Presentation on theme: "Case-Control Study of Risk factors associated with H7N9 virus infections (89 cases, 340 controls)"— Presentation transcript:
Case-Control Study of Risk factors associated with H7N9 virus infections (89 cases, 340 controls)
Transmission route of H7N9 virus: avian to human 70% of cases had contact with poultry or related environment before illness onset Viruses isolated from human cases shared high homology with the viruses isolated from live market with epidemiological link Ecological analysis on the virus in environment and virus in human: the probable virus transmission route of H7N9 virus is wholesale live marketretail live market human Chen Y, Liang W, Yang S, et al. Lancet,2013,381(9881):1916-1925. Bao C J, Cui L B, Zhou M H, et al. N Engl J Med,2013,368(24):2337-2339.
Poultry: Probable Source of H7N9 Virus Infection Probable animal reservoir chicken, duck, pigeon Pig: tested negative (-) ProvincechickenduckpigeonenvironmentTotal Shanghai1003720 Jiangsu1102013 Zhejiang820010 Anhui01001 Henan00022 Shandong00033 Jiangxi10001 Guangdong10001 Fujian00011 Total31351352 Data Source: Animals H7N9 surveillance results released by MOA
Gao H N, et al. N Engl J Med,2013,368(24):2277-2285. Whole blood cells testing: leucocytopenia (46%), lymphocytopenia (88%), thrombocytopenia (73%) Blood biochemistry testing: D-dimer(90%), LDH(82%), C-reactive protein(73%) AST(66%) myoglobin(55%) Chest X-ray more than half cases have bilateral pneumonia (54%), bilateral ground-glass opacities and consolidation were the most common radiologic findings Main clinical features of human H7N9 cases N=111 hemoptysis
Underlying medical conditions and complications N=111 Gao H N, et al. N Engl J Med,2013,368(24):2277-2285.
Cowling BJ, Jin L, Lau EH, et al. Lancet. 2013 Jul 13;382(9887):129-37. Comparison Epidemiology of Human Infection with H7N9 and H5N1 Viruses in Mainland China
A: Mean incubation period of H7N9 and H5N1 is 3.1 and 3.3 days B: Time interval from onset to hospitalization for H7N9 and H5N1 cases is similar C: Median onset to laboratory confirmation delay is shorter for H7N9 virus (due to the improved lab diagnosis capacity D: Median time from hospital admission to death for H7N9 cases is longer (improved treatment capacity E: Median time from hospital admission to discharge for H7N9 cases is longer Comparison of incubation period, illness onset to admission, illness onset to laboratory confirmation, hospital admission to death, and hospital admission to discharge between H7N9 and H5N1 Cowling BJ, Jin L, Lau EH, et al. Lancet. 2013 Jul 13;382(9887):129-37.
Prevention and control measures For provinces with case reported, or virus detected from animal or environment samples – Close the live poultry market – Limit the cross-provincial poultry movement – Poultry slaughter: once confirmed with positive H7N9 virus infection in poultry by MOA Health education: hand washing, behavior change for poultry consumption and processing 8
Possibility of H7N9 outbreak in future H7N9 virus is low pathogenic in poultry – difficult to timely detect the outbreak and effectively prevent the transmission in poultry – Human case occurred in Hebei and Guangdong in July and in Zhejiang in October, indicating that the virus remains circulation in poultry If H7N9 has similar seasonality with other avian flu – Low virus activity in hot season, but in the coming winter and spring, virus circulation in poultry may be increasingly active – If poultry exposure behavior of population do not change, H7N9 outbreaks in human will likely occur again
The next steps for prevention and control Continue to enhance epidemiology and virology surveillance – timely detect the signal of changing avian-human or human-human transmission extent of H7N9 virus, – monitor and assess the risk of human to human transmission – Assess aerosol and other environmental routes of transmission in markets and on farms and how to reduce risk of environmental exposure to virus – evaluate the disease severity and risk factors for infection, illness and severity, monitor the change of antiviral resistance Improve the lab diagnosis capacity for human infection with avian influenza in health-care facilities Enhance surveillance and control on virus transmission among poultry – Improve the model of poultry farming, establish long-term mechanism for controlling of virus transmission among poultry including environmental spread – Forbid selling and slaughter of live poultry in wet markets at big cities in China gradually – Poultry slaughter in designated place – Implement regular-break and strict hygiene control measures in live poultry market if live poultry market closing is not applicable