Presentation on theme: "Attachment Definition: A strong and emotional bond between two people. Attachments maintain proximity between infant and caregiver because each experiences."— Presentation transcript:
2AttachmentDefinition: A strong and emotional bond between two people. Attachments maintain proximity between infant and caregiver because each experiences distress when separated, they serves as a basis for subsequent emotional development.
3The development of attachment tom and jerry that's my mommy - Google VideosMaccoby (1980)developed 4 characteristics.1: Seeking proximity, especially at times of stress2: Distress on separation: Separation anxiety.3: Pleasure when reunited4: General orientation of behaviour towards the primary caregiver.
4Lorenz and ImprintingAnimals forms bonds in the first few moments after birth.In orphaned animals the baby will attach itself to another species rather than be alone.Conrad Lorenz carried out experiments on greylag geese (1930)YouTube - Konrad Lorenz - Imprinting
5Schaffer and Emerson (1964) Aim: Find out how old infants were when they first became attached. They also looked at individual differencesProcedures:They studied 60 infantsin Glasgow, every 4weeks for 18 months.Findings: First attachments at 6 – 8 months. Stranger anxiety one month after
6Criticisms: Bushnell et Conclusion: Infants who developed strong attachments had mothers who were quick to respond to their needs. This normally started around 7 months with multiple attachment happening soon after.Criticisms: Bushnell etal (1989) found thatinfants bonded with theirmothers as young as24hrs old
7The Different theories of Attachment Why dobabies develop attachment?
9Explanations of Attachment Learning theory: Behaviouristsexplanation looks at nurture asthe main determinism for attachment.Bowlby’s theory: Believes thatchildren have an innate tendencyto form attachments to increasechances of survival.Social Learning Explanationssuggests that children learn throughimitation of other’s behaviours.
10Learning Theory Classical conditioning: Operant conditioning: Individuals can be taught toassociate stimulus with a certainresponse. Food is good, mothergives food therefore mother is good.Take food away and mother is stillGood. Pavlov’s dogOperant conditioning:Food is a primary reinforceras mother gives food she becomes secondaryReinforcer therefore baby seeks secondaryReinforcer. operant conditioning skinner - Google Video
11Dollard and Miller primary reinforcer secondary reinforcer Infant becomes hungry and this produces a drive to reduce the discomfort.Mother gives food which reduces discomfort = rewardFood becomes aprimary reinforcerMother becomes asecondary reinforcer
12Evaluation of Learning Theory Attachment to food giver: Schaffer and Emerson (1964) found fewer than ½ the infants were attached to the person that fed, bathed and changed them.attachment - Google VideoLove in infant monkeys:Harlow and Harlow (1962)discovered that monkeysclung to a cloth coveredmonkey rather than a foodproviding metal monkey.
13Social Learning Explanations Hay & Vespo This theory was originally proposedby Bandura (1977). It suggests thatchildren learn through imitation ofother’s behaviours.social learning theory - Google Videos#Hay & Vespo argue that parents act as role models for children and teach them how to carry out relationships.Activity: Using your text book find out the meaning of the following:Role Modelling, Direct instruction, Social facilitation.
14Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment Bowlby believes that attachment is innate rather than learned
16Bowlby’s Theory Natural selection: Infants and Carers are programmed to become attached. YouTube - Walking with Beasts - Ep 4 - Next of Kin - Part 1 of 3A critical Period: As attachment is a biologicalprocess, it takes place during a critical period ofdevelopment or not at all. The first 21/2 years.Internal Working Model: A model that the infant will develop about themselves and what to expect from others based on their experiences with the primary care giver.Monotropy: Attachment plays a role in later development- monotropy andthe continuity hypothesis.
17Support for Monotrophy Monotrophy: Bowlby (1969) argued that wedevelop from one main attachment/ special relationship.Multiple attachments: Thomas (1998) believes it isbetter to develop a network of attachments.Monotrophy: Tronick et al (1992)studied Pygmies where children werelooked after and breastfeed bymultiple caregivers but still preferredthe company of their mothers.
18The Continuity Hypothesis Secure attachment: Children learn from the primarycaregiver how to form positive relationship and carrythis into adulthood.bowlby's theory of attachment - Google VideosAvoidant attachment:Primary caregiver rejectsthe infant and child developsa belief they are unacceptableand unworthy.Ambivalent attachment: Primary caregiver is inconsistent leading to negative self image with exaggerated emotional responses.
19Support for Continuity Hypothesis The Minnesota longitudinal study:Sroufe et al (1999) found that securelyattached infants developed selfconfidence, more initiative and weremore popular later in life.Insecure attachments: Mc Carthy (1999) found women who were avoidant-insecure were likely to have romantic problems and resistant insecure were likely to have friendship problems.
20Evaluation of Bowlby’s Theory on Attachment There is criticism about the continuity hypothesis, monotrophy and the role of the father
21Criticism of Continuity Hypothesis Zimmerman et al (2000): Looked at children from divorced familiesThey concluded that seriouslife events had an impact onthe development of attachmentTherefore continuity will only apply when serious events do not have an impact on the child
22Criticism for Bowlby’s Theory The Temperament Hypothesis explains that some children are born with an ability to make friends. The lack of fear at a stranger might not have anything to do with mothers inability to bond.Correlational: A lot of evidence is correlation therefore no statement on cause and effect can be made.
23Homework: Describe and evaluate the Learning Theory 12 Marks Role of Father: Bowlbybelieves that the father’srole is to support the mother(financially and emotionally).Other research however hasshown that fathers have a more direct role to playin the development of their childrenPost-Hoc: Bowlby says attachment has anevolutionary function, “ behaviour is directed bygenes” but there is no evidence to support thisHomework: Describe and evaluate the Learning Theory MarksPt-Hoc: Bowlby says attachment has an evolutionary function, but there is no evidence to support this.Role of Father:
24Criticism for Bowlby’s Theory Bushnell et al (1989)found infants formedbonds with mother atless than 48hr old.Piaget (1954): At 6 months infant show object permanence (play peek a boo) know when caregiver has left the room.Ainsworth (1967) found stranger anxiety coincided with motor development.
25The Stranger Situation Mary Ainsworth found different types of attachment
27Research into Attachment Separation anxiety occurs between 6-8 months with fear of strangers occurring one month later.First attachments:In 65% of children firstattachment is to the motherby 18 months otherattachments have formed.Quick response by mothers and ability to interact lead to high intensity of attachment.
28Secure and insecure attachments The Strange Situation ClassificationMary Ainsworth developed a method of measuring attachment; attachment - Google VideosThree different categories:Securely attached,Avoidant-insecureResistant-insecure.
29'Strange Situation' (Ainsworth et al., 1978). Type A –Insecure-avoidant -20% Indifferent to caregiver - unconcerned if present or absent. Signs of distress when left alone but could be comforted by caregiver or stranger
30Type BSecurely attached - 70% - Stay close to caregiver and are distressed by their departure but easily comforted on return. Stranger could give limited comfort.
31Type C –Insecure-resistant - 10% - Ambivalent to caregiver - both close and resistant at times. Anxious of environment and resistant to stranger.
32Secure Avoidant Resistant Primary Carer’s Behaviour Towards Child Child’s ‘Working Model’ of ItselfPositive & LovedUnloved & RejectedAngry & ConfusedSecureAvoidantResistant
33Evaluation of the Stranger Situation The reliability and validity of the SS in attachment has been looked at
34Support for the SSC Internal Reliability: Wartner et al (1993) found that results on the Strange Situation Classification (SSC) were the same when children were 1 and again when they were 6.External ReliabilityThe original research was easy to replicate and led to an increase in research on this area – many of which found similar results.
35Evaluating the Strange situation Low Population Validity: Initial research was on middleclass American infants and therefore has low population validityLow Ecological Validity: Was done in a laboratory and not in the child’s own homeAlthough the validity can be questioned, the study does have similarities to being left in day care or at a nursery.
36Evaluating the Strange situation It may measure a particular attachment to one individual rather than a general attachment type. (Lamb 1977)Ethics: Is it ethical toplace a child in astressful situation.
37Cross Culture and Attachment Do we all form similar attachments regardless of cultural influence on upbringing
39Cross Cultural studies It is important to makesure that theories ofchild developmentare valid throughoutdifferent cultures.This is importantwhen looking atNature vs nurtureYouTube - attachment 2 - developmental psychology
40Research into Cross-culture Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988)Collated data using thestranger situation techniqueto see if cross culturaldifferences exist.Meta-analysis study: They looked at the findings of various other studies to draw conclusions
41Cross Cultural Studies SecureAvoidantResistantW Germany357358Great Britain17522Netherlands467267Sweden74Israel26429Japan68527China5025United states18652114
42Evaluation of cross-cultural studies Ecological validity: Takahashi (1990) argues that cultural upbringing may lead to children being clasified as insecure when they are actually developing secure attachmentsIn Japan children sleep, bathand are carried by their parents,therefore separation is moreThere was also a lack of avoidance behaviour. In Japan this behaviour is taught to be impolite
43Nature vs NurtureNature: Bee (1999) states there is consistency in cross-cultural studies and concludes that similar interactions may occur leading to an innate relationship.Nurture: Van Ilxendoorn and Kronenberg (1988) argue that mass media leads to nurture rather than nature for explanation.
44Disruption of attachment The loss of emotional care that results in the breaking of emotional bonds.
46Separation Separation: Child is separated from their primary caregiver. The separation can be long or short-term.If there is suitable care given, i.e. a replacement primary caregiver, there are no long term effects.
48Immediate response to Separation Protest : The child cries, screams and protests angrily. They cling to the parent and try to escape if others pick them up.Despair: The child’s anger subsides, although they are still upset. The child refuses to be comforted by others.Detachment: They engage with other people and may reject the care provider when they return
49Research on Separation James and Joyce Robertson (1952) filmed children who had been left in hospital or residential nurseries.They found that children were deeply disturbed by the separation from their mothers.Hospitals changed their policies about visitation rights of parents after the Robertson’s work was publicised.
50Factors effecting Separation Age of child: Schaffer and Callender (1959) found children under 7 months. The most stress was children between months.Type of Attachment: Securely attached children coped betterSex of child: Generallyboys coped better thangirls (Gross and McIlveen 1997)
51PrivationLoss of the primary care provider. We look at children who have had no-one to bond with
53The Czech Twins Mother died when 18 months Children were given to fatherLocked in a cellar andstarved and beaten they wereFound at 7 with no speechThey were fostered and grewup to be sociable and happy
54Genie She never recovered YouTube - Genie Genie was isolated until age 13.She experienced severe privation.She also experienced physical abuse.She never recovered YouTube - GenieThis could have been because of the late age at which she was discoveredRymer (1993) states it could have been the physical abuse as well as the emotional privation.
55Methodology of Case studies Ethical issues: Children are unable to give their fully informed consent and many have said later in life the experience was very detrimentalLack of control: These children have many problems (Physical abuse) as well as no opportunity to form attachmentsCase studies are retrospective: Children must look back over their lives difficult to be accurate
57Institutionalisation and Privation Institutionalisation: This refers to thebehaviour of childrenraised in orphanagesor children’s homes.Hodges & TizardWanted to see if therewas long term effects from privation, i.e. nobond developed in early childhood.
58Institutionalised Children Procedure: Children wereplaced in an institution beforethey were 4 months old.Staff were not allowed to form bonds with the children. There was also a high turnover of staffChildren were assessed at ages 4, 8 and 16 years
59Findings: Age 4: No deep relationships, they were attention seeking andwere more indiscriminatelyaffectionate.Age 8: Most adopted or restored children had formed close attachments. However they were still more attention seeking and over friendly. They were also less popular than their peers.
60Differences in Adopted children Children at the age of 4 were either adopted or restored to their natural parents.Adopted children settled better than restoredClose attachment at age 8Rejecting or hostileClose attachment at age 16Adopted mothers20/211/2117/214/21Restored mothers6/137/135/94/9
61Conclusion Family relationships: It can be stated that the long term effects of privation can be overcome when good substitution care is give and that close relationships can form within the homePeer relationships: However. Long term effects can be seen were children have difficulty in fitting in to society and developing close relationships with their peers.
62Methodology of Research Attrition: As the study was over a long period some children ‘drop out’. It is often the more disturbed children and this can bias resultsSample bias: Children who are adopted would have been chosen for their pleasant temperaments. Those of the restored children would have been a mixture of pleasant and unpleasant temperaments.Parental input: Adopted parent put more energy into their children than those that went back to their parents.
63Effects of Instituationaliation Rutter et al (2007) looked at children orphaned in Romania.No disinhibitionMild disinhibitionMarkeddisinhibitionUk adoptees21 (40.4%)29 (55.8%)2 (3.8%)Romanian>6 months24 (53.3%)17 (37.8%)4 (8.9%)Romanian 6-24 months26 (29.5%)39 (44.3%)23 (26.1%)
64HomeworkDiscuss the effects of institutionalisation on attachment 12 Marks
65Day CareCare for infants and children outside the home. This can either be for part of the day or the whole day. Children then return home in the evening.
67Social DevelopmentSocial development: a child’s ability to interact and build relationships with others.Secure attachmentis necessary for thedevelopment of relationshipsHowever, Day Care centres give the opportunity for children to develop relationships with each other
68Positive effects of Day Care Clarke-Stewart discoveredthat children who attendedday care socialised better at school.They also found that children in day care were equally distressed when separated from their mothers in the Atkinson’s Strange SituationSchweinhart et al (1993) found enrichment programmes (headstart) reduced the level of delinquency and criminal activities in adolescence.
69The negative effectsBelsky and Rovine (1988) state children were more insecurely attached if they were at day care for more that 20hrs per week.National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)found that children who spent morethat 10hrs per week in day carewere more aggressive at school.
70Assessing the effects of day care There are many factors influencing achild’s social developmentDifferent temperamentsPennebaker et al (1981) found that shy children do not gain as much from day care as they are scared.Egeland and Hiester (1995) discovered that securely attached children lost out at day care while insecurely attached children did better.
71Assessing the effects of day care Different attachment experiencesTime: how can you compare children who start attending day care at different ages. Another factor is how long they spend there each day.Quality: Campbell et al showed that quality affects the child’s experience of the setting.Different kinds of day care facilitiesNursery versus relatives: Melhuish et al (1991) compared 255 women at work who used day care. The mothers developed different attitudes to maternal care showing a qualitative difference in the family dynamic.
72Cognitive Development Cognitive development: growth of a child’s mental abilities.Secure base forexplorationAttachment leads to security.Children need to feel securebefore they explore their environment.Hazen and Durret (1982): Secure children more innovative and better at problem-solving.
73Stimulation Stimulation is necessary for cognitive development Greenough et al (1987) found that rats in an enriched environment had larger brains with more neuron activities.Bryant et al (1980) discovered that childminders rewarded quiet behaviour while day care centres provided more stimulating environment.
74Positive effects of Day Care Campbell et al (2001) discovered children scored high on maths and reading tests if they had attended a good quality day care centre (i.e. It was a stimulating environment)Anderson (1992) foundthat Swedish children whoattended day care before 1,were top of the class at ages 8 – 13. Those at the bottom had not attended day care before school.
75National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Good care: Interactionand vocal responsivenessfrom adults.Higher quality of care in first 3 yearsChild’s language at 15, 24, & 36 months is betterChild’s scores on Bayley Scales of Infant development are higher.
76Negative effects of Day Care Ruhm (2000) discovered that children who wentto day care before the age of three had lowerreading and maths skillsRussell ( 1999) did a meta-analysisresearch on over 100 studiesconducted between 1957 – 1995stated that day care had a negativeeffect on cognitive development.