMultiple learning tasksExtrinsic rewards and contracts may be a necessary beginning point.Teacher must find right level of challenge—interesting and doable, appropriate to the skill level.Session leader will summarize the importance ofMastery learning.Extrinsic rewards.Challenging, interesting and doable instructional activities at the appropriate skill level.This describes our Work Time in Targeted Learning.25
26AspirationsRemember that we are motivated more by what we want to be than by our past.Help students articulate their aspirations.Session leader will emphasize the importance of helping students articulate their aspirations. Students have to believe that we think they can be successful.Quote:“I don’t become what I think I can be.I don’t become what you think I can be.I become what I think you think I can be.”26
27Session leader will ask participants to: Review information on the graphic organizer.Discuss ideas with team members.Summarize the big idea.Define professional teaching efficacy.Summary NotesAccording to Elaine McEwan in her book, 10 Traits of Highly Effective Teachers, motivational expertise is one of the 10 traits.
28article by Mike Schmoker What Money Can’t Buyarticle by Mike SchmokerRead your assigned section of the article.Discuss and answer the 2 questions on the next slide with members of your table team.Record your answers on a post it.Locate the poster with your assigned reading section and place post it there.Select one person to serve as spokesperson.Wait Time Activity: Read the entire article.Review the indicators. Write the number of the indicators that correspond to the text.The Session Leader willRefer participants to the article by Mike Schmoker, What Money Can’t Buy.Direct participants to follow the procedures for reading and reflecting on thecontent of the article.Remind participants of the wait time activities.
29Questions for Schmoker Article 1. What were the 3 most important points presented by Schmoker in your assigned section?Describe your team’s reaction to Schmoker’s suggestions. Does your team agree with him? Why or why not?Wait Time Activity:List and/or describe the first steps in beginning this initiative in a school.Summary NotesAfter participants have completed the activity, the Session Leader willAsk participants to consider:How do you use allocated time?How do you use allocated staff?How do you use allocated resources?
30Classroom Management “The most influential category, classroom management, includes group alerting, learner accountability, smooth transitions, and teacher with-it-ness.”What Helps Students Learn? Wang, Haertel, and WalbergSession leader willRead quote and ask participants to reflect on teacher with-it-ness.Ask participants,” What helps students learn?”Stress” the importance of teacher with-it-ness”.Refer participants to The Mega System, pages for additionalinformation.Ask participants to give suggestions for group alerting, smooth transitions, andlearner accountability.
31Indicators: Classroom Management IIIC08-Teachers display classroom rules and procedures.IIIC09-Teachers correct students who do not follow classroom rules.IIIC10-Teachers reinforce classroom rules and procedures by positively teaching them.Session Leader willAsk participants to locate, read, and highlight the indicators.Discuss the indicators.Review and discuss use of the Suggested Classroom Procedures.Emphasize the importance of appropriate wait time activities.
32Assessment of Classroom Management and Culture Session leader will ask participants to complete columns 1 and 2.
33Ideal Learning Environment Interact with the T-chart.Strengths: Underline the statements that you dowell.Needs: Put a check beside the statements thatyou want to work on.Looks like?Sounds like?Session Leader will review directions with participants.33
34Best Practices: Bridge to CII The team willReview the Teacher’s Self Assessment for Student Engagement.Clarify and summarize in its own words the expectations of the component to which the team is assigned.Be ready to share how the team would use such a tool.Session Leader will review instructions for use of the Teacher’s Self Assessment for Student Engagement.
35Work TimeConsists of pre-planned activities designed by the Instructional Team via the Learning Plan Grid (LPG)Gives students time to practice and master concepts and skills already introducedEncourages self-directed learningPromotes motivating activitiesProvides efficient and flexible use of timeProvides opportunities for focused and purposeful interactionThe session leader will explain that the Learning Plan Grid is pre-planned and created by Instructional Team and gives the classroom teacher the “toolbox” of appropriate activities for students performing at the prerequisite, target or enhanced level.
36Examination of Guiding Principles for Differentiation and Work Time In designing work stations to effectively implement student work time activities in my classroom, there is evidence in my lesson plans that I have considered that1. [ ] My instructional decisions support the mission and vision of this school.2. [ ] My instructional decisions support my school improvement plan (SIP).3. [ ] There are bodies of research to which my school subscribes that indicate that student engagement is influenced by (a) teacher involvement (that influences student relatedness: “I know that my teacher cares about me because….”); (b) teacher structure (that influences student competence: “I know that I can do this work because my teacher thinks that I can and everything in this classroom is designed to help me succeed in doing it.”); and (c) teacher autonomy support (that influences student autonomy: “ I know that I have choices in whether or not I am successful and those choices are relevant/related to my reality.” (Connell & Wellborn, 1991; Baskerville, 2008). And student engagement influences student achievement and performance (Connell & Wellborn, 1991).Summary Notes:The Session Leader will introduce the document (pages 36-39).
37Examination of Guiding Principles for Differentiation and Work Time continued 4. [ ] “Teaching with the brain in mind” research (Eric Jensen, 1998) supports increasing intrinsic motivation – providing choices, making learning relevant and personal, and setting students up to experience success (in other words, influencing engagement). See # 3 of Guiding Principles. This can be done during student work time – provided that students can perceive relatedness.5. [ ] My work time activities are an outgrowth of and/or are related to my instructional delivery. Materials are used for instruction first and then they may be used by my students during work time in their workstations – opportunities to teach/learn with the brain in mind.6. [ ] Based on the design of my instructional team’s unit plans and Learning Plan Grids (see Sample Learning Plan Grid – LPG) that come from those unit plans, I have meaningful work time activities that are aligned with my instruction that is aligned with SOL assessments and aligned with the prescribed assessment levels (i.e., if Reading SOL 5.5c -- Describe the development of plot and explain how conflicts are resolved – is assessed at the Comprehension Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy, then Prerequisite (P), Target (T), and Enhanced (E) students will eventually have to perform at or above that level to be successful with that SOL).Summary NotesContinuation of tasks associated with slides
38Examination of Guiding Principles for Differentiation and Work Time continued 7. [ ] My students can move from one performance group to the other based on Pre Test performance and subsequent assessments (i.e., a student who performs at the Prerequisite level on SOL 5.5 b or c may have performed at the Target on Enhance Level of 5.5 a). Prerequisite, Target, and Enhanced groups are fluid.8. [ ] I follow the recommendation by The Center on Innovation and Improvement (CII) for 5 different modes of instruction for work stations: Independent (individually or sometimes in pairs); Computer Based (could be in pairs or otherwise); Student Directed (could be a cooperative learning group); Teacher Directed (TD) (Prerequisite performers may routinely need to start with the TD group); and Homework (that is also differentiated according to P, T, or E performance).Summary NotesContinuation of tasks associated with slides
39Examination of Guiding Principles for Differentiation and Work Time continued 9. [ ] I demonstrate awareness that students need explicit directions and routine opportunities to practice how to use work time in work stations effectively. Just as students practice what to do during a fire drill; they need to practice what to do during work time. Per Debbie Diller’s Practice with Purpose (2005), teachers can guarantee success at work stations through lots of modeling, gradually turning over more responsibility to students. A List of I Cans can be helpful to students at each work station (i.e., At the Computer Based Work Station centering on Word Study, third grade students may find instructions relating: I Can (1) make four letter words, (2) make five letter words, (3) figure out the mystery word, (4) sort words that end in um and change to a for the plural.10. [ ] I demonstrate awareness that my students need to have meaningful wait time activities available (instructional activities for students who complete assignments early (i.e., In your journal, complete the reflection questions that are posted on the wall – independent assignment.) Wait time activities may center on cumulative review that is requisite in work time activities.11. [ ] Student engagement (via work time) influences student performance.Summary NotesContinuation of tasks associated with slides
40Examination of Guiding Principles for Differentiation and Work Time As a division teamExamine the sample document, Guiding Principals for Work Time and Differentiating Instruction.Choose one principle and determine if it isA Very Important Point = VIP.New Information = NI.Connected to What the Team Already Believes or Knows = C.A Principle That Your Team Would Embrace At the School = E.Share the principle with the whole group, relating if it is VIP, NI, C, or E.Relate how you might use such a document, what you might add….Wait Time ActivityReview the Guidelines for Work Time and Whole-Class Instruction, pages 24 and 25 in Session 2 Manual.Session Leader will review directions for the activity.
41This is what Work Time looks like on paper. Learning Plan GridStandard/Benchmark Code: _5.5 b & c_**These SOL have been taught separately first.Assessment Level Code: UTarget Objective Code: Red Enhanced Objective Code: Yellow Prerequisite Code: GreenSOL 5.5 b & cALC: UIndependentComputer BasedStudent-Directed GroupTeacher-Directed GroupHomeworkEnhanced: TSW read & demonstrate comprehension of fictionb. Describe character development in fiction and poetry selections.c. Describe the development of plot and explain how conflicts are resolved.In your journal:Write why and how you might have changed the character development of the main character in the play, The Catch of the Day ORWrite why you would not have changed it.With a partner at the computer station, choose two fiction selections (one poem) and compare how the authors developed the main character and the conflict and how s/he resolved the conflict. **Character vs. Character?*Character vs. Society?*Character vs. Nature? Self?In your 12 noon cooperative group (interests), use the Character & Plot Development Rubric to write and present a skit that portrays a character & plot similar to those in the play, The Catch of the Day.The 12 noon cooperative group will review the rubric and expectations with the teacher before writing the skit as the student-directed activity.Be prepared to defend or criticize how the media might develop a cartoon character or a movie plot of your choice). List specific examples/actions.TargetIn your journal, write two strategies that you would use in developing someone’s character. Explain whyyou would use those strategies.At the computer station read poem # 5, and tellhow or if the author resolved the conflict of the main character. (Teacher has bookmarked selections from Using PX Books to Teach Plot Conflict for students to use as references.)In your 12 noon group, review the play, The Catch of the Day, list the five most important actions that develop the plot. Justify choices & list them in the Character & Plot Chart to discuss with teacher.Be prepared to discuss how you or the media might develop a cartoon character or a movie plot of your choice). List specific examples/actions.PrerequisiteFrom the assignment you completed with your partner at the computer, illustrate in sequence the actions that lead to resolution of the conflict.At the computer station, review with a partner your choice of a story (in TITYS folder) that shows how the author develops a character, a conflict, and a resolution of the conflict. Using the Character & Plot Chart, list in sequence the important actions that lead to the resolution. From Using PX Books to Teach .)Plot.)In your 12 noon cooperative group, compare what you wrote/discussed with your partner with what the other members of the group wrote/discussed with their partners.The group will review with the teacher ways that an author might develop a fictional character and conflict and resolve the character’s conflict.(See Using Picture Books to Teach Plot Conflict; Conflict Map.Be prepared to defend your illustration – why you represented the characters the way you did, why you sequenced the actions the way you did, etc. Talk about how the media might do the same type thing.Summary NotesThis is what Work Time looks like on paper.
42The Virginia Model: Support for School Improvement Training for Instructional LeadersSession 2 Next Steps/Action Plan & Follow UpSchool Division_________________School ________________________School Contact ____________________________ and ____________________________________Please list the actions you plan to implement when you return to your school/division. You will be asked to share experiences at the next session.For each action step you tried to implement, indicate successes and/or challenges associated with it.Effective Use of Data in Instructional DecisionsSession Leader will ask participants toReview the homework assignment from Session 2 completing the steps thathave been implemented.Identify the level of success of the strategy implementation.Post findings for gallery review.
43Monitoring and Reporting Progress Student learning is evaluated on an ongoing basis.Student work can be checked and given immediate feedback.Progress is recorded.Parents are informed with meaningful reports.Session Leader will review information from slide.Summary NotesMonitoring student progress serves two purposes. First, teachers can quickly see on which SOL the students have shown mastery and where additional work is required. As a planning tool, the monitoring of student progress (page 43 in Session 2 Manual) can be helpful in planning groups and specific content or skills in need of additional learning opportunities. Secondly, monitoring mastery can provide a way of actively engaging students in their learning and serve as a way of helping students understand their need for additional work to meet mastery.Monitoring student progress using the document on page 44 of the Session 2 Manual will provide the teacher with a very simple way of sharing specific information with parents about their child’s progress.
44Flagged for Success Robyn R Flagged for Success Robyn R. Jackson Educational Leadership / October 2010All groups will readThe first 2 columns on page 18.Four Cardinal Rules for Establishing Red Flags and On the Mark (both on page 21).Each group will read a specified vignette and (a) reflect on the Indistar Indicators--identifying Indicators used by the teachers, (b) discuss how you would handle a similar situation, and (c) prepare to share your thinking.The Session Leader willDistribute the article and assign the three groups for the reading assignment.Allow approximately 10 minutes for the groups to work in small groups to complete the assignment.Provide 5 minutes for each group to discuss the group’s thinking.Summary NotesPoint of emphasis: We have a wide range of data on students. Using these data in a timely fashion and monitoring the results of our actions are vital in reaching the students in need of support.You have completed your first quarter report for DOE. How have things changed as the result of your interpretation of the Quarterly Report data?
45Class Progress ChartUnit pre-test determines mastery of objectives for each student.The teacherRecords pre-test results.Identifies the leveled learning activity to assign each student during Work Time.Identifies areas to focus instruction in teacher-directed small group.Helps keep track of whole class progress throughout the Unit of Instruction.Session Leader will review this slide with participants.Summary NotesThe charting of the results of the pre-test can be used to determine the initial level of Work Time activities in which the student will engage.The chart will be updated as additional assessment information is received either through class assessments or the post test for the unit of study.The data in the chart can be used for remediation which will be more targeted and will be useful for teachers in developing the individual Student Learning Plan by continuing remediation at the correct level – prerequisite, targeted or enhanced.Class Progress Chart, page 43 in Session 2 Manual
46Student Learning Report (SLR) Is sent home to parents/guardians to report student’s progress in meeting aligned objectives at the end of the unit or a grading period (i.e., with the report card).Is used to support discussions at conference time.Session Leader will review SLR on page 44 of Session 2 Manual.Summary NotesThe Student Learning Report is more than the individual student’s row of scores from the Class Progress Chart.It helps students see and take ownership of their progress.It’s an easy tool for communicating student progress to parents.
47Indicators: Teacher Directed Introduction IIIA08 – All teachers review the previous lesson.IIIA09 – All teachers clearly state the lesson’s topic, theme, and objectives.IIIA10 – All teachers stimulate interest in the topics.IIIA11- All teachers use modeling, demonstration, and graphics.Session Leader willReview the Indicators.Ask the participants to highlight them on the Crosswalk.Ask participants to reflect on how these indicators are implemented in theirschool.
48Indicators: Teacher-Directed Presentation IIIA13 – All teachers explain directly and thoroughly.IIIA14 – All teachers maintain eye contact.IIIA15 – All teachers speak with expression and a variety of vocal tones.IIIA16 – All teachers use prompting / cueing.Session Leader willReview the Indicators.Ask the participants to highlight them on the Crosswalk.Ask participants to reflect on how these indicators are implemented in theirschool.
49Indicators: Teacher-Directed Summary/Confirmation IIIA17 – All teachers re-teach when necessary.IIIA18 – All teachers review with drilling/class recitation.IIIA19 – All teachers review with questioning.IIIA20 – All teachers summarize key concepts.Session Leader willReview the Indicators.Ask the participants to highlight them on the Crosswalk.Ask participants to reflect on how these indicators are implemented in theirschool.
50Indicators: Teacher-Directed Interaction IIIA21- All teachers re-teach following questioning.IIIA25 – All teachers encourage students to paraphrase, summarize, and relate.IIIA26 – All teachers encourage students to check their own comprehension.IIIA27 – All teachers verbally praise students.Session Leader willReview the Indicators.Ask the participants to highlight them on the Crosswalk.Ask participants to reflect on how these indicators are implemented in theirschool.
51Interactive Teaching Involves using: Instructional Strategies Instructional PreparationInstructional PromptsInstructional MonitoringInstructional MaterialsInstructional GroupsInstructional ApplicationSession Leader will review components of Interactive Teaching.Summary NotesEach of these bullets will be explored in the slides which follow.Participants will be asked to review each of the strategies identified in each ofthese bullets to assess implementation in their school.Elements from these bullets will build the strategies and resources needed toensure effective whole group and work time instruction.Session Leaders will evenly divide the components of Interactive Teaching among the number of tables in the room.Table participants willDescribe their strategy.Tell when it is appropriate -- during whole group, work time, both, etc.Share with the whole group at least 3 “take-aways” from their tables givenstrategy.
52Instructional Strategies Six Characteristics of Good Questions, page 35 in Session 3 ManualPausing When Questioning. page 36Six Alternatives to Questioning, page 36Effective Demonstrations, page 37Session Leader will review Instructional Strategies.Summary NotesSession leader will direct participants to page 35 in the Session 3 Manual.Session leader will discuss the materials related to the bulleted prompts.Six characteristics of good questions: Clear , Purposeful, Brief, Natural,Sequenced, Thought ProvokingPausing when questioning: Longer waiting time in questioning led to moreactive participation in the lesson by a larger percentage of students and higher quality responses.Six alternatives to questioning: declarative statements, declarative re-statements, indirect questions, imperatives, student questions, deliberate silence.Effective demonstrations: focus attention, provide overview, go throughprocess step-by-step, perform demonstration slowly, have students practice the demonstration, and correct mistakes--focus on re-teaching the steps and have the students try again.
53Decision Making Pyramid Session leader will review components of Decision Making Pyramid that was introduced in Session 1.Summary Notes1st Level: Requires no resourcesIs a quick win, quick fixCan be done tomorrow2nd Level: Is important right now but something is preventing it from being done—could be time, money, resources, personnel, etc.Will not happen tomorrow3rd Level: May require a policy change/revision, central office or school board approvalShould be done but authority needed to do so
54Instructional Preparation, page 38 Relate to personal experiencePreviewing informationAdvanced organizersBrainstormingWebbingQuestioning techniquesK-W-L strategiesPredictingSession Leader willReview the slide.Ask participants to review the bulleted items and determine if they are present in their school.Ask participants to evaluate the items and determine the level of implementation in their school.Ask participants to use the Decision Making Pyramid to determine the next steps for implementing these strategies in their school.
55Next Steps: Review and Evaluate Your Use of the Center for Innovation and Improvement Instructional Elements.Summary NotesParticipants will review the elements in column 1.Use the space provided in column 2 to identify examples of what you are doing now.Use the space in column 3 to identify those elements you want to consider for inclusion in your toolbox.In column 4, refer to the Decision Making Pyramid discussed by Roger Jones in our summer session.Identify the status of the element.Is it a quick win, can be accomplished immediately?Will it need time for staff development and resource acquisition to implement?Will it require changes in school or division policy or additional resources that will need to be budgeted in the future?
56Instructional Prompts Graphic organizersSemantic organizersOutlinesMnemonicsAnalogy/AnalogiesImageryColor codingHighlightingSession Leader willReview the slide.Ask participants to review the bulleted items and determine if they are present in their school.Ask participants to evaluate the items and determine the level of implementation in their school.Ask participants to use the Decision Making Pyramid to determine the next steps for implementing these strategies in their school.
57Summary NotesParticipants will review the elements in column 1.Use the space provided in column 2 to identify examples of what you are doing now.Use the space in column 3 to identify those elements you want to consider for inclusion in your toolbox.In column 4. refer to the Decision Pyramid discussed by Roger Jones in our summer session.Identify the status of the element.Is it a quick win, can be accomplished immediately?Will it need time for staff development and resource acquisition to implement?Will it require changes in school or division policy or additional resources that will need to be budgeted in the future?
58Instructional Monitoring Anecdotal RecordsProgress ChartsSelf-Monitoring ChecklistsRubricsStudent ContractsPeer ReviewsConferencesPortfoliosSession Leader willReview the slide.Ask participants to review the bulleted items and determine if they are present in their school.Ask participants to evaluate the items and determine the level of implementation in their school.Ask participants to use the Decision Making Pyramid to determine the next steps for implementing these strategies in their school.
59Summary NotesParticipants will review the elements in column 1.Use the space provided in column 2 to identify examples of what you are doing now.Use the space in column 3 to identify those elements you want to consider for inclusion in your toolbox.In column 4. refer to the Decision Pyramid discussed by Roger Jones in our summer session.Identify the status of the element.Is it a quick win, can be accomplished immediately?Will it need time for staff development and resource acquisition to implement?Will it require changes in school or division policy or additional resources that will need to be budgeted in the future?
60Instructional Materials Leveled materialsBooks on tapesDirections on tapesTape recordersPersonal computersIpodsClassroom librariesSession Leader willReview the slide.Ask participants to review the bulleted items and determine if they are present in their school.Ask participants to evaluate the items and determine the level of implementation in their school.Ask participants to use the Decision Making Pyramid to determine the next steps for implementing these strategies in their school.
61Summary NotesParticipants will review the elements in column 1.Use the space provided in column 2 to identify examples of what you are doing now.Use the space in column 3 to identify those elements you want to consider for inclusion in your toolbox.In column 4. refer to the Decision Pyramid discussed by Roger Jones in our summer session.Identify the status of the element.Is it a quick win, can be accomplished immediately?Will it need time for staff development and resource acquisition to implement?Will it require changes in school or division policy or additional resources that will need to be budgeted in the future?
62Instructional Application Hands-On ActivitiesUse of TechnologyDramatizationsManipulativesIllustrationsGraphics and chartsInterviews/SurveyThink-AloudsSession Leader willReview the slide.Ask participants to review the bulleted items and determine if they are present in their school.Ask participants to evaluate the items and determine the level of implementation in their school.Ask participants to use the Decision Making Pyramid to determine the next steps for implementing these strategies in their school.
63Summary NotesParticipants will review the elements in column 1.Use the space provided in column 2 to identify examples of what you are doing now.Use the space in column 3 to identify those elements you want to consider for inclusion in your toolbox.In column 4. refer to the Decision Pyramid discussed by Roger Jones in our summer session.Identify the status of the element.Is it a quick win, can be accomplished immediately?Will it need time for staff development and resource acquisition to implement?Will it require changes in school or division policy or additional resources that will need to be budgeted in the future?
64Session 3 ObjectivesReview the concepts of motivation and attribution as applied in a classroomExplore classroom management techniques for work timeExplore monitoring and reporting student progressExplore interactive teaching strategies for small group instructionSummary NotesSession leader will review objectives covered in Session 3.
65Session Closing Questions and remarks Next scheduled session – March 30, 31, 2011(Holiday Inn Express Airport)Topics for Session 4: Metacognition, Interactive Teaching Strategies, Collegial Coaching, Personalizing Instruction, Home-School Communication and HomeworkHomework:Review responses to Interactive Teaching Indicators.Complete a Self Reflection Survey from DOE.Bring materials for sharing session.Session leader willReview date and topics for Session 4Discuss homework assignment.