Presentation on theme: "Definition: A strong and emotional bond between two people. Attachments maintain proximity between infant and caregiver because each experiences distress."— Presentation transcript:
Definition: A strong and emotional bond between two people. Attachments maintain proximity between infant and caregiver because each experiences distress when separated, they serves as a basis for subsequent emotional development. Attachment
The development of attachment tom and jerry that's my mommy - Google Videostom and jerry that's my mommy - Google Videos Maccoby (1980) developed 4 characteristics. 1: Seeking proximity, especially at times of stress 2: Distress on separation : Separation anxiety. 3: Pleasure when reunited 4: General orientation of behaviour towards the primary caregiver.
Lorenz and Imprinting Animals forms bonds in the first few moments after birth. In orphaned animals the baby will attach itself to another species rather than be alone. Conrad Lorenz carried out experiments on greylag geese (1930) YouTube - Konrad Lorenz - Imprinting
Schaffer and Emerson (1964) Aim: Find out how old infants were when they first became attached. They also looked at individual differences Procedures: They studied 60 infants in Glasgow, every 4 weeks for 18 months. Findings: First attachments at 6 – 8 months. Stranger anxiety one month after
Conclusion: Infants who developed strong attachments had mothers who were quick to respond to their needs. This normally started around 7 months with multiple attachment happening soon after. Criticisms: Bushnell et al (1989) found that infants bonded with their mothers as young as 24hrs old
The Different theories of Attachment Why do babies develop attachment ?
Explanations of Attachment Learning theory: Behaviourists explanation looks at nurture as the main determinism for attachment. Bowlbys theory: Believes that children have an innate tendency to form attachments to increase chances of survival. Social Learning Explanations suggests that children learn through imitation of others behaviours.
Learning Theory Classical conditioning : Individuals can be taught to associate stimulus with a certain response. Food is good, mother gives food therefore mother is good. Take food away and mother is still Good.Pavlovs dogPavlovs dog Operant conditioning: Food is a primary reinforcer as mother gives food she becomes secondary Reinforcer therefore baby seeks secondary Reinforcer. operant conditioning skinner - Google Videooperant conditioning skinner - Google Video
Dollard and Miller Infant becomes hungry and this produces a drive to reduce the discomfort. Mother gives food which reduces discomfort = reward Food becomes a primary reinforcer Mother becomes a secondary reinforcer
Evaluation of Learning Theory Attachment to food giver: Schaffer and Emerson (1964) found fewer than ½ the infants were attached to the person that fed, bathed and changed them. attachment - Google Video Love in infant monkeys: Harlow and Harlow (1962) discovered that monkeys clung to a cloth covered monkey rather than a food providing metal monkey.
Social Learning Explanations Hay & Vespo This theory was originally proposed by Bandura (1977). It suggests that children learn through imitation of others behaviours. social learning theory - Google Videos# Hay & Vespo argue that parents act as role models for children and teach them how to carry out relationships. Activity: Using your text book find out the meaning of the following: Role Modelling, Direct instruction, Social facilitation.
Bowlbys Theory of Attachment Bowlby believes that attachment is innate rather than learned
Bowlbys Theory Natural selection : Infants and Carers are programmed to become attached. YouTube - Walking with Beasts - Ep 4 - Next of Kin - Part 1 of 3YouTube - Walking with Beasts - Ep 4 - Next of Kin - Part 1 of 3 A critical Period : As attachment is a biological process, it takes place during a critical period of development or not at all. The first 21/2 years. Internal Working Model: A model that the infant will develop about themselves and what to expect from others based on their experiences with the primary care giver. Monotropy: Attachment plays a role in later development- monotropy and the continuity hypothesis.
Support for Monotrophy Monotrophy: Bowlby (1969) argued that we develop from one main attachment/ special relationship. Multiple attachments : Thomas (1998) believes it is better to develop a network of attachments. Monotrophy: Tronick et al (1992) studied Pygmies where children were looked after and breastfeed by multiple caregivers but still preferred the company of their mothers.
The Continuity Hypothesis Secure attachment : Children learn from the primary caregiver how to form positive relationship and carry this into adulthood. bowlby's theory of attachment - Google Videos Avoidant attachment : Primary caregiver rejects the infant and child develops a belief they are unacceptable and unworthy. Ambivalent attachment : Primary caregiver is inconsistent leading to negative self image with exaggerated emotional responses.
Support for Continuity Hypothesis The Minnesota longitudinal study: Sroufe et al (1999) found that securely attached infants developed self confidence, more initiative and were more popular later in life. Insecure attachments: Mc Carthy (1999) found women who were avoidant-insecure were likely to have romantic problems and resistant insecure were likely to have friendship problems.
Evaluation of Bowlbys Theory on Attachment There is criticism about the continuity hypothesis, monotrophy and the role of the father
Criticism of Continuity Hypothesis Zimmerman et al (2000): Looked at children from divorced families They concluded that serious life events had an impact on the development of attachment Therefore continuity will only apply when serious events do not have an impact on the child
Criticism for Bowlbys Theory The Temperament Hypothesis explains that some children are born with an ability to make friends. The lack of fear at a stranger might not have anything to do with mothers inability to bond. Correlational: A lot of evidence is correlation therefore no statement on cause and effect can be made.
Role of Father : Bowlby believes that the fathers role is to support the mother (financially and emotionally). Other research however has shown that fathers have a more direct role to play in the development of their children Post-Hoc: Bowlby says attachment has an evolutionary function, behaviour is directed by genes but there is no evidence to support this Homework: Describe and evaluate the Learning Theory 12 Marks Pt-Hoc:Bowlby says attachmenthas an evolutionary function,butthere is no evidence to supportthis.Pt-Hoc:Bowlby says attachmenthas an evolutionary function,butthere is no evidence to supportthis.Role ofFather:Role ofFather:Pt-Hoc:Bowlby says attachmenthas an evolutionary function,butthere is no evidence to supportthis.Pt-Hoc:Bowlby says attachmenthas an evolutionary function,butthere is no evidence to supportthis.Role ofFather:Role ofFather:
Criticism for Bowlbys Theory Bushnell et al (1989) found infants formed bonds with mother at less than 48hr old. Piaget (1954): At 6 months infant show object permanence (play peek a boo) know when caregiver has left the room. Ainsworth (1967) found stranger anxiety coincided with motor development.
The Stranger Situation Mary Ainsworth found different types of attachment
Research into Attachment Separation anxiety occurs between 6-8 months with fear of strangers occurring one month later. First attachments: In 65% of children first attachment is to the mother by 18 months other attachments have formed. Quick response by mothers and ability to interact lead to high intensity of attachment.
Secure and insecure attachments The Strange Situation Classification Mary Ainsworth developed a method of measuring attachment; attachment - Google Videosattachment - Google Videos Three different categories: 1.Securely attached, 2.Avoidant-insecure 3.Resistant-insecure.
'Strange Situation ' (Ainsworth et al., 1978). Type A – Insecure-avoidant -20% Indifferent to caregiver - unconcerned if present or absent. Signs of distress when left alone but could be comforted by caregiver or stranger
Type B Securely attached - 70% - Stay close to caregiver and are distressed by their departure but easily comforted on return. Stranger could give limited comfort.
Type C – Insecure-resistant - 10% - Ambivalent to caregiver - both close and resistant at times. Anxious of environment and resistant to stranger.
SecureAvoidantResistant Primary Carers Behaviour Towards Child Childs Working Model of Itself Positive & LovedUnloved & Rejected Angry & Confused www.psychlotron.org.uk
Evaluation of the Stranger Situation The reliability and validity of the SS in attachment has been looked at
Support for the SSC Internal Reliability: Wartner et al (1993) found that results on the Strange Situation Classification (SSC) were the same when children were 1 and again when they were 6. External Reliability The original research was easy to replicate and led to an increase in research on this area – many of which found similar results.
Evaluating the Strange situation Low Population Validity: Initial research was on middleclass American infants and therefore has low population validity Low Ecological Validity: Was done in a laboratory and not in the childs own home Although the validity can be questioned, the study does have similarities to being left in day care or at a nursery.
Evaluating the Strange situation It may measure a particular attachment to one individual rather than a general attachment type. (Lamb 1977) Ethics: Is it ethical to place a child in a stressful situation.
Cross Culture and Attachment Do we all form similar attachments regardless of cultural influence on upbringing
Cross Cultural studies It is important to make sure that theories of child development are valid throughout different cultures. This is important when looking at Nature vs nurture YouTube - attachment 2 - developmental psychology
Research into Cross-culture Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) Collated data using the stranger situation technique to see if cross cultural differences exist. Meta-analysis study: They looked at the findings of various other studies to draw conclusions
Cross Cultural Studies SecureAvoidantResistant W Germany357358 Great Britain1 75 223 Netherlands467267 Sweden174224 Israel264729 Japan268527 China15025 United states18652114
Evaluation of cross-cultural studies Ecological validity: Takahashi (1990) argues that cultural upbringing may lead to children being clasified as insecure when they are actually developing secure attachments In Japan children sleep, bath and are carried by their parents, therefore separation is more There was also a lack of avoidance behaviour. In Japan this behaviour is taught to be impolite
Nature vs Nurture Nature: Bee (1999) states there is consistency in cross-cultural studies and concludes that similar interactions may occur leading to an innate relationship. Nurture: Van Ilxendoorn and Kronenberg (1988) argue that mass media leads to nurture rather than nature for explanation.
Disruption of attachment The loss of emotional care that results in the breaking of emotional bonds.
Separation Separation: Child is separated from their primary caregiver. The separation can be long or short-term. If there is suitable care given, i.e. a replacement primary caregiver, there are no long term effects.
Immediate response to Separation Protest : The child cries, screams and protests angrily. They cling to the parent and try to escape if others pick them up. Despair: The childs anger subsides, although they are still upset. The child refuses to be comforted by others. Detachment: They engage with other people and may reject the care provider when they return
Research on Separation James and Joyce Robertson (1952) filmed children who had been left in hospital or residential nurseries. They found that children were deeply disturbed by the separation from their mothers. Hospitals changed their policies about visitation rights of parents after the Robertsons work was publicised.
Factors effecting Separation Age of child: Schaffer and Callender (1959) found children under 7 months. The most stress was children between 12-18 months. Type of Attachment: Securely attached children coped better Sex of child: Generally boys coped better than girls (Gross and McIlveen 1997)
Privation Loss of the primary care provider. We look at children who have had no-one to bond with
The Czech Twins Mother died when 18 months Children were given to father Locked in a cellar and starved and beaten they were Found at 7 with no speech They were fostered and grew up to be sociable and happy
Genie Genie was isolated until age 13. She experienced severe privation. She also experienced physical abuse. She never recovered YouTube - GenieYouTube - Genie This could have been because of the late age at which she was discovered Rymer (1993 ) states it could have been the physical abuse as well as the emotional privation.
Methodology of Case studies Ethical issues : Children are unable to give their fully informed consent and many have said later in life the experience was very detrimental Lack of control : These children have many problems (Physical abuse) as well as no opportunity to form attachments Case studies are retrospective : Children must look back over their lives difficult to be accurate
Institutionalisation and Privation Institutionalisation: This refers to the behaviour of children raised in orphanages or childrens homes. Hodges & Tizard Wanted to see if there was long term effects from privation, i.e. no bond developed in early childhood.
Institutionalised Children Procedure: Children were placed in an institution before they were 4 months old. Staff were not allowed to form bonds with the children. There was also a high turnover of staff Children were assessed at ages 4, 8 and 16 years
Findings: Age 4: No deep relationships, they were attention seeking and were more indiscriminately affectionate. Age 8: Most adopted or restored children had formed close attachments. However they were still more attention seeking and over friendly. They were also less popular than their peers.
Differences in Adopted children Children at the age of 4 were either adopted or restored to their natural parents. Adopted children settled better than restored Close attachment at age 8 Rejecting or hostile Close attachment at age 16 Rejecting or hostile Adopted mothers 20/211/2117/214/21 Restored mothers 6/137/135/94/9
Conclusion Family relationships: It can be stated that the long term effects of privation can be overcome when good substitution care is give and that close relationships can form within the home Peer relationships : However. Long term effects can be seen were children have difficulty in fitting in to society and developing close relationships with their peers.
Methodology of Research Attrition: As the study was over a long period some children drop out. It is often the more disturbed children and this can bias results Sample bias: Children who are adopted would have been chosen for their pleasant temperaments. Those of the restored children would have been a mixture of pleasant and unpleasant temperaments. Parental input : Adopted parent put more energy into their children than those that went back to their parents.
Effects of Instituationaliation Rutter et al (2007) looked at children orphaned in Romania. No disinhibition Mild disinhibition Marked disinhibition Uk adoptees 21 (40.4%)29 (55.8%)2 (3.8%) Romanian >6 months 24 (53.3%)17 (37.8%)4 (8.9%) Romanian 6- 24 months 26 (29.5%)39 (44.3%)23 (26.1%)
Homework Discuss the effects of institutionalisation on attachment12 Marks
Day Care Care for infants and children outside the home. This can either be for part of the day or the whole day. Children then return home in the evening.
Social Development Social development: a childs ability to interact and build relationships with others. Secure attachment is necessary for the development of relationships However, Day Care centres give the opportunity for children to develop relationships with each other
Positive effects of Day Care Clarke-Stewart discovered that children who attended day care socialised better at school. They also found that children in day care were equally distressed when separated from their mothers in the Atkinsons Strange Situation Schweinhart et al (1993) found enrichment programmes (headstart) reduced the level of delinquency and criminal activities in adolescence.
The negative effects Belsky and Rovine (1988) state children were more insecurely attached if they were at day care for more that 20hrs per week. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) found that children who spent more that 10hrs per week in day care were more aggressive at school.
Assessing the effects of day care There are many factors influencing a childs social development 1.Different temperaments Pennebaker et al (1981) found that shy children do not gain as much from day care as they are scared. Egeland and Hiester (1995) discovered that securely attached children lost out at day care while insecurely attached children did better.
Assessing the effects of day care Different attachment experiences Time: how can you compare children who start attending day care at different ages. Another factor is how long they spend there each day. Quality: Campbell et al showed that quality affects the childs experience of the setting. Different kinds of day care facilities Nursery versus relatives: Melhuish et al (1991) compared 255 women at work who used day care. The mothers developed different attitudes to maternal care showing a qualitative difference in the family dynamic.
Cognitive Development Cognitive development : growth of a childs mental abilities. Secure base for exploration Attachment leads to security. Children need to feel secure before they explore their environment. Hazen and Durret (1982): Secure children more innovative and better at problem-solving.
Stimulation Stimulation is necessary for cognitive development Greenough et al (1987) found that rats in an enriched environment had larger brains with more neuron activities. Bryant et al (1980) discovered that childminders rewarded quiet behaviour while day care centres provided more stimulating environment.
Positive effects of Day Care Campbell et al (2001 ) discovered children scored high on maths and reading tests if they had attended a good quality day care centre (i.e. It was a stimulating environment) Anderson (1992) found that Swedish children who attended day care before 1, were top of the class at ages 8 – 13. Those at the bottom had not attended day care before school.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Good care: Interaction and vocal responsiveness from adults. Higher quality of care in first 3 years 1.Childs language at 15, 24, & 36 months is better 2. Childs scores on Bayley Scales of Infant development are higher.
Negative effects of Day Care Ruhm (2000) discovered that children who went to day care before the age of three had lower reading and maths skills Russell ( 1999) did a meta-analysis research on over 100 studies conducted between 1957 – 1995 stated that day care had a negative effect on cognitive development.