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SEFM 2010, 15/09/201011 Timed data-centric analysis of graphical business process models in Reo Natallia Kokash and Christian Krause Centrum Wiskunde &

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Presentation on theme: "SEFM 2010, 15/09/201011 Timed data-centric analysis of graphical business process models in Reo Natallia Kokash and Christian Krause Centrum Wiskunde &"— Presentation transcript:

1 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201011 Timed data-centric analysis of graphical business process models in Reo Natallia Kokash and Christian Krause Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) Erik de Vink, TU Eindhoven The Netherlands

2 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201022 Overview Channel-based coordination language Reo Graphical notation, semantic models Formalization of business process models with Reo mCRL2 specification language and model checking toolset Translation from Reo to mCRL2 Basic mapping Compositional translation Data and time support Abstraction Tool support Example – Auction process Related work Conclusions and future work

3 SEFM 2010, 15/09/20103 Motivation: analysis of business processes Goal: automatically analyze workflow models Safety properties Something bad will not happen Liveness properties Something good will eventually happen Control flow analysis Deadlocks/livelocks/temporal constraints in data-agnostic models Data flow analysis Deadlocks/livelocks/temporal constraints in data-aware models (with m ultiple variables, abstract data types and data manipulation) Service compatibility checking 3

4 SEFM 2010, 15/09/20104 Channel-based coordination with Reo Channels are binary components that define constraints on input and output data items Channel ends (ports) can be both source ends or both sink ends Channel ends can be joint together and form source, sink or mixed nodes Source nodes behave like synchronous replicators Sink nodes behave like non-deterministic mergers

5 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201055 Formalization of business process models with Reo Arbab, F., N. Kokash and M. Sun, Towards using Reo for Compliance-aware Business Process, ISoLA 2008 (2008), pp. 108–123. Tasharo, S., M. Vakilian, R. Z. Moghaddam and M. Sirjani, Modeling web service interactions using the coordination language Reo, Proc. of the Int. Workshop on Web Services and Formal Methods, LNCS 4937 (2008), pp. 108–123. Changizi, B., Kokash, N., Arbab, F.: A Unified Toolset for Business Process Model Formalization, proc of the Int. Workshop on Formal Engineering approaches to Software Components and Architectures (FESCA), 2010.

6 SEFM 2010, 15/09/20106 Semantic models for Reo Basic model Constraint automata (Baier, C., Sirjani, M., Arbab, F., Rutten, J.: Modeling Component Connectors in Reo by Constraint Automata. Science of Computer Programming 61 (2006) 75–113) Reo with context dependent channels Coloring semantics (Clarke, D., Costa, D., Arbab, F.: Connector coloring I: Synchronization and context dependency. Science of Computer Programming 66 (2007) 205–225) Intentional automata (Costa, D.: Formal Models for Context Dependent Connectors for Distributed Software Components and Services. PhD thesis, CWI (2010)) Reo automata (Bonsangue, M., Clarke, D., Silva, A.: Automata for context- dependent connectors. In: Proc. Coordination 09. Volume 5521 of LNCS., Springer (2009) 184–203) Reo with timed channels Timed constraint automata (Arbab, F., Baier, C., de Boer, F., Rutten, J.: Models and temporal logical specications for timed component connectors. Software and Systems Modeling 6(1) (2007) 59–82) Reo with probabilistic channels Probabilistic constraint automata (Baier, C.: Probabilistic models for Reo connector circuits. Journal of Universal Computer Science 11(10) (2005) 1718– 1748)

7 SEFM 2010, 15/09/20107 Constraint automata semantics for basic Reo channels and nodes

8 SEFM 2010, 15/09/20108 (Timed) constraint automata A constraint automaton

9 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201099 mCRL2 Behavioral specification language Associated toolset Developed at TU Eindhoven (+ LaQuSo, CWI and Twente University) Based on the algebra of communicating processes (ACP) Extended with data and time Built-in data types: Bool, Nat, Pos, Int, Real Algebraic data types constructors, recognition and projection functions Built-in support for lists, sets and bags User-defined functions (λ calculus) Number of industrial case studies

10 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201010 mCRL2 specification language Actions are atomic events (e.g. a firing of a port or a request arrival in a Reo connector) Processes are the active entities defined as expressions over actions and other processes Multiaction: a|b (synchronized actions) Alternative composition: a + b (nondeterministic choice) Sequence composition: a.b (b started after a) Conditional: exp a b (if-then-else) At operator: a c t (action a happens at time t) Parallel composition: a||b (interleavings a.b + b.a + a|b) Actions and processes can be parametrized with data Summation: d D a(d) (a(d 1 ) + a(d 2 ) + a(d 3 )…)

11 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201011 mCRL2 specification language Renaming: ρ R (a) where R is a set of renamings of the form b c, meaning that every occurrence of b in a is replaced by c Hiding: τ H (a) renames all actions of H in a to τ Restriction (allow): R (a) where R specifies which actions are allowed to occur in a Blocking: B (a) where B is a set of actions that is not allowed to occur in a Communication: Γ C (p), where C is a set of allowed communications of the form a 0 |...|a n c, n 1 which means that every group of actions a 0 |...|a n within a multiaction is replaced by an action c

12 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201012 Reo to mCRL2 (Constraint automata semantics) Data flow observed at a channel end = action Synchronous channel, synchronous drain Sync = A|B.Sync; Non-deterministic synchronous lossy channel LossySync = (A|B + A).LossySync; Asynchronous drain AsyncDrain = (A + B).AsyncDrain; FIFO Fifo = A.B.Fifo; FullFifo = B.Fifo; Alternative encoding: Fifo(f: Bool) = (¬f A B).Fifo(¬f); Replication node ReplicationNode = X|Y|Z.ReplicationNode; Merge node MergeNode = (X|Z + Y|Z).MergeNode;

13 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201013 1.P 0 = ends of connected channels (Γ handshaking at Node1 (Node 1 || Sync 1 || LossySync 1 || LossySync 2 || SyncDrain 1 )) 2.P 1 = ends of connected channels (Γ handshaking at Node2 (Node2 || Sync 2 || Sync 3 || P 0 )) 3.P 2 = ends of connected channels (Γ handshaking at Node3 (Node3 || Sync 4 || P 1 )) 4.P 3 = ends of connected channels (Γ handshaking at Node4 (Node4 || Sync 5 || P 2 )) 13 Channel composition Reduce the size of the state space while building the LTS for the mCRL2 specification of a Reo connector by Iterated connector construction A A B D A B A B C D A BCDA B|C E D Synchronize and hide actions corresponding to the connected channels

14 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201014 Correctness of the mapping N. Kokash, C. Krause, and E. de Vink, Verication of context-dependent channel-based service models, in Proc. FMCO 2009, ser. LNCS. Springer, 2010.

15 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201015 Reo to mCRL2: Data support act A, B: Data Sync = d Data. A(d)|B(d). Sync; SyncDrain = d1,d2 Data. A(d 1 )|B(d 2 ). SyncDrain; LossySync = d Data. (A(d)|B(d) + A(d)). LossySync; AsyncDrain = d Data. (A(d) + B(d)). AsyncDrain; Filter = sum d Data. (exp(d) A(d)|B(d) A(d)). Filter, where exp(d) is a boolean expression Transformer = d Data. A(d)|B(exp(d)). Transformer; ReplicationNode = d Data. X(d)|Y(d)|Z(d). ReplicationNode; MergeNode = d Data. (X(d)|Z(d) + Y(d)|Z(d)). MergeNode; FIFO DataFIFO = struct empty?isEmpty | full(e:Data)?isFull; Fifo(f: DataFIFO) = d Data isEmpty(f)A(d).Fifo(full(d)) B(e(f)).Fifo(empty))

16 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201016 Reo to mCRL2: Global data types A connector should deal with any data items consumed by its source nodes Given a set of elementary data types DT 1,…,DT n (e.g., inferred from web service interface specifications), the global data type is described as follows: Data = struct D 1 (e 1 : DT 1 )|…|D n (e 1 : DTn) JoinNode = d1,d2 Data. (X(d 1 )|Y(d 2 )|Z(tuple(d 1, d 2 )).JoinNode; For m-join node tuple(e 1 : Data, e 2 : Data,…, e m : Data) is added to the Data description, e.g., Data = struct D 1 (e 1 : DT 1 )|…|D n (e 1 : DT n ) |tuple(e 1 : Data, e 2 : Data) Note: expressions for filter and transformer channels become dependent on the structure of the Reo connector

17 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201017 Reo to mCRL2: time support T-timer with off- and reset- options Reacts differently to different data inputs: DataTimer = struct reset?isReset | off?isOff | timeout | other(e: Data)?isOther Has two states State = struct OFF?isOFF | ON?isON State s (timer ON or OFF), current time x, timer delay t Timer(s: State, x: Real, t: Real ) = isOFF(s) d DataTimer isOther(d)A(d).Timer(ON, 0, t) + isON (s) ((x < t) d DataTimer isReset(d) A(d).Timer(ON, 0, t) + isOff (d) A(d).Timer(OFF, x, t) + tick c x.Timer(ON, x + 1, t)) B(timeout).Timer(OFF, x, t)

18 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201018 Abstraction

19 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201019 Case study: auction process with data transformation

20 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201020 Tool support

21 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201021 LTS and examples of control flow and timed properties

22 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201022 LTS and examples of data flow properties Input constraints:

23 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201023 Comparison of model checking tools for Reo Vereofy (University of Dresden) Developed specifically for Reo and Constraint Automata Dedicated property specification format Counterexamples No support for abstract data types Global domain for all components Primitive data constraint specification language (for filter channels) mCRL2 toolset Powerful support for data Rich property specification format (μ calculus) Hard to extract counterexamples Inability to define some useful data domains Performance depends on the structure of the program CADP toolset (INRIA) Compatible with the generated mCRL2 code (.lps.aut) Efficient model checking + other useful functionality (e.g., model- based testing, performance evaluation, advanced action sequence search) License

24 SEFM 2010, 15/09/201024 Conclusions and future work Model checking for Reo Control + data flow analysis with abstract data types Automated generation of mCRL2 code from graphical models Useful toolset for business process and service composition analysis Good alternative to Petri nets Better fits service-oriented computing paradigm Compositional modeling and analysis Future work Extend the mCRL2 property specification language with some missing but useful features: The ability to check that some action occurs as part of a multi-action The ability to refer to the system states by combination of data values stored in FIFO buffers.

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