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Copyright ©2002-2004 The Theology Program, published by Biblical Studies Press, LLC, 11601 Plano Rd. Suite 108 Dallas, TX 75243. This material is provided.

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1 Copyright ©2002-2004 The Theology Program, published by Biblical Studies Press, LLC, 11601 Plano Rd. Suite 108 Dallas, TX 75243. This material is provided for students and instructors in The Theology Program. Use of this material is encouraged for personal study and for use in preparation of lessons, sermons, or other oral communication. This material may be quoted so long as the material is unaltered and credit is given to The Theology Program. It may not under any circumstances be reprinted for any reason or any purpose without the prior expressed written consent of the Biblical Studies Press. Certified instructors in The Theology Program are allowed to add to the material so long as approval is granted by The Theology Program developers. Pastors and teachers are encouraged to use the material in their teaching, but it must remain unaltered. Unless otherwise noted, Scripture are taken from the NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE, © Copyright The Lockman Foundation 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972,1973, 1975, 1977, 1995. Used by permission. Scripture are also taken from the NEW ENGLISH TRANSLATION, © 1997-2003 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. and the authors, and from HOLY BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSIONR. Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society. Used by permission of Zondervan Publishing House.

2 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to Theology An Invitation to Theology?

3 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Jesus said to him, Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind. –Matthew 22:37

4 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question Outline Who are you and why are you here? What is The Theology Program? What is theology? Who is a theologian? How do we do theology every day? What are the different categories of theology? What is the Theological Process? What is epistemology? What is postmodernism? What questions are postmoderns asking? What is the postmodern view of truth? What is the modern view of truth? What is the Christian view of truth? What truths are relative and what truths are objective? What truths are essential for orthodoxy? How certain are you about your beliefs? What is the essential difference in Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Protestantism? Why are there so many Protestant denominations? What are the different sources for truth? What are the benefits and deficiencies of each source? How do the different sources interact to form our theology? Does God still speak today? What is the Continuationist view of prophecy? What is the Hard Cessationist view of prophecy? What is the Soft Cessationist view of prophecy? How do we do theology in our emerging context?

5 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Course Outline I.Introduction to The Theology Program II.Defining Theology III.Categories of Theology IV.Postmodern Epistemology V.Christian Epistemology VI.Essentials of Theology VII.Traditions of Christian Theology VIII.Sources of Theology IX.Does God Still Speak Today? X.Unity and Diversity

6 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Defining the Rules of Engagement

7 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question Who are you and why are you here?

8 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who you are and why you are taking this course?

9 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? Practical PricillaPractical Pricilla: You are a person who has never seen the practicality in deep theological study. You are here to see if we can change your mind.

10 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? 2.Scared Susan 2.Scared Susan: Big words scare you. You dont really think that you are smart enough to be here. You are here this time, but you may not be here the next.

11 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? 3.Know-it-all Nick 3.Know-it-all Nick: You already know everything. You are just here to see if we do… and to pick up where we leave off.

12 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? 4.Fundamental Fred 4.Fundamental Fred: You are the God- ordained guardian of orthodoxy. You are here to sit, with arms crossed, and protect.

13 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? 5.Want-an-answer Will 5.Want-an-answer Will: You have a lot of questions. You are here not to do theology in community, but to write theology down with a pen and paper.

14 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? 6.Traditionalist Teri 6.Traditionalist Teri: You want to learn, but your traditions and preconceived notions bind you. You are here to have your traditions confirmed to be true.

15 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? 7.Confrontational Carl 7.Confrontational Carl: You are not a believer in Christ or the Bible and have no intention of becoming one. You are here to argue.

16 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? 8.Struggling Sam 8.Struggling Sam: You are a believer in Christ, but you have a lot of doubts and struggles. You have never had a safe place to express those doubts. You are here to see if this is the place.

17 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Who are you and why are you taking this course? 9.Curious Carla 9.Curious Carla: You are not really sure why you are here, but youre excited to find out.

18 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program We are all real people created by a real God, and we all have real struggles, real questions, and real convictions. We are glad that you are here!

19 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is The Theology Program?

20 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program The Theology Program is an intense theological studies program, designed for busy people who may never go to seminary but who want deep theological training. While there are many great subjects, biblical and spiritual, that Christians can and need to study, our focus is on seven specific courses of systematic theology. Our desire is to teach people how to think by opening their minds to diverse views, learning from history, wrestling with difficult issues, and graciously engaging an increasingly relativistic and postmodern world.

21 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Theology Program Mission: Renewing minds and changing lives by purposefully guiding people through a study of historic and biblical Christian theology. Goal:Our goal is not so much to teach good theology, as important as that is, but to teach people to think.

22 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Introduction to The Theology Program What makes The Theology Program different? 1.Intensity in studies 2.Irenic theology 3.Intentional program design 4.Comprehensive coverage 5.Doing theology in community

23 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Intensity in Studies The Church must have an avenue of intense, interactive Christian education through a program which gives people an opportunity to learn at a level that other venues cannot provide. TTP endeavors to be this avenue.

24 Intensity in Studies Low CommitmentHigh Commitment Sermon Fellowship/ Sunday School Interactive Classroom

25 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Intensity in Studies Low ExpectationsHigh Expectations Attendance Assigned readings Books Papers Case studies Memorization of Scripture Grades Sermon Fellowship/ Sunday School Interactive Classroom

26 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Devotional (Brings encouragement for the week) Foundational (Builds theology for a lifetime) Intensity in Studies Sermon Fellowship/ Sunday School Interactive Classroom

27 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Short-term life changeLong-term life change Intensity in Studies Sermon Fellowship/ Sunday School Interactive Classroom

28 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Intensity in Studies ExhortationEducation Sermon Fellowship/ Sunday School Interactive Classroom

29 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Intensity in Studies The education program of the Church needs to include all of these in balance. Sermon Fellowship/ Sunday School Interactive Classroom

30 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Irenic Theology Key Terms Irenic Theology:Theology that is done peaceably, accurately representing all views, even when you oppose them. Polemic Theology:Theology that is done in a warlike manner inside the Church, prophetically speaking against those with whom there is disagreement. Apologetic Theology:Theology that is done to defend the faith against those who oppose outside the church.

31 Irenic Theology PolemicApologetic Irenic Peace WarDefense

32 Intentional Program Design

33 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Comprehensive Coverage In the courses, we will address all the relevant major issues, current and historic, of which we think people need to be aware.

34 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Doing Theology in a Community We believe that truth is not found in Spirit- illuminated individuals, but in a community of Spirit-illuminated individuals. Therefore, we believe that the Body of Christ, both alive and dead, must come together to understand theology, shaping it from many perspectives and differing experiences. This is doing theology in a community.

35 The column represents a pillar, communicating that our theology creates a strong foundation upon which our life, purpose, and actions exist. The T stands for Theology in The Theology Program. Notice how the draft goes outside the lines at times. This represents how our theology, while having a great respect for tradition, must break with tradition at times. This is the Reformers principle of semper reformanda (always reforming). Notice how the draft is incomplete and erased at places. This illustrates how our theology is never finished in this life, but is always undergoing change and development. The tablet upon which we construct our theology is broken. This represents an imperfect people, broken by sin, doing our best to understand God in our state of imperfection.

36 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Discussion Groups

37 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology What does it mean to do theology?

38 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is theology?

39 Protestant Eastern Orthodox Prophecy Postmodernism Truth Roman Catholic Cessationism Relativism Epistemology Special Revelation ExclusivismExclusivism Denominations Traditions of Theology Protestant Theology Rationalism Modernism Cessationism Pluralism Experience

40 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology What is Theology? Write a one or two sentence definition of theology:

41 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology The study or science of God. –Millard Erickson Christian Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2001), 22 The study or science of God. –Millard Erickson Christian Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2001), 22 The Science of God and of the relations between God and the universe. –A. H. Strong The Science of God and of the relations between God and the universe. –A. H. Strong Rational discussion respecting the deity. –Augustine Rational discussion respecting the deity. –Augustine Thinking about God and expressing those thoughts in some way. –Charles Ryrie Basic Theology (Wheaton, IL: 1986), 9 Thinking about God and expressing those thoughts in some way. –Charles Ryrie Basic Theology (Wheaton, IL: 1986), 9

42 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology The science of God or of religion; the science which treats of the existence, character, and attributes of God, his laws and government, the doctrines we are to believe, and the duties we are to practice; divinity; (as more commonly understood) the knowledge derivable from the Scriptures, the systematic exhibition of revealed truth, the science of Christian faith and life. Websters Dictionary The science of God or of religion; the science which treats of the existence, character, and attributes of God, his laws and government, the doctrines we are to believe, and the duties we are to practice; divinity; (as more commonly understood) the knowledge derivable from the Scriptures, the systematic exhibition of revealed truth, the science of Christian faith and life. Websters Dictionary

43 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question Who is a theologian?

44 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Who is a theologian? Anyone who has asked the ultimate questions of life: Why am I here? What is life? What happens after death? What is the difference between right and wrong? Why is there something instead of nothing?

45 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology The question is not, Who is a theologian? but What kind of theologian am I going to be? Are you going to be a good theologian or a bad theologian? This is a more accurate question because, as one writer put it, not all theologies are equal. –Source unknown The question is not, Who is a theologian? but What kind of theologian am I going to be? Are you going to be a good theologian or a bad theologian? This is a more accurate question because, as one writer put it, not all theologies are equal. –Source unknown

46 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology We live in what may be the most anti- intellectual period in the history of Western civilization... We must have passionindeed hearts on fire for the things of God. But that passion must resist with intensity the anti-intellectual spirit of the world. R. C. Sproul Burning Hearts Are Not Nourished by Empty Heads, Christianity Today 26 (Sept. 3, 1982), 100 We live in what may be the most anti- intellectual period in the history of Western civilization... We must have passionindeed hearts on fire for the things of God. But that passion must resist with intensity the anti-intellectual spirit of the world. R. C. Sproul Burning Hearts Are Not Nourished by Empty Heads, Christianity Today 26 (Sept. 3, 1982), 100

47 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology There are basically six arenas in which we can do theology: 1.Tabloid Theology 2.Folk Theology 3.Lay Theology 4.Ministerial Theology 5.Professional Theology 6.Academic Theology

48 Defining Theology TabloidLayMinisterialProfessionalAcademicFolk

49 Defining theology Describe this chart in relation to practicing medicine TabloidLayMinisterialProfessionalAcademicFolk

50 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Now describe this chart in relation to practicing theology TabloidLayMinisterialProfessionalAcademicFolk

51 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Tabloid Theologian: Tabloid Theologian:One who constructs his or her theology based upon naïve hearsay information that has no basis in fact and very little, if any, evidence to be believed. Many times people are Tabloid theologians because of the theologys appearance of originality. As well, it can be cutting edge in many peoples minds.

52 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology What are some examples of Tabloid theology?

53 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Tabloid theology examplesTabloid theology examples

54 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Hitchhiking angel Growing fire hose I Saw Heaven

55 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Folk Theologian: Folk Theologian:One who uncritically and unreflectively constructs his or her theology according to traditions and religious folklore. The Folk theologian is often very dogmatic about his or her beliefs.

56 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology What are some examples of Folk theology?

57 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Folk theology examples:

58 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Folk theology examples: Views of Heaven (clouds, harps) Ghosts Angels wings Good works salvation All people are good at heart

59 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Folk theology examples: Peters gate Devils pitchfork God helps those who help themselves Demon possession People who commit suicide automatically go to Hell When you die there will be a screen in heaven which shows to the world all the bad things you have done Name-it-claim-it, health-and-wealth gospel

60 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Why do you think that it is so hard for Folk theologians to learn?

61 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Lay Theologian: Lay Theologian:A layperson who constructs his or her theology and who, unlike the folk and tabloid theologian, is... (1) more reflective upon learned theological concepts (2) likely to formulate a system of beliefs which distinguishes between essential and non- essential doctrine (3) more critical of unfounded traditions (4) willing to use study tools

62 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Ministerial Theologian: Ministerial Theologian:A layperson who constructs his or her theology and who, unlike the lay theologian is... (1) educated in theological methodology (2) able to use study tools and resources at a more effective level (3) able to openly critique personal theology against competing models (4) intent on devoting more time to reflection so that theological integration can take place

63 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Professional Theologian: Professional Theologian:One who constructs his or her theology and makes a living doing so. They usually... (1) are didactically purposed toward lay and pastoral theologians (2) conduct practical original research (3) critically evaluate common theological trends and folk theology.

64 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Professional theologians are often accused of quenching the Spirit. Why do you think they receive this accusation?

65 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Academic Theologian: Academic Theologian:A professional theologian who constructs his theology with an overly speculative and critical spirit. His dialogue can usually come only with other theologians. It is often called Ivory Tower theology.

66 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology What are some examples of Academic theology? Why do you think someone would want to be an Academic theologian?

67 Defining Theology Sensational TabloidLayMinisterialProfessionalAcademicFolk Skeptical Critical Gates permanently locked Gates wide open Naïve

68 Defining Theology Acceptable range TabloidLayMinisterialProfessionalAcademicFolk

69 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology Theology is for everyone. Indeed, everyone needs to be a theologian. In reality, everyone is a theologianof one sort or another. And therein lies the problem. There is nothing wrong with being an amateur theologian or a professional theologian, but there is everything wrong with being an ignorant or sloppy theologian. Charles Ryrie Basic Theology (Wheaton, IL: 1986), 9. Theology is for everyone. Indeed, everyone needs to be a theologian. In reality, everyone is a theologianof one sort or another. And therein lies the problem. There is nothing wrong with being an amateur theologian or a professional theologian, but there is everything wrong with being an ignorant or sloppy theologian. Charles Ryrie Basic Theology (Wheaton, IL: 1986), 9.

70 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology How do we do theology every day?

71 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology How do we do theology every day? In other words, how does our theology influence our daily routine?

72 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology 1.When we think about God. 2.When we share the Gospel. 3.When we interpret the Bible. 4.When we get sick. 5.When we defend the faith. 6.When we plan for the future. 7.When we choose schooling for our children.

73 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology 8.When we vote. 9.When we attempt to deal with sin in our lives. 10.When we decide on who we marry.

74 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Theology What is theology?

75 credo ut intelligam faith seeking understanding This is a Latin phrase coined by Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109) meaning faith seeking understanding. This is one of the earliest definitions of theology. It starts with the assumption that we are believers and, as such, we are seeking to understand our beliefs better. Defining Theology

76 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Discussion Groups

77 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Categories of Theology

78 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What are the different categories of theology?

79 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Categories of Theology 1.Systematic 2.Biblical 3.Historical 4.Philosophical 5.Creedal/Dogmatic 6.Apologetic

80 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Categories of Theology Systematic Theology Prolegomena: Literally means things which are spoken beforehand. Deals with the foundational issues of theology such as theological methodology, sources, and reasons for the study of theology.

81 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Categories of Theology Bibliology: The study of the nature, transmission, canonization, and purpose of Scripture. Theology Proper: The study of Gods existence, nature, and attributes. Sometimes called Trinitarianism.

82 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Categories of Theology Christology: The study of the person and work of Christ. Pneumatology: The study of the person and work of the Holy Spirit.

83 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Categories of Theology Anthropology: The study of the purpose and nature of humanity, both in its pre-fall and post-fall state. Hamartiology: The study of the nature, origin, and effects of sin on all creation. Angelology: The study of the nature and works of demons and angels.

84 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Categories of Theology Soteriology: The study of salvation. Ecclesiology: The study of the nature of the Church. Eschatology: The study of the end times.

85 Categories of Theology Biblical Restricts the formulation of theology only to the Scripture. Sometimes will examine the individual parts of Scripture in order to formulate a particular theology that is restricted to a certain time period and a particular people (e.g., Pre-mosaic theology). Sometimes examines the theology of a certain author (e.g.,, John or Paul). Systematic Formulates theology from all sources of theology, including Scripture. Correlates the entirety of Scripture to formulate a general theology for all time and for all people. Correlates information on a doctrine by examining the theology of all the authors.

86 Categories of Theology Historical Restricts the formulation of theology only to the history of the Church. Sometimes will examine the individual periods of Church history in order to formulate a particular theology that is restricted to a certain time period (e.g.,, Patristic, Medieval, Reformation). Systematic Formulates theology from all sources of theology. Correlates the all of Church history to formulate a general theology for all time and for all people.

87 Categories of Theology Philosophical Restricts the formulation of theology only to that which can be ascertained by reason. Sometimes will examine the individual periods of philosophical history in order to formulate a particular theology that is restricted to a certain time period (e.g.,, enlightenment, modern, postmodern). Systematic Formulates theology from all sources of theology. Correlates the all of philosophical history to formulate a general theology for all time and for all people.

88 Categories of Theology Creedal Restricts the formulation of theology only to that of a particular religious institution or denomination. Systematic Formulates theology from all sources of theology including the creedal statement of many institutions and denominations.

89 Categories of Theology Apologetic Formulates theology for the purpose of explaining and defending the faith to those outside the faith. Systematic Formulates theology for the purpose of creating a comprehensive and coherent understanding of various doctrines.

90 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the Theological Process?

91 Historical interpretation Grammatical interpretation Contextual interpretation Literary Interpretation 1. Exegetical Statement What did it mean then? 2. Theological Statement What is the timeless truth taught? 3. Homiletical Statement How does it apply to us? Analogy of Scripture Truth Extract timeless principles Contextualize Principles for today Timeless Audience Time bound Audience Contemporary Audience Ancient Audience

92 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience Biblical Hermeneutics Systematic Theology Application Ancient Audience

93 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience ? Ancient Audience

94 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience ? Ancient Audience Liberal Theology

95 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience Ancient Audience ?

96 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience Ancient Audience ? Hypocritical Folk Theology

97 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience Ancient Audience ?

98 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience Ancient Audience ? Subjective Theology

99 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience ? Ancient Audience ?

100 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience ? Ancient Audience ? Irrelevant Theology

101 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience ? Ancient Audience ?

102 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience ? Ancient Audience ? Folk Theology

103 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience ? Ancient Audience ?

104 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience ? Ancient Audience ? Short-circuit Theology

105 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience Ancient Audience ? ? ?

106 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience Ancient Audience ? ? ? Eisegetical Theology

107 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience Ancient Audience ? ? ?

108 Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience Ancient Audience ? ? ? Exegetical Theology

109 Historical interpretation Grammatical interpretation Contextual interpretation Literary Interpretation 1. Exegetical Statement What did it mean then? 3. Homiletical Statement How does it apply to us? Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience Ancient Audience Theology Analogy of Scripture Contextualize Principles for today

110 Categories of Theology Scripture Biblical Theology Historical Theology Philosophical Theology Systematic Theology Apologetic Theology Creedal/Dogmatic Theology

111 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Understanding Our Changing Culture

112 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology What is Epistemology?

113 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology The theory or science of the method or grounds of knowledge. Websters Dictionary The theory or science of the method or grounds of knowledge. Websters Dictionary

114 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology The branch of philosophy that is concerned with the theory of knowledge. It is an inquiry into the nature and source of knowledge, the bounds of knowledge, and the justification of claims to knowledge. Paul Feinberg Walter A. Elwell ed., Epistemology in The Evangelical Dictionary of Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2001), 382. The branch of philosophy that is concerned with the theory of knowledge. It is an inquiry into the nature and source of knowledge, the bounds of knowledge, and the justification of claims to knowledge. Paul Feinberg Walter A. Elwell ed., Epistemology in The Evangelical Dictionary of Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2001), 382.

115 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Key Terms Relativism: The belief that all truth is relative, being determined by some group. Subjectivism: The belief that all truth is subjective, being defined by the perspective of the individual. Skepticism:The belief that truth cannot be known with certainty. Perspectivism:The belief that truth is found in the combined perspectives of many. Pragmatism: The belief that truth is ultimately defined by that which works to accomplish the best outcome. The end justifies the means. Objectivism:The belief that truth is an objective reality that exist whether someone believes it or not.

116 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Which best describes our culture today? 1.Relativism 2.Subjectivism 3.Skepticism 4.Perspectivalism 5.Pragmatism 6.Objectivism

117 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Which is true? 1.Relativism 2.Subjectivism 3.Skepticism 4.Perspectivalism 5.Pragmatism 6.Objectivism

118 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is Postmodernism?

119 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Christians today cannot work with the same assumptions that we did just 20 years ago. At that time, people would join you in your search for absolute truth. It is different now. Today, before we begin to lead people to the truth of Jesus Christ, we may have to lead them to the truth of truth. Common ground must be created before the Gospel can be proclaimed

120 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Apologetically, the question which arises in the postmodern context is the following. How can Christianitys claims to truth be taken seriously, when there are so many rival alternatives, and when truth itself has become a devalued notion? No-one can lay claim to possession of truth. It is all a question of perspective. The conclusion of this line of thought is as simple as it is devastating: the truth is that there is no truth –Alister McGrath A Passion for Truth (Downers Grove, IL: IVP, 1996), 188 Apologetically, the question which arises in the postmodern context is the following. How can Christianitys claims to truth be taken seriously, when there are so many rival alternatives, and when truth itself has become a devalued notion? No-one can lay claim to possession of truth. It is all a question of perspective. The conclusion of this line of thought is as simple as it is devastating: the truth is that there is no truth –Alister McGrath A Passion for Truth (Downers Grove, IL: IVP, 1996), 188

121 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Protagoras: Truth is relative. It is only a matter of opinion. Socrates: You mean that truth is mere subjective opinion? Protagoras: Exactly. What is true for you is true for you, and what is true for me is true for me. Truth is subjective. Socrates: Do you really mean that? That my opinion is true by virtue of its being my opinion? A Conversation Between Protagoras and Socrates (4th Century B.C.) Postmodern Epistemology

122 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Protagoras: Indeed I do. Socrates: My opinion is: Truth is absolute, not opinion, and that you, Mr. Protagoras, are absolutely in error. Since this is my opinion, you must grant that it is true according to your philosophy. Protagoras: You are quite correct, Socrates. Postmodern Epistemology

123 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology Self-defeating Statements I cannot speak a word in English. My wife has never been married. We cannot know anything about God. There is no such thing as truth. Truth cannot be known with certainty.

124 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodern Epistemology A short history of western civilization Three periods: 1.Premodern (400-1600 A.D.) 2.Modern (1600-1900 A.D.) 3.Postmodern (1960-present)

125 Postmodern Epistemology PremodernModernPostmodern 40016001960

126 Postmodern Epistemology Stage of Truth Back Front

127 Transition 1960-? Postmodern Epistemology Modern Postmodern

128 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Modern Generation –Preboomers –Boomers Postmodern Generation –Busters (Gen X) –Bridgers (Gen Y) 53% 57% Postmodern Epistemology

129 Modernism Intellectual Reason Optimism Hope for the future Objectivism Exclusivism Science method Man is evolvingPostmodernism Anti-intellectual Feeling Pessimism Despair for the present Subjectivism/relativism Pluralism/inclusivism Distrust in science Man is devolving Postmodern Epistemology

130 Spock is always logical and objective. Never acts upon feeling, because that would be illogical. Physical laws simply cannot be ignored. Existence cannot be without them. Pain is a thing of the mind. The mind can be controlled. The Ideal Modern Man: Mr. Spock

131 Postmodern Epistemology Data is the perfect modern human. Despite his perfection, Data... 1.Wants to be human. 2.Rebels against logic. 3.Attempts to develop emotions and feelings The Ideal Modern Man Mocked: Data

132 Postmodern Epistemology PremodernPremodern: Theres balls and theres strikes, and I call them as they are. ModernModern: Theres balls and theres strikes, and I call them as I see them. PostmodernPostmodern: They aint nothing til I call em.

133 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. In Postmodernism, there is no objective, universal truth; there is only the perspective of the group.... In postmodernism, all viewpoints, all lifestyles, all beliefs and behaviors are regarded as equally valid.... Tolerance has become so important that no exception is tolerated. –Charles Colson How Now Shall We Live? (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale, 1999), 23 In Postmodernism, there is no objective, universal truth; there is only the perspective of the group.... In postmodernism, all viewpoints, all lifestyles, all beliefs and behaviors are regarded as equally valid.... Tolerance has become so important that no exception is tolerated. –Charles Colson How Now Shall We Live? (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale, 1999), 23 Postmodern Epistemology

134 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology

135 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What questions are postmoderns asking?

136 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Modernist Objections to Christianity 1.What about all the contradictions? 2.God is just a crutch. Religion was invented by man. 3.Jesus was just a man. 4.The Bible we have today is not the same as when it was written 2000 years ago. 5.I dont believe in what I cant see. 6.Evolution has proven Christianity to be wrong.

137 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology 7.The Bible is a myth full of fairy tales. 8.How did Noah get all of the animals on the Ark? 9.There are no such thing as miracles. 10.Do you really believe in the story of Adam and Eve?

138 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Postmodernist Objections to Christianity 1.If God exists, why is there evil? 2.The Inquisition and the Crusades show that Christianity is oppressive. 3.Christianity is a way to God but not the only way. 4.Christianity is arrogant and exclusive. 5.How do you know that your Bible is better than other religious writings? 6.Why does God allow bad things to happen to good people? Christian Epistemology

139 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. 7.What about those who have never heard? 8.The church is full of hypocrites. 9.Why would God send anyone to Hell? 10.The God of the OT is cruel, partial, and unjust. Christian Epistemology

140 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology ModernistPostmodernist Facts Rationality Evidence Fairness Relationships Emotion

141 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the modern view of truth?

142 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Correspondence view of truth: (1) Truth is an objective reality that exists whether someone believes it or not, (2) and that objective reality is grounded in nature.

143 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology True statements are those which correspond to that objective reality. False statements are those which do not correspond to that objective reality.

144 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Law of non-contradiction applies A-A A -A at the same time and in the same relationship.

145 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Epistemology Key Motto Man can and will know all truth. Key Motto Man can and will know all truth.

146 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the postmodern view of truth?

147 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Relative view of truth: (1) Truth is a perspective reality that exists in the perspective of the individual or group, (2) and that perspective reality is grounded in time.

148 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Law of non-contradiction does not apply A = -A at the same time and in the same relationship.

149 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Key Motto The truth cannot be known. Key Motto The truth cannot be known.

150 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Religious Spin on Postmodern Epistemology Universalism: The belief that all people, good or bad, will eventually make it to Heaven. Pluralism: The belief that there are many ways to God that are equally valid. Syncretism: The assimilation of differing beliefs and practices. Inclusivism: The belief that salvation is only through Christ, but Christ may be revealed in other religions.

151 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Vatican II (1962-1965) and inclusivism But the plan of salvation also includes those who acknowledge the creator. In the first place among these there are the Moslems, whom professing to hold the faith of Abraham, along with us adore the one and merciful god, who on the last day will judge mankind. Those also can attain salvation who through no fault of their own do not know the gospel of Christ or his church, yet sincerely seek god and, moved by grace, strive by their deeds to do his will as it is known to them through the dictates of conscience.

152 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the Christian view truth?

153 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Correspondence view of truth: (1) Truth is an objective reality that exists whether someone believes it or not, (2) and that objective reality is grounded in an eternal God.

154 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology The law of non-contradiction is a foundational necessity to all truth. God cannot even violate this principle since it is a logical impossibility.

155 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Key Motto secret things things revealed The secret things belong to the Lord our God, but the things revealed belong to us and to our sons forever, that we may observe all the words of this law (Deut. 29:29). Key Motto secret things things revealed The secret things belong to the Lord our God, but the things revealed belong to us and to our sons forever, that we may observe all the words of this law (Deut. 29:29).

156 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Christian truth must have a balance between the things revealed and mystery (secret things).

157 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Apophadic Theology:Lit. negative theology. Apophadic Theology emphasizes mystery. Often called the way of negation (via negativa) or negative theology, apophadic theology sees God, and much of theology, as beyond our understanding and, therefore, beyond defining through positive assertations. Finite people cannot say what the infinite God is but only what He is not. God is uncreated, immutable, infinite, immortal.

158 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Cataphatic Theology:Lit. affirmative theology. Cataphatic Theology emphasizes revelation. Often called positive theology, cataphatic theology seeks to understand God in positive terms, understanding that God communicates to us through language and concepts that are analogous to who and what He truly is (analogy of language).

159 Christian Epistemology Cataphatic Theology things revealed Apophatic Theology secret things Modernism West Rationalists Roman Catholic/Protestants Postmodernism East Mystics Eastern Orthodox Responsible theology

160 Christian Epistemology Perspectivism Perspectivism Prov. 12:15 Soft Skepticism Soft Skepticism Prov. 8:5 Objectivism Objectivism Prov. 23:23 Cataphatic Theology Apophatic Theology Perspicuity

161 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Perspectivism Perspectivism Prov. 12:15 Soft Skepticism Soft Skepticism Prov. 8:5 Objectivism Objectivism Prov. 23:23 Cataphatic Theology Apophatic Theology Perspicuity You who are naive, discern wisdom! And you fools, understand discernment!

162 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Perspectivism Perspectivism Prov. 12:15 Soft Skepticism Soft Skepticism Prov. 8:5 Objectivism Objectivism Prov. 23:23 Cataphatic Theology Apophatic Theology Perspicuity The way of a fool is right in his own opinion, but the one who listens to advice is wise.

163 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Christian Epistemology Perspectivism Perspectivism Prov. 12:15 Soft Skepticism Soft Skepticism Prov. 8:5 Objectivism Objectivism Prov. 23:23 Cataphatic Theology Apophatic Theology Perspicuity Acquire truth and do not sell it...

164 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Defining Essentials and Non-essentials

165 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What truths are relative and what truths are objective?

166 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and Non-Essentials Discussion of paper Representing Christ to a Postmodern World

167 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and Non-essentials Quadrant of Objectivity

168 True Relativity True Objectivity

169 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Going to the movies Wearing a head covering Eating meat sacrificed to idols Home schooling Drinking a glass of wine/beer True Relativity Situational Relativity True Objectivity

170 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Going to the movies Wearing a head covering Eating meat sacrificed to idols Home schooling Drinking a glass of wine/beer True Relativity Situational Relativity Coke or Pepsi Church music Temperature of a room (hot or cold) Best song Best kind of food Autonomous Relativity True Objectivity

171 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Going to the movies Wearing a head covering Eating meat sacrificed to idols Home schooling Drinking a glass of wine/beer True Relativity Situational Relativity Coke or Pepsi Church music Temperature of a room (hot or cold) Best song Best kind of food Autonomous Relativity True Objectivity Date of Christs coming Young earth/Old earth Continuation of tongues Canon of Scripture Views of Predestinatio n Non-Essential Objectivity

172 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Going to the movies Wearing a head covering Eating meat sacrificed to idols Home schooling Drinking a glass of wine/beer True Relativity Situational Relativity Coke or Pepsi Church music Temperature of a room (hot or cold) Best song Best kind of food Autonomous Relativity True Objectivity Essential Objectivity Date of Christs coming Young earth/Old earth Continuation of tongues Canon of Scripture Views of Predestinatio n Non-Essential Objectivity

173 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Going to the movies Wearing a head covering Eating meat sacrificed to idols Home schooling Drinking a glass of wine/beer True Relativity Situational Relativity Coke or Pepsi Church music Temperature of a room (hot or cold) Best song Best kind of food Autonomous Relativity Existence of God True Objectivity Essential Objectivity Date of Christs coming Young earth/Old earth Continuation of tongues Canon of Scripture Views of Predestinatio n Non-Essential Objectivity

174 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Going to the movies Wearing a head covering Eating meat sacrificed to idols Home schooling Drinking a glass of wine/beer True Relativity Situational Relativity Coke or Pepsi Church music Temperature of a room (hot or cold) Best song Best kind of food Autonomous Relativity Christs deity Existence of God True Objectivity Essential Objectivity Date of Christs coming Young earth/Old earth Continuation of tongues Canon of Scripture Views of Predestinatio n Non-Essential Objectivity

175 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Going to the movies Wearing a head covering Eating meat sacrificed to idols Home schooling Drinking a glass of wine/beer True Relativity Situational Relativity Coke or Pepsi Church music Temperature of a room (hot or cold) Best song Best kind of food Autonomous Relativity Christs deity Faith alone Existence of God True Objectivity Essential Objectivity Date of Christs coming Young earth/Old earth Continuation of tongues Canon of Scripture Views of Predestinatio n Non-Essential Objectivity

176 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Going to the movies Wearing a head covering Eating meat sacrificed to idols Home schooling Drinking a glass of wine/beer True Relativity Situational Relativity Coke or Pepsi Church music Temperature of a room (hot or cold) Best song Best kind of food Autonomous Relativity Christs deity Faith alone Death, burial, and resurrection of Christ Existence of God True Objectivity Essential Objectivity Date of Christs coming Young earth/Old earth Continuation of tongues Canon of Scripture Views of Predestinatio n Non-Essential Objectivity

177 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Going to the movies Wearing a head covering Eating meat sacrificed to idols Home schooling Drinking a glass of wine/beer True Relativity Situational Relativity Coke or Pepsi Church music Temperature of a room (hot or cold) Best song Best kind of food Autonomous Relativity Christs deity Faith alone Death, burial, and resurrection of Christ The atonemen t Existence of God True Objectivity Essential Objectivity Date of Christs coming Young earth/Old earth Continuation of tongues Canon of Scripture Views of Predestinatio n Non-Essential Objectivity

178 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and Non-Essentials Where would you place these on the quadrant? 1.Belief in the doctrine of the Trinity? Why? 2.Smoking? Why? 3.Eating healthy and exercising? Why? 4.Getting intoxicated? Why? 5.Having your mind altered by anti- depressants? Why?

179 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What truths are essential for orthodoxy?

180 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and Non-essentials Concentric Circle of Importance

181 Essential for Salvation Essential for Orthodoxy Important, but Not Essential Not Important Pure Speculation

182 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and Non-essentials For the Christian, beliefs matter, but not all beliefs matter equally. –Roger Olsen Mosaic of Christian Beliefs (Downers Grove, IL: IVP, 2002), 33 For the Christian, beliefs matter, but not all beliefs matter equally. –Roger Olsen Mosaic of Christian Beliefs (Downers Grove, IL: IVP, 2002), 33

183 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question How certain are you about your beliefs?

184 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and Non-essentials There are those dogmatic Christians who seem to overdefine Christianity such that being authentically Christian includes (for them) firm adherence to a detailed set of extrabiblical beliefs, some of which are quite outside the Great Tradition itself. –Roger Olsen Mosaic of Christian Beliefs (Downers Grove, IL: IVP, 2002), 33 There are those dogmatic Christians who seem to overdefine Christianity such that being authentically Christian includes (for them) firm adherence to a detailed set of extrabiblical beliefs, some of which are quite outside the Great Tradition itself. –Roger Olsen Mosaic of Christian Beliefs (Downers Grove, IL: IVP, 2002), 33

185 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and non-essentials Certain (Websters) –Definite; fixed. –Sure to come or happen; inevitable. –Established beyond doubt or question; indisputable. –Capable of being relied on; dependable. –Having or showing confidence; assured.

186 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. The Existence of God Types of Certainty 1.Mathematical certainty (scientific method) 2.Empirical certainty (weight of evidences) 3.Logical certainty (what is reasonable) 4.Moral certainty (what is demanded)

187 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and Non-essentials Chart of Certainty

188 Essentials and non-essentials 101010100 10101010123456789987654321 – + I believe Chart of Certainty I Do not believe

189 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and non-essentials How certain are you that... 1.There is a God? 2.That Christ rose from the grave? 3.That God loves you? 4.That Christ is going to come and Rapture the Church before the Great Tribulaton? 5.That Christ is coming back to reign on the earth for a thousand years? 6.That Christ is coming back? 7.That God wants you to trust that He will protect you from all physical harm? 8.That God wants you to trust that He will protect you from all emotional harm? 9.That God wants you to trust in Him in every circumstance? 10.That the Bible does not have any historical errors? 11.That Adam and Eve were real people? 12.That there was really a snake in the garden? 13.That God created the earth in seven literal days? 14.The God created the earth? 15.That Christ paid for the sins of all mankind? 16.That Christ died for you? 17.That the Apocrypha (15 books in the Roman Catholic Bible) should not be included in Scripture? 18.That the book of 3 John should be included in Scripture? 19.That the book of Genesis should be included in Scripture? 20.That the gift of tongues ceased in the first century?

190 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and Non-essentials When you overstate, readers will be instantly on guard and everything that has preceded your overstatement as well as everything that follows it will be suspect in their minds because they have lost confidence in your judgment or your poise. Overstatement is one of the common faults. A single overstatement, wherever or however it occurs, diminishes the whole, and a single carefree superlative has the power to destroy, for readers, the object of your enthusiasm. –Strunk and White Elements of Style, (Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon), 7. When you overstate, readers will be instantly on guard and everything that has preceded your overstatement as well as everything that follows it will be suspect in their minds because they have lost confidence in your judgment or your poise. Overstatement is one of the common faults. A single overstatement, wherever or however it occurs, diminishes the whole, and a single carefree superlative has the power to destroy, for readers, the object of your enthusiasm. –Strunk and White Elements of Style, (Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon), 7.

191 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and Non-Essentials In essentials unity, in non- essentials liberty, in all things charity. –Rupertus Meldenius In essentials unity, in non- essentials liberty, in all things charity. –Rupertus Meldenius

192 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Essentials and Non-essentials Guiding Principles and Application Guiding Principles and Application: 1.Dont divide over non-essentials no matter how convicted you are about their truth. 2.Never compromise the essentials no matter what the consequence. 3.There is no shame in being less certain about some things than others. The Bible does not teach all things with the same clarity. 4.Showing honest uncertainty about difficult issues makes your witness more authentic and powerful to a postmodern world.

193 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Traditions in Christian Theology

194 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the essential difference in Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Protestantism?

195 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Traditions in Theology Traditions in Christian Theology 1.Roman Catholic 2.Eastern Orthodox 3.Protestant

196 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Traditions in Theology Protestant Roman Catholic Orthodox 349 million 943 million 211 million

197 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the Protestant view of Church history?

198 100 AD 12001500500GospelFormulation Protestant View of Ecclesiastical History Roman Catholic Loss of Gospel Corruption Greek Orthodox 1054 Restoration Protestant Church

199 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Traditions in Theology Justification is the hinge upon which true Christianity stands. –John Calvin Justification is the hinge upon which true Christianity stands. –John Calvin Christianity stands or falls upon the doctrine of justification. –Martin Luther Christianity stands or falls upon the doctrine of justification. –Martin Luther

200 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the Roman Catholic view of Church history?

201 100 AD 1200 1500500ChurchFormulation Roman Catholic View of Ecclesiastical History Establishing Greek Orthodox 1054 Protestants Corruption of Morals Restoration Restoration Roman Catholicism

202 Rome Constantinople Antioch Jerusalem Alexandria Five Bishoprics of the Early Church

203 Rome Constantinople Antioch Jerusalem Alexandria

204 Rome Constantinople Antioch Jerusalem Alexandria Invasion of Islam 612 Invasion of Islam 612

205 Rome Constantinople Filioque Fight for Supremacy Split 1054 Split 1054 Eastern Orthodox CatholicCatholic

206 Rome Constantinople Invasion of Islam 1453 1453

207 Rome

208 Rome Eastern Church moves north. Russian Orthodoxy becomes primary Orthodox Church. Eastern Church moves north. Russian Orthodoxy becomes primary Orthodox Church.

209 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the Eastern Orthodox view of Church history?

210 100 AD 1200 1500 500ChurchFormulation Eastern Orthodox View of Ecclesiastical History DisruptionWest East Eastern Orthodox PurificationProtestants Roman Catholics

211 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question Why are there so many Protestant denominations?

212 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Traditions in Theology Sub-traditions Sub-traditions: –Reformed –Arminian –Liberal –Fundamental –Charismatic –Evangelical –Postmodernist

213 150017001900 Reformed Tradition Arminian Tradition Pentecostals Methodists Wesleyans Church of Christ NazarenesFree-will Baptists Calvinists Presbyterians LutheransReformed Baptists Fundamentalist Tradition Liberal Tradition Charismatic Tradition Evangelical Tradition 2000 Brief History of the Protestant Movement Postmodern Tradition

214 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Where do we go for truth?

215 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What are the different sources of truth?

216 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology John Wesleys Quadrilateral Tradition Scripture Reason Experience

217 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology 1.Tradition 2.Reason 3.Experience 4.General Revelation 5.Emotions 6.Special Revelation (Scripture)

218 Sources of Theology

219 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology 1.Tradition 2.Reason 3.Experience 4.Emotions 5.General Revelation 6.Special Revelation (Scripture) Stage of Truth Back Front

220 Roman Catholic Scripture Reason Tradition Experience General Revelation Back Front

221 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Eastern Orthodox Stage of Truth Scripture Tradition Experience General Revelation Back Front

222 Protestant Reformation Stage of Truth Scripture Tradition Experience General Revelation Reason Back Front

223 Liberal Stage of Truth Reason Experience General Revelation Emotions Back Front

224 Charismatic Stage of Truth Special Revelation Experience Emotions Back Front

225 Fundamentalist Stage of Truth Scripture General Revelation Back Front

226 Postmodern Stage of Truth Back Front

227 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What are the benefits and deficiencies of each source?

228 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Tradition: Religious information that has been handed down to us from various sources.

229 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Examples: Benefits: Deficiencies:

230 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Tradition is the living faith of those now dead. Traditionalism is the dead faith of those now living. –Jarislav Pelikan Tradition is the living faith of those now dead. Traditionalism is the dead faith of those now living. –Jarislav Pelikan

231 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Reason: Information that comes through the human minds capacity for logical, rational, and analytic thought.

232 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Examples: Benefits: Deficiencies:

233 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology All truth is given by revelation, either general or special, and it must be received by reason. Reason is the God-given means for discovering the truth that God discloses, whether in his world or his Word. While God wants to reach the heart with truth, he does not bypass the mind. –Jonathan Edwards All truth is given by revelation, either general or special, and it must be received by reason. Reason is the God-given means for discovering the truth that God discloses, whether in his world or his Word. While God wants to reach the heart with truth, he does not bypass the mind. –Jonathan Edwards

234 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology The truth of the Christian faith surpasses the capacity of reason. –Thomas Aquinas The truth of the Christian faith surpasses the capacity of reason. –Thomas Aquinas

235 credo quia absurdum I believe because it is absurd This Latin phrase coined by Tertullian (150-225) evidences some of the early Churchs disdain for the Greek philosophers reliance upon reason for truth. He said, What does Athens have to do with Jerusalem, or the academy with the Church? He sought to return the element of mystery to the Christian faith. Sources of Theology

236 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Experience: Information that comes through direct encounter, participation, or observation.

237 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Examples: Benefits: Deficiencies:

238 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Emotions: Information that comes through subjectively experienced psychological feelings.

239 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Examples: Benefits: Deficiencies:

240 sensus divinitatus Sense of the divine The sensus divinitatus is the inward persuasion all people have that directs them to a belief in God and a propensity to worship. While the sensus divinitatas can contribute to and shape our theology (natural theology), the information is insufficient to bring a person into a right relationship with God. Sources of Theology

241 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology General Revelation:Revelation about God given through the created order (Ps. 19:1–6 ; Rom. 1:18–20; 2:14–15).

242 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Examples: Benefits: Deficiencies:

243 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Special Revelation: Revelation given by Gods supernatural intervention in history through (1) miraculous events, (2) divine speech, and (3) visible manifestations.

244 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Sources of Theology Examples: Benefits: Deficiencies:

245 norma normans sed non normata A norm which norms but is not normed This is a Latin phrase of the Protestant Reformation that stresses the importance of Scripture above all other sources of theology. The Scripture, according to the Reformers, is the standard (norm) against which all other sources for theology must be judged, but this standard cannot be judged by them. Sources of Theology

246 Proposed Stage of Truth Scripture Tradition Experience General Revelation Reason Emotions Back Front

247 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question How do the different sources interact to form our theology?

248 Historical interpretation Grammatical interpretation Contextual interpretation Literary Interpretation 1 1. Exegetical Statement What did it mean then? 2. Theological Statement What is the timeless truth taught? 3. Homiletical Statement How does it apply to us? Timeless Audience Time-bound Audience Contemporary Audience Ancient Audience Tradition Emotions Experience Reason General Revelation

249 Tradition Reason Experience Emotions General Revelation Objectiv e Subjectiv e Acts 17:11 These Jews were more open-minded than those in Thessalonica, for they eagerly received the message, examining the Scriptures carefully every day to see if these things were so.

250 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God still Speak Today?

251 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Has Special Revelation ceased, or does God still communicate to people through prophets, dreams, visions, and audible encounters?

252 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Three positions: 1.Continuationism 2.Hard Cessationism 3.Soft Cessationism

253 Temporary Gifts Permanent Gifts Supernatural Sign SpeakingServing RevelatoryConfirmatory Apostleship Prophecy Discerning of spirits Word of wisdom Word of knowledge Tongues Interpretation of tongues Healings Miracles Tongues Evangelism Teaching Pastor- teacher Exhortation Service Showing Mercy Giving Administration Helps

254 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the Continuationist view of Prophecy?

255 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Continuationism:View that miraculous sign gifts are still being given and, therefore, God still speaks directly in various ways today. Adherents:Wayne Grudem, Jack Deere, Craig Keener, Jack Hayford

256 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Defense of Continuationism Defense of Continuationism:

257 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 1.Acts 2:14-21 seems to teach that supernatural occurrences such as tongues and prophecy would be normative for the Church era.

258 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 2.The entire book of Acts seems to show that the supernatural gifts are common within the Church.

259 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 3.All of Scripture supports the idea that it is Gods nature to work in supernatural ways.

260 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 4.The New Testament never explicitly states that the supernatural sign gifts would cease.

261 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? If you were to lock a brand- new Christian in a room with a Bible and tell him to study what Scripture has to say about healings and miracles, he would never come out of the room a cessationist. –Jack Deere Surprised by the Power of the Spirit (Grand Rapids, Mi: Zondervan, 1997), 54 If you were to lock a brand- new Christian in a room with a Bible and tell him to study what Scripture has to say about healings and miracles, he would never come out of the room a cessationist. –Jack Deere Surprised by the Power of the Spirit (Grand Rapids, Mi: Zondervan, 1997), 54

262 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the Hard Cessationist view of Prophecy?

263 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Hard Cessationism: View that miraculous sign gifts ceased with the death of the last apostle and the completion of the New Testament. Therefore, God does not speak directly to people today. Adherents:Charles Hodge, John MacArthur, majority of Church history

264 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Defense of Hard Cessationism Defense of Hard Cessationism:

265 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 1.The Bible implicitly supports the idea that the supernatural sign gifts were for the establishment of the Church era.

266 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Eph. 2:19-20 So then you are no longer foreigners and noncitizens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of Gods household, because you have been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the cornerstone.

267 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 2 Cor. 12:12 Indeed, the signs of an apostle were performed among you with great perseverance by signs and wonders and powerful deeds.

268 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Heb. 2:3-4 How will we escape if we neglect such a great salvation? It was first communicated through the Lord and was confirmed to us by those who heard him, while God confirmed their witness with signs and wonders and various miracles and gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will.

269 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 1 Cor. 13:8-10 Love never ends. But if there are prophecies, they will be set aside; if there are tongues, they will cease; if there is knowledge, it will be set aside. For we know in part and we prophesy in part; but when the perfect comes, the partial will be done away.

270 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 2.It is agreed that the Bible never explicitly states that the sign gifts have ceased. But the Bible never explicitly states that Scripture is complete, yet both cessetionists and non-cessetionists agree that it is.

271 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 3.If God is still speaking supernaturally through prophecy, tongues, word of wisdom, etc., then the Canon of Scripture is still open.

272 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? It might, indeed, be a priori conceivable that God should deal with men [individually], and reveal Himself and His will to each individual, throughout the whole course of history, in the [depths] of his own consciousness. This is the mystics dream. It has not, however, been Gods way. He has chosen rather to deal with the race in its entirety, and to give this race His complete revelation of Himself in an organic whole. –B.B. Warfield Counterfeit Miracles (Carlisle, PN: Banner of Truth, 1972), 26 It might, indeed, be a priori conceivable that God should deal with men [individually], and reveal Himself and His will to each individual, throughout the whole course of history, in the [depths] of his own consciousness. This is the mystics dream. It has not, however, been Gods way. He has chosen rather to deal with the race in its entirety, and to give this race His complete revelation of Himself in an organic whole. –B.B. Warfield Counterfeit Miracles (Carlisle, PN: Banner of Truth, 1972), 26

273 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 4.If one were to examine the Scripture closely, it becomes evident that Gods direct intervention through prophecy and supernatural signs and wonders was not the norm as it may seem. The Bible, as theological history (not exhaustive history), only records the times when God does intervene, thereby giving the impression that Gods direct encounters through prophets, dreams, visions, etc. are Gods modus operandi when they are not.

274 NoahMoses 2000+ yrs of apparent silence Elijah & Elisha 500 yrs of apparent silence Christ and The Apostles 900 yrs of apparent silence

275 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 5.History convincingly suggests that the supernatural sign gifts have ceased. We do not see evidence of confirmed prophets after the death of the last apostle. Only fringe groups here and there have claimed that God still speaks through prophets, tongues, etc., until the 20 th century when the charismatic revival began.

276 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? This whole place [1 Cor. 12 on spiritual gifts] is very obscure... but the obscurity is produced by our ignorance of the facts referred to and by their cessation, being such as then used to occur, but now no longer take place. –John Chrysostom (347-407) ECF 2.12.1.1.29.0 This whole place [1 Cor. 12 on spiritual gifts] is very obscure... but the obscurity is produced by our ignorance of the facts referred to and by their cessation, being such as then used to occur, but now no longer take place. –John Chrysostom (347-407) ECF 2.12.1.1.29.0

277 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? In the earliest time the Holy Ghost fell upon them that believed: and they spoke with tongues which they had not learned as the Spirit gave them utterance. These were signs adapted to the time. For it was proper for the Holy Spirit to evidence Himself in all tongues, and to show that the Gospel of God had come to all tongues [languages] over the whole earth. The thing was done for a authentication and it passed away. –St. Augustine (354-430) Ten Homilies on the first Epistle of John VI, 10 In the earliest time the Holy Ghost fell upon them that believed: and they spoke with tongues which they had not learned as the Spirit gave them utterance. These were signs adapted to the time. For it was proper for the Holy Spirit to evidence Himself in all tongues, and to show that the Gospel of God had come to all tongues [languages] over the whole earth. The thing was done for a authentication and it passed away. –St. Augustine (354-430) Ten Homilies on the first Epistle of John VI, 10

278 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Question What is the Soft Cessationist view of Prophecy?

279 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Soft Cessationism: Or Soft Continuationist. The view that the miraculous sign gifts could still be given today, but believers need to be careful about outright acceptance of peoples claims of possession. Adherents:D. A. Carson, Robert Saucy

280 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Defense of Soft Cessationism:

281 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 1.Neither sides arguments are conclusive. We must therefore proceed with great caution.

282 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 2.While it may be true that Church history has not seen the continuation of God speaking directly, this does not mean that it is not possible.

283 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? God, in his ordinary providence, makes use of means, yet is free to work without, above, and against them, at his pleasure. –Westminster Confession of Faith 5.3 God, in his ordinary providence, makes use of means, yet is free to work without, above, and against them, at his pleasure. –Westminster Confession of Faith 5.3

284 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? 3.Those who adhere to a futuristic interpretation of Revelation must concede that there are going to be prophets in the future as represented by the Two Witnesses (Rev. 11:3) and, possibly, the 144,000 Israelites (Rev. 7:4). Therefore, we must be open to further direct revelation from God.

285 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Excursus: Does God Still Speak Today? Guiding Principles Guiding Principles: 1.Gods Word is not something to be trifled with (Ex. 20:7). 2.If you are a prophet, you must show convincing signs of a prophet (Deut 18:15-22). 3.If you are a prophet, you must have orthodox theology (Deut. 13:1-3). 4.If someone believes that they have a word from the Lord, they had better be certain and be ready to live by the consequences if it turns out false.

286 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity Doing Theology in the Emerging Context

287 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity How do we do theology in our emerging context?

288 semper reformanda Always reforming This is the Reformation principle that Christian theology is always undergoing change, enhancement, and development. the Reformers understood that if theology was, at any point, thought to be solidified and one persons, groups, traditions, or denominations perspective was thought of to be above all reproach and, therefore, unable to be developed, the task of doing theology would be severely grieved. Our theology must be reforming itself continually. Unity and Diversity

289 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity Apostles Creed I believe in God the Father, Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth And in Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son, our Lord Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary Suffered under Pontius Pilate; was crucified, dead and buried; He descended into the grave The third day he rose again from the dead He ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty From thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead I believe in the Holy Ghost I believe a holy catholic church; the communion of saints The forgiveness of sins The resurrection of the body And the life everlasting. Amen.

290 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity Unity and Diversity among the Traditions

291 Unity and Diversity 2000 A.D.100 A.D. Trinity (325) Trinity (325) Counsel of Nicea (325) Doctrine of the Atonement Doctrine of the Atonement (eleventh century) 400 A.D.1600 A.D. Doctrine of Christ Doctrine of Christ Definition of Chalcedon (451) Doctrine of Man and Grace Doctrine of Man and Grace (fifth century) 1100 A.D.

292 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity Unity and Diversity among Protestant Denominations

293 Unity and Diversity Five Solas of the Protestant Reformation Reformed Understanding Sola ScripturaSola ChristusSola GratiaSola FideSola deo Gloria MeaningThe Scripture alone contains primary authority to dictate the lives of believers. The work of Christ alone is the basis for justification. Justification is by means of Gods grace alone. Faith alone is the only instrumental cause of justification. All is done for Gods glory alone.

294 Unity and Diversity 2000 A.D.100 A.D. Trinity (325) Trinity (325) Counsel of Nicea (325) Doctrine of the Atonement Doctrine of the Atonement (eleventh century) 400 A.D.1600 A.D. Doctrine of Christ Doctrine of Christ Definition of Chalcedon (451) Doctrine of Justification Doctrine of Justification (sixteenth century) Doctrine of Scripture Doctrine of Scripture (sixteenth century) Doctrine of Man and Grace Doctrine of Man and Grace (fifth century) 1100 A.D.

295 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity Unity and Diversity among the Sexes

296 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity Unity and Diversity among the Nations

297 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity Unity and Diversity among the Peoples

298 Copyright © 2004, The Theology Program. All rights reserved. Unity and Diversity Luke 8:5-18


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