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Academic Skills Workshop Joel Haefner, Writing Center Director.

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1 Academic Skills Workshop Joel Haefner, Writing Center Director

2 Does the assignment explicitly require a certain number of sources? Does the assignment imply or encourage sources? Use sources to discover your topic and sharpen your thesis statementespecially texts youve read in class Use the Library of Congress classification system or Subject Terms or Related Terms

3 Google vs. Megasearch: anything goes sources vs. peer-reviewed sources Google scholar What are subscribed databases? Some of the major databases: PsychInfo (psychology) JSTOR MLA Bibliography (English & Languages) ScienceDirect (natural sciences) Lexis/Nexis

4 Use targeted keywords and filters to narrow results Use subject list on citation page to look for further sources Use citations and references in books and articles to find more sources Request books through I-Share or WorldCat Request articles through Illiad Consult the liaison librarian

5 Analyze the abstract Look at date of publication Look at publisher; search Internet for more info Are there citations? Credentials of author Domain:.edu,.gov are the most credible How biased are the sources used, how slanted is the language, does it match with other sources youve found?

6 Peer-reviewed sources Popular sources Trade sources Government sources Personal web pages Advocacy organization web pages

7 Use RefWorks to build a permanent collection of citations (including abstracts) Use the Cite link on the right of the citation screen to get a citation in the style (MLA, APA, Chicago, etc.) you want, then paste it at the bottom of your file Use Add to folder link on right of citation screen to store citations in your personal folder

8 I, Rigoberta Menchú is a memoir (testimonio) by an indigenous Indian woman recounting the horrors of the Guatemalan civil war. Several episodes in the book have been attacked by anthropologist David Stoll as false or inaccurate. The assignment asks students to recommend whether the book should be admitted as evidence for the Guatemalan Commission for Historical Clarification, and to give reasons for that recommendation.

9 Sources: the assignment requires four sources besides the testimonio. Of those four, two must be peer-reviewed. Texts read in class can be used in the paper. An annotated bibliography is also expected.

10 Testimonios have a political purpose Testimonios tell the story of a whole people, not just one person This text is a unique eyewitness or at least first- hand account Objections to Menchus text may be erroneous or also politically motivated The goal of the Truth Commission is to expose the civil war atrocities

11 Thesis: Testimonios have political purposes, and they are collective stories; Menchú had specific intentions in writing her stories and there were not many other stories like hers; her most famous critic David Stoll has been questioned on his own intentions in his investigation and especially when some of his objections to Menchús story are fairly trivial. For these reason Menchús story can still fundamentally serve a purpose towards the goal of the Truth Commission..

12 Whats wrong with primary and secondary sources? Doesnt work for all disciplines Helps researchers, but not writers We need a way of talking about how writers USE sources Joe Bizups classification of rhetorical sources: BEAM

13 B -- grounding facts, background sources E -- Evidence or exhibit sources. A source which the writer explains, analyzes, or interprets; the subject or focus of a paper A -- Argument sources. A source which a writer uses to affirm, challenge, refine or extend one of the writers own claims; support for a claim. M -- Method sources. Sources which the writer includes to explain his/her method or theory.

14 Testimonios have a political purpose Testimonios tell the story of a whole people, not just one person This text is a unique eyewitness or at least first- hand account Objections to Menchus text may be erroneous or also politically motivated The goal of the Truth Commission is to expose the civil war atrocities

15 Walford, Lynn. "Truth, Lies, And Politics In The Debate Over Testimonial Writing: The Cases Of Rigoberta Menchú And Binjamin Wilkomirski." Menchu, Rigoberta. I, Rigoberta Menchu: An Indian Woman in Guatemala Report of the Commission for Historical Clarification. Guatemala Memory of Silence. Clark, John A. "The Problem of Truth in Educational Research: The Case of the Rigoberta Menchu Controversy. Rudd, Bernard. Questions about Stolls methods and intentions in attacking Menchus credibility.

16 Using the BEAM system, what makes sense? Background material: usually, paraphrasing is best. Evidence: direct quotation is essential. It shows youre really examining the text which is the focus of your paper. Argument: if your source directly supports your claim, and if you can crop out a strong passage, quote; otherwise, paraphrase and cite. Method: In Humanities papers, we probably dont need details about methodology, but not true in science/social science papers. More paraphrase than quotation.

17 How quote, paraphrase or summary connects to your argument Who is speakingsource or you Translate/explain the source in the context of your thesis Suggest the credibility of your source Make the quotation or summary fit your prose correctly and smoothly

18 [Stoll] and others have challenged the accuracy of [Menchus account]. A number of sociologists have suggested that [Menchus book] has serious contradictions. Conventional wisdom says that [autobiographies] should be [absolutely accurate]. Most people believe that [we should be able to verify the information presented in memoirs].

19 One implication of [Stolls criticism ]is the expectation that [actions during war will be reliable documented]. [Stoll] apparently assumes [that Menchu was writing within the Western tradition of autobiography]. Supporters of [Menchu ]rarely admit [that she had political reasons for distorting her story and including those of others].

20 In discussions of ***, one issue has been ******. On the one hand, *** argues ***. On the other hand, *** contends ****. Other experts even maintain ****. My own view is ****. Menchus inaccuracies have been interpreted variously. On the one hand, supports argue that she is telling a collective story. On the other hand, critics contend that she is lying for political purposes. Others deny that there are inaccuracies.

21 Including what others have written is a great way to get new ideas and to sharpen your own ideas. It also shows that youve done your homeworkyou know what others have written about the topic; you are an expert.

22 A good summary brings other viewpoints into your argument A good summary balances what other authors say with your own focus/argument. Youre ethically obliged to be accurate, but you can shape and trim a summary for your argumentative purposes.

23 To make a claim : argue, assert, believe, claim, insist, observe, report, suggest, affirm To express agreement : acknowledge, agree, praise, extol, endorse, confirm, verify, support To question or disagree : complain, contend, challenge, question, refute, reject, deny, contradict, repudiate To recommend or call for action : advocate, call for, demand, exhort, urge, warn, recommend

24 [Stoll] states, [many of the episodes Menchu describes cannot be verified]. As [Arturo Arias] puts it, [ Menchu is working in a native genre.] According to [Stoll], **** In her text, [Menchu] writes that **** [Stoll] disagrees with [Menchu] when she writes ***

25 In other words, [Stoll] believes that [Menchu was intentionally distorting events]. [Stolls ]point is that *** Basically, [Stoll] is claiming here that *** The essence of [Stolls] argument here is that *** In writing this, [Stoll] is suggesting that ***

26 The lead-in to the quote is where you make the argumentative link clear: does the quote agree with your previous claim? Does it contradict your claim which you then intend to rebut? The lead-in should also establish the credentials of the source. The exit from the quote is where you restate what the quote said, shaped in a way that directly connects with your argument.

27 [Stoll] is mistaken about [Menchus veracity] because *** By focusing on [Menchus family], [Stoll] overlooks [the integration of family and community in Guatemala]. [Stolls] claim that [Menchu lied] is based on the questionable assumption that ***

28 [Stolls] methodology is extremely useful because it sheds light on *** I agree with [Arias] in his defense of [Menchu} [Stoll] agrees with this claim. [Stoll] is surely right about [Menchus dissembling about her lack of education.] [Ariass] remarks about the [nature of Latin American testimonio are irrefutable.

29 Though I concede that [Stoll] is correct about many events, ] I still believe that [Menchus testimonio conveys the indigenous Indians sufferings.] [Stoll] is right about [inaccuracies in the text, ]but he seems on more dubious grounds when he claims that ***. While [Menchus ]argument that [her translator made factual errors is probably wrong,] nevertheless [the narrative of the civil war on the whole is accurate.]

30 The easiest way to mark your voice is to use I but some instructors may prohibit this. I contend, on the other hand, that *** My own view is that *** Although *** argues that ***, I am not persuaded.

31 When you cant use I: The evidence shows that *** [Stolls] assertion that [Menchu lied] is supported by[ the facts and documents.] Everyone can agree that *** [Stoll] is correct is calling attention to [the lapses and inaccuracies in Menchus text.]

32 Yet some critics disagree with this claim. Of course, some readers may challenge this assertion. [Conservatives] will contest any defense of [Menchus memoir] because of [her political beliefs]. Although not all [educators] think alike, some of them will probably dispute [the wisdom of teaching Menchus text] While it is true that [Menchus text is inaccurate], it does not follow that [it should be excluded from the Truth Commissions evidence.]

33 This position challenges [the beliefs of many readers who think all autobiography is factual.] Recent studies like [Stolls] has focused new attention on [the testimonio genre], which critics have not previously analyzed. [Readers] used to believe [all memoirs were grounded in reality.] But recent criticism has emphasized [autobiographys fictional and cultural elements.] This interpretation has important implications for ***

34 It is the responsibility of the Guatemalan Commission for Historical Clarification to document the happenings during the thirty- six-year war Civil War including events, dates, people, deaths, and so on. The Commission for Historical Clarification (CEH) was established…in order to clarify with objectivity, equity and impartiality, the human rights violations and acts of violence connected with the armed confrontation that caused suffering among the Guatemalan people (Tomuschat, Cotí, Tojo 8).

35 It is the responsibility of the Guatemalan Commission for Historical Clarification to document the events, dates, people, and deaths during the thirty-six-year war Civil War including, and so on. The final report of the Commission reports its mission was to The Commission for Historical Clarification (CEH) was established…in order to clarify with objectivity, equity and impartiality, the human rights violations and acts of violence connected with the armed confrontation that caused suffering among the Guatemalan people (Tomuschat, Cotí, Tojo 8).

36 Testimonio although very much associated with taking a political standpoint is also associated with the logic of collective political action (Arias, 76) Menchú and her people had the same ideas. They were fighting for the ultimate goal of ending the war.

37 Testimonio, the genre Menchu was writing in, although very much associated with taking a political standpoint is also associated with the logic of collective political action, as literary scholar Arturo Arias claims (Arias, 76). In other words, a testimonio is the story of a whole peoples political efforts. Menchú and her people had the same ideas. They were fighting for the ultimate goal of ending the war.

38 Critics who believe she may have fabricated some of her story must therefore understand that parts of it were experiences that came from her people as well, not just her.

39 Critics, like David Stoll, believe she may have fabricated some of her story: Menchu, Stoll charges, described events which did not happen, according to records, involving people who were not there (23). But these critics must therefore understand that parts of it were experiences that came from her people as well, not just her, and that testimonios have political goals.

40 Use sources to find a topic, narrow a topic, help you hammer out an outline or thesis Use a variety of search tools Evaluate the credibility of your sources What type of source do you need for different points? (Background, Evidence, Argument, Methodology?) Use cue words and templates to indicate how sources relate to your argument


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