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The Very Large Telescope Interferometer EuroSummer School Astrometry and Imaging with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer Keszthely, Hungary June.

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Presentation on theme: "The Very Large Telescope Interferometer EuroSummer School Astrometry and Imaging with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer Keszthely, Hungary June."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Very Large Telescope Interferometer EuroSummer School Astrometry and Imaging with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer Keszthely, Hungary June 02-13, 2008 Markus Schöller European Southern Observatory June 05, 2008

3 VLTI EuroSummer School 2June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI ESO - The European Southern Observatory European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere

4 VLTI EuroSummer School 3June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI A brief history of VLTI 1980s - Interferometry integral part of the VLT project, early linear array design for UTs goes to trapezium structure Early 1990s - engineering of the general layout council stalls the VLTI, infrastructure implementation (light ducts, tunnel, lab) continues MPG/CNRS/ESO tri-partite agreement for third AT MIDI and AMBER proposed by community contracts for ATs and Delay Lines awarded, MIDI and AMBER instruments started start of implementation on Paranal (siderostats and delay lines) March first fringes with VINCI on siderostats

5 VLTI EuroSummer School 4June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI VLTI Four 8.2m telescopes (UTs) All equipped with AO (MACAO) Six Baselines 47m-130m Four 1.8m telescopes (ATs) Movable to 30 stations Baselines 8m-202m Six delay lines PRIMA dual feed facility IRIS lab tip/tilt tracker FINITO fringe tracker MIDI/AMBER/VINCI

6 VLTI EuroSummer School 5June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI Status All UTs operational with full AO, all six baselines and all four baseline closures used for science AT1-4 in operations on four baseline triples 4 Delay Lines in operations for UTs, 3 Delay Lines for ATs (all 6 with VCM) MIDI offered since April 2004 on UTs and October 2005 on ATs AMBER offered on UTs since October 2005 and ATs since April 2007 ~50% of nights used for VLTI science operations Five operations astronomers, three fellows, numerous TIOs to run VLTI 90+ refereed papers

7 VLTI EuroSummer School 6June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI Some acronyms OPL - optical path length OPD - optical path difference ZOPD - zero optical path difference UT - Unit Telescope (8.2m) AT - Auxiliary Telescope (1.8m) MACAO - Multi Application Curvature Adaptive Optics STRAP - System for Tip-tilt Removal with Avalanche Photo diodes VINCI - VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument AMBER - Astronomical Multiple BEam Recombiner MIDI - MID Infrared interferometric instrument FINITO - Fringe sensing Instrument NIce TOrino IRIS - InfraRed Image Sensor ISS - Interferometer Supervisor Software VCM - Variable Curvature Mirror

8 VLTI EuroSummer School 7June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI VLTI Scheme - Subsystems

9 VLTI EuroSummer School 8June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI The VLTI Telescopes

10 VLTI EuroSummer School 9June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI Delay Lines

11 VLTI EuroSummer School 10June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI The interferometric laboratory IRIS FINITO

12 VLTI EuroSummer School 11June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI MIDI in the VLTI lab

13 VLTI EuroSummer School 12June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI AMBER in the VLTI Lab

14 VLTI EuroSummer School 13June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI VLTI Science Instrumentation Bands # telescopes spectral resolution limiting magnitude (UTs/ATs) AMBERJ,H,K3 35, 1500, 12,000 7,4,1.5/ 5.1,1.6,- MIDI N 230, (1Jy), 2.8/ 0.7,0.3

15 VLTI EuroSummer School 14June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI VLTI Scheme - Constraints

16 VLTI EuroSummer School 15June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI Restrictions

17 VLTI EuroSummer School 16June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI DL restrictions on UT1/4

18 VLTI EuroSummer School 17June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI DL restriction on ATs

19 VLTI EuroSummer School 18June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI VLTI Scheme - How does it work?

20 VLTI EuroSummer School 19June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI What does the VLTI infrastructure do? Put the light in the one place at the one time. –Inject the image plane into the lab –Make the pupils coincide –OPD variations should only be atmospheric or their residuals

21 VLTI EuroSummer School 20June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI How does VLTI do it? Each UT has a MACAO system that concentrates the bulk of the photons within the Airy ring. The beam is propagated via the relay optics to the delay lines The delay lines correct in open loop geometric OPD (telescope and star locations) The VCMs on the delay lines move the pupil in the axial direction. IRIS corrects for drifts in the conjugation between the MACAO reference and the lab reference FINITO corrects for atmospheric OPD variations through the delay lines

22 VLTI EuroSummer School 21June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI VLTI Scheme - Issues

23 VLTI EuroSummer School 22June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI The stable beam challenge on the UTs MACAO although meeting specs for long term Strehl performance did suffer from saturation of the mirror creating PSF explosions and flux dropouts. Long and frequent flux Dropouts are FINITO killers. The ITF developed the SMA (saturation management) and AW (anti-windup) algorithms and deployed them in the RTC of MACAO –SMA manages the expensive aberrations without loss of Strehl.

24 VLTI EuroSummer School 23June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI Beam injection Beacon from Nasmyth A to IRIS

25 VLTI EuroSummer School 24June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI Beam injection Star to IRIS

26 VLTI EuroSummer School 25June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI VCMs Without the VCMs functioning the field of view of the ATs is limited to about an arcsecond (approx the diffraction limit of a 1.8-m telescope at 10 microns). J moon in IRIS Fwhm = 7.6 arcsec AT2 pupil on ARAL through DL6

27 VLTI EuroSummer School 26June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI AT field of view on MIDI

28 VLTI EuroSummer School 27June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI Delay Lines : DELIRIUM Two 2D capacitive sensors (+water pods for earth horizon referencing) One inclinometer for roll measurement Metrology (laser or coarse) Complete trajectory reconstruction Aim: 7 m accuracy over 60m

29 VLTI EuroSummer School 28June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI DL rail drift DL6 was aligned in Dec 2004 (summer time) DL6, June 10th, before alignment DL6, June 17th, after alignment DL6, Aug 2nd, after 6 wks and T drop of 2degC in tunnel DL5, Aug 5th, before alignment Concrete junctions Missing coils

30 VLTI EuroSummer School 29June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI Stabilized fringes on MIDI (Sep 06) - Running from template

31 VLTI EuroSummer School 30June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI

32 VLTI EuroSummer School 31June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI Nov 06

33 VLTI EuroSummer School 32June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI Jan 07 AMBER MRK

34 VLTI EuroSummer School 33June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI Apr 2007

35 VLTI EuroSummer School 34June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI AMBER visibilities improved by FINITO

36 VLTI EuroSummer School 35June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI FINITO performance

37 VLTI EuroSummer School 36June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI VLTI Science Instrumentation Bands # telescopes spectral resolution limiting magnitude (UTs/ATs/ UTs+FINITO/ ATs+FINITO) AMBERJ,H,K3 35, 1500, 12,000 7,4,1.5/ 5.1,1.6,-/ 7,7,6/ 5,5,5 MIDI N 230, (1Jy), 2.8/ 0.7,0.3

38 VLTI EuroSummer School 37June 05, 2008 Markus Schöller -- VLTI Further prospects Installation of PRIMA in July/August 2008 Installation of PRIMA in July/August nd gen instruments (MATISSE and Gravity) kicking off in nd gen instruments (MATISSE and Gravity) kicking off in 2008


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