What are various methods writers use to persuade their audience? Cause / effect Fact / opinion Main idea Argument Evidence Opposition When might each of these methods prove to be the most persuasive? Lets look at a few …
Cause / effect Effective cause / effect Clearly states claim or position on an issue Supports it with good evidence / logical reasoning Present the cause and present the effect
Argument An effective argument Clearly states claim or position on an issue Supports it with good evidence / logical reasoning Presents opposing views / explains their weaknesses
What are various forms of media that people use to persuade the public? Advertisements Personal letters Speeches Editorials Political cartoons Lets take a look …
Considered to be the first political cartoon in America, what was the author, Benjamin Franklin, trying to persuade the readers?
Strategies for reading persuasive writing Look for statement of main issue or problem & authors position Evaluate the evidence – facts, statistics, opinions – do they support the authors position? Evaluate the evidence that opposes the authors position
Evaluating Reasoning In a persuasive argument, the author uses evidence and reasoning to support his/her position. A good reader evaluates the evidence and reasoning to ensure the statements are true. There are four types of faulty reasoning to watch out for: ~ overgeneralization ~ either-or fallacy ~ cause-and-effect fallacy ~ circular reasoning For more practice, refer to page R14.
Broad statement that says something is true for every case with no exceptions. Overgeneralization All princesses are beautiful, tiny blonde- haired, blue-eyed girls that have to be rescued by Prince Charming! Excuse me?!
Author states that there are only two possible ways to view a situation or only two options to choose from. Either – or fallacy People either like Mickey Mouse or the strongly dislike him!
Author makes the assumption that because one event follows another, the second event was caused by the first. Cause – effect fallacy President Theodore Roosevelt took office in September 1901 after President McKinley was assassinated. Therefore, San Francisco suffered a major earthquake in 1906.
An attempt to support a statement by simply repeating it in other words. Circular reasoning Killer whales are magnificent animals because they are so awesome!
Evaluating Evidence You need to carefully examine the evidence the author presents. Ask the following questions about the evidence … ~Is it a fact or an opinion? ~Is it adequate? ~Is it accurate? ~It is appropriate?
Ask … is the authors statement a fact or an opinion? Fact or opinion? Pandas are the cutest of all animals!
There needs to be enough evidence presented to support the authors statement. Adequate? Chimpanzees are very smart animals because they use tools, they exhibit emotions, and they solve problems.
To increase accuracy, the evidence needs to come from a reliable source. Accurate? Green eggs are much better with ham per Dr. Seuss.
The evidence needs to apply to the topic AND be free of stereotyping, bias, emotional appeal, and propaganda. Appropriate? Some African tree frogs are very poisonous.
When evaluating evidence, beware of alluring tactics! Emotional appeal Stereotyping Propaganda Bandwagon Scapegoat Bias
Please send money for the poor, starving sea monkeys! Just a mere $.79 a day will feed a family of three for a week! Dont wait! Send money today! Emotional appeal
All ogres are mean, evil, and cant be trusted! Stereotyping
Propaganda All sharks are mean, lean, eating machines and must be destroyed!
Bandwagon Seeing the fun all the other boys were having, Pinocchio jumped on the bandwagon and joined in! Then, he realized the danger he was facing!
Scapegoat Its Pete and his dragon that caused all the trouble! Lets kick them out of town!
Bias Disneys Tarzan was the best Disney movie! None of the others are worth seeing!
Card Stacking and Name Calling Distort the truth, use lies and associate people with negative labels.Distort the truth, use lies and associate people with negative labels.
Famous People influence Us! Testimonials and Transfer Snob Appeal
Plain Folks and Band Wagon Plain Folks Everyone loves Coke! Shopping at Target is terrific! Band Wagon Everyone has an IPod, even cartoon characters….
Lets summarize How do writers persuade their audience? Cause / effect Argument Presenting evidence
Lets summarize What various forms of media do people use to persuade their audience? Political cartoons Advertisements Personal letters Editorials Speeches
Lets summarize What do good readers do when reading persuasive text? Read critically Question Evaluate evidence
Lets summarize What strategies can a good reader use to help make sense of persuasive writing? Look for main issue / problem Authors purpose Evaluate evidence
Lets summarize What should a reader look for when evaluating the evidence an author presents? Accuracy Adequacy Appropriateness Fact or opinion
Lets summarize What alluring tactics should a reader be aware of when reading persuasive text? Emotional appeal Stereotyping Propaganda Bandwagon Scapegoat Bias
Ticket out the door 3 – List 3 alluring tactics to be aware of 2 – List 2 ways to evaluate evidence 1 – List 1 way people stereotype teenagers
Homework: Locate two ads that contain examples of propaganda, attach them to paper and write an explanation of what types of propaganda are used and how..
Bandwagon A movement or cause that by its mass appeal or strength attracts followers. Example … some say bottled water is better for you, so everyone started drinking bottled water.
Stereotype An oversimplified or generalized opinion or prejudice … a broad statement about a group of people that does not take into account individual differences. Example … all teenagers are troublemakers!
Bias Favoritism toward or against something Example – Dogs are the best pets and cats are useless.
Emotional appeal Emotional appeals are statements that create strong feelings rather than using fact and evidence to make a point.
Scapegoat A person or group made to bear the blame for others or suffer in their place. Example – The Jews became the scapegoat for the suffering of the German people after WWI.
Propaganda The deliberate spread of rumors with the intention of harming another person or group of people. Speech, writing, or other attempts to influence ideas or opinions, often through the use of stereotypes, faulty generalizations, or emotional language. Example – Hitlers propaganda that Jews were responsible for the poor condition of Germany after WWI.
Generalize To infer or form an opinion or conclusion about someone or something based on only a few facts, examples, or the like. Example – Everyone eats chocolate!
Plain Folks The users of this product or proponents of this course of action are simple, down- to-earth people like you and me. Example: Everyone loves Coke!
Card Stacking and Name Calling Distorting or omitting facts; telling half- truths. Stereotyping ideas or people with a bad label.
Glittering Generalities Glittering Generalities - Using "good" labels, such as democratic, patriotic, amazing, beautiful and exciting, that are unsupported by facts.
Testimonials Seeking support for an idea or product by having it endorsed by a famous person, such as a sports figure or movie star.
Snob Appeal and Transfer 1.Only the richest, most important, or most discerning people like this idea or product. 2.Associating a respected person or idea with whatever is being promoted, such as picturing a well-known athlete in a breakfast cereal advertisement.