Presentation on theme: "Acids, Bases, and Solutions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Acids, Bases, and Solutions Chapter 7—Mr. KennedyAcids, Bases, and Solutions
2 Understanding Solutions What is a solution?Solution-well-mixed mixture containing a solvent and at least one solute that has the same properties throughoutComposed of two partsSolvent and SoluteSolute-Part of solution present in a lesser amount and dissolved by solventSolvent-Part of a solution that is present in the largest amount and dissolves solute
3 Understanding Solutions What is a Solution?Solute particles are too small to seeSolutions in WaterWater is the universal solventWater dissolves solutes in the body which allows nutrients to move throughout the bodySolutions without WaterAirAntifreezeOcean Water
4 Understanding Solutions Colloids and SuspensionsColloid-mixture containing small, undissolved particles that do not settle outColloids contain larger particles than a solutionParticles are still large enough to scatter lightSuspension-mixture in which particles can be seen easily and separated by settlingDo not have same properties through outVisible particles that are larger that particles in solution and colloids
5 Understanding Solutions Effects of Solutes on SolventsSolutes lower the freezing point and higher boiling point of a solventThe particles of solutes prevents the solvent particles from freezing and boiling.ExamplesAntifreezeSalt water-Fresh Water
6 Concentration and Solubility Dilute Solution-mixture that has only a little solute dissolved in itTree SapConcentrated Solution-mixture that has a lot of solute dissolved in itSyrup
7 Concentration and Solubility Changing ConcentrationChanging the amount of solute changes the concentration of a mixtureMeasuring ConcentrationComparison of amount of solute to the amount of solvent or the total amount of solution
8 Concentration and Solubility Solubility-measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperatureSaturated Solution-mixture that contains as much dissolved solute as is possible at a given temperatureUnsaturated Solution-mixture that contains less dissolved solute than is possible at a given temperature
9 Concentration and Solubility Factors Affecting SolubilityPressureType of SolventTemperature
10 Concentration and Solubility Factors Affecting SolubilityPressureMore gas can be dissolved into a solvent if there is a higher pressure on the gasExampleCarbonated DrinksScuba Divers
11 Concentration and Solubility Factors Affecting SolubilitySolventsSome solvents and solutes are not capable of mixingExampleOil and WaterPolar and Nonpolar SubstanceWater-based PaintOil-based Paint
12 Concentration and Solubility Factors Affecting SolubilityTemperatureChanging the temperature of a solution can cause the solubility to changeAs temperature change:Increase temperature results in an increase of solubilityDecrease temperature results in a decrease of solubilityExampleSugar WaterSupersaturated solution-mixture that has more dissolved solute than is predicted by it solubility at a given temperature.
13 Describing Acids and Bases Properties of AcidsAcid-substance that taste sour, reacts with metals and carbonates, and turns blue litmus redSour Taste/TartCherriesTomatoesApplesReactions with MetalsCorrosive-way in which acids reacts with some metals so as to eat away the metal
14 Describing Acids and Bases Properties of AcidsReactions with CarbonatesCarbonates contain oxygen and carbonReleases carbon dioxideExampleLimestoneReactions with IndicatorsIndicator-compound that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base
15 Describing Acids and Bases Properties of BasesBase-substance that tastes bitter, feels slippery, and turn red litmus paper blueBitter tasteSoapShampooDetergentsSlippery feelStrong bases can irritate/burn you skinReactions with indicatorsLitmus paper turns blue-base
16 Describing Acids and Bases Properties of BasesOther reactions of basesBases do not react with carbonatesUses of AcidsCommon uses for acid and bases?
17 Acids and Bases in Solution Acids-any substance that produces hydrogen in waterHydrogen ion (H+)-atom of hydrogen that has lost its electronBases-any substance that produces hydroxide ions in waterHydroxide ion-negative ion of oxygen and hydrogen
18 Acids and Bases in Solutions Strength of Acids and BasesMeasuring pHpH scale-range of values used to expressed the concentration of hydrogen ions in solutionLow pH-high concentration of hydrogen ionsHigh pH-high concentration of hydroxide ionsPure Water has pH of 7.Using Acids and Bases Safely
19 Acid-Base Reactions Acid-Base Reactions Neutralization-reaction of an acid with a base, yielding a solution that is not as acidic or basic as a starting solution wereReactantsAmount of neutralization depends on the amount of starting reactantProductSalt-ionic compound that can be made from the neutralization of an acid with a baseIn a neutralization reaction, the products of the acid and base are a salt and water.