3What are various methods writers use to persuade their audience? When might each of these methods prove to be the most persuasive?Cause / effectFact / opinionMain ideaArgumentEvidenceOppositionLet’s look at a few …
4Effective cause / effect Clearly states claim or position on an issueSupports it with good evidence / logical reasoningPresent the cause and present the effect
5Argument An effective argument Clearly states claim or position on an issueSupports it with good evidence / logical reasoningPresents opposing views / explains their weaknesses
6What are various forms of media that people use to persuade the public? AdvertisementsPersonal lettersSpeechesEditorialsPolitical cartoonsLet’s take a look …
8Political cartoons – Thomas Nast for Harper’s Weekly … for more research / discussion of political cartoons.Considered to be the first political cartoon in America, what was the author, Benjamin Franklin, trying to persuade the readers?
9Strategies for reading persuasive writing Look for statement of main issue or problem & author’s positionEvaluate the evidence – facts, statistics, opinions – do they support the author’s position?Evaluate the evidence that opposes the author’s position
10Evaluating Reasoning For more practice, refer to page R14. In a persuasive argument, the author uses evidence and reasoning to support his/her position.A good reader evaluates the evidence and reasoning to ensure the statements are true.There are four types of faulty reasoning to watch out for:~ overgeneralization~ either-or fallacy~ cause-and-effect fallacy~ circular reasoningFor more practice, refer to page R14.
11OvergeneralizationExcuse me?!Broad statement that says something is true for every case with no exceptions.All princesses are beautiful, tiny blonde-haired, blue-eyed girls that have to be rescued by Prince Charming!
12People either like Mickey Mouse or the strongly dislike him! Either – or fallacyAuthor states that there are only two possible ways to view a situation or only two options to choose from.People either like Mickey Mouse or the strongly dislike him!
13Cause – effect fallacyAuthor makes the assumption that because one event follows another, the second event was caused by the first.President Theodore Roosevelt took office in September 1901 after President McKinley was assassinated. Therefore, San Francisco suffered a major earthquake in 1906.
14Killer whales are magnificent animals because they are so awesome! Circular reasoningAn attempt to support a statement by simply repeating it in other words.Killer whales are magnificent animals because they are so awesome!
15Evaluating EvidenceYou need to carefully examine the evidence the author presents.Ask the following questions about the evidence …~Is it a fact or an opinion?~Is it adequate?~Is it accurate?~It is appropriate?
16Fact or opinion? Ask … is the author’s statement a fact or an opinion? Pandas are the cutest of all animals!
17Adequate?There needs to be enough evidence presented to support the author’s statement.Chimpanzees are very smart animals because they use tools, they exhibit emotions, and they solve problems.
18Green eggs are much better with ham per Dr. Seuss. Accurate?To increase accuracy, the evidence needs to come from a reliable source.Green eggs are much better with ham per Dr. Seuss.
19Some African tree frogs are very poisonous. Appropriate?The evidence needs to apply to the topic AND be free of stereotyping, bias, emotional appeal, and propaganda.Some African tree frogs are very poisonous.
20When evaluating evidence, beware of alluring tactics! Emotional appealStereotypingPropagandaBandwagonScapegoatBias
21Emotional appealPlease send money for the poor, starving sea monkeys! Just a mere $.79 a day will feed a family of three for a week! Don’t wait! Send money today!
22All ogres are mean, evil, and can’t be trusted! StereotypingAll ogres are mean, evil, and can’t be trusted!
23All sharks are mean, lean, eating machines and must be destroyed! PropagandaAll sharks are mean, lean, eating machines and must be destroyed!
24BandwagonSeeing the fun all the other boys were having, Pinocchio jumped on the bandwagon and joined in! Then, he realized the danger he was facing!
25ScapegoatIt’s Pete and his dragon that caused all the trouble! Let’s kick them out of town!
26BiasDisney’s Tarzan was the best Disney movie! None of the others are worth seeing!
27Card Stacking and Name Calling Distort the truth, use lies and associate people with negative labels .
28Famous People influence Us! Testimonials and TransferSnob Appeal
29Plain Folks and Band Wagon Everyone loves “Coke!’ Shopping at Target is terrific!Everyone has an IPod, even cartoon characters….
30Let’s summarize Cause / effect Argument Presenting evidence How do writers persuade their audience?Cause / effectArgumentPresenting evidence
31Let’s summarize Political cartoons Advertisements Personal letters What various forms of media do people use to persuade their audience?Political cartoonsAdvertisementsPersonal lettersEditorialsSpeeches
32Let’s summarize Read critically Question Evaluate evidence What do good readers do when reading persuasive text?Read criticallyQuestionEvaluate evidence
33Let’s summarize Look for main issue / problem Author’s purpose What strategies can a good reader use to help make sense of persuasive writing?Look for main issue / problemAuthor’s purposeEvaluate evidence
34Let’s summarize Accuracy Adequacy Appropriateness Fact or opinion What should a reader look for when evaluating the evidence an author presents?AccuracyAdequacyAppropriatenessFact or opinion
35Let’s summarize Emotional appeal Stereotyping Propaganda Bandwagon What alluring tactics should a reader be aware of when reading persuasive text?Emotional appealStereotypingPropagandaBandwagonScapegoatBias
36The End! Ticket out the door 3 – List 3 alluring tactics to be aware of2 – List 2 ways to evaluate evidence1 – List 1 way people stereotype teenagersThe End!
38Homework: Locate two ads that contain examples of propaganda, attach them to paper and write an explanation of what types of propaganda are used and how. .
39BandwagonA movement or cause that by its mass appeal or strength attracts followers.Example … some say bottled water is better for you, so everyone started drinking bottled water.
40StereotypeAn oversimplified or generalized opinion or prejudice … a broad statement about a group of people that does not take into account individual differences.Example … all teenagers are troublemakers!
41Bias Favoritism toward or against something Example – Dogs are the best pets and cats are useless.
42Emotional appealEmotional appeals are statements that create strong feelings rather than using fact and evidence to make a point.
43ScapegoatA person or group made to bear the blame for others or suffer in their place.Example – The Jews became the scapegoat for the suffering of the German people after WWI.
44PropagandaThe deliberate spread of rumors with the intention of harming another person or group of people.Speech, writing, or other attempts to influence ideas or opinions, often through the use of stereotypes, faulty generalizations, or emotional language.Example – Hitler’s propaganda that Jews were responsible for the poor condition of Germany after WWI.
45GeneralizeTo infer or form an opinion or conclusion about someone or something based on only a few facts, examples, or the like.Example – Everyone eats chocolate!
46Plain FolksThe users of this product or proponents of this course of action are simple, down-to-earth people like you and me.Example: Everyone loves Coke!
47Card Stacking and Name Calling Distorting or omitting facts; telling half-truths.Stereotyping ideas or people with a bad label.
48Glittering Generalities Glittering Generalities - Using "good" labels, such as democratic, patriotic, amazing, beautiful and exciting, that are unsupported by facts.
49TestimonialsSeeking support for an idea or product by having it endorsed by a famous person, such as a sports figure or movie star.
50Snob Appeal and Transfer Only the richest, most important, or most discerning people like this idea or product.Associating a respected person or idea with whatever is being promoted, such as picturing a well-known athlete in a breakfast cereal advertisement.