3CLIMATE CHANGEClimate Change refers to any change in climate over time whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity or changing levels of Green House Gases (GHGs).It describes the short and long term effects on the earth’s climate as a result of human activities such as fossil fuel combustion and vegetation clearing and burning.It is also now referred to as GLOBAL WARMING.
4Causes of Climate Change Wanton utilization of fossil fuelsDeforestation
5Effects of Climate Change Pollution of water, air and soilPolar ice caps meltingNegative economic consequencesIncreased extreme weather conditionsSpread of diseasesLandscape changesAdverse effects on agriculture and food supply
6Solutions 1. Re-greening with trees and bamboo Bamboo is more recommended, however, considering its natural characteristics as follows:- Bamboo absorbs 35% more carbon dioxide compared to trees. It also emits 35% more oxygen. Even in finished products form, it will not release its C02 contents for decades.- It is much more sustainable and easier to plant. Even when burned, it will just grow back unlike trees.- Its maximum maturity period is only 5 years while the minimum time for trees to mature on the average is 10 years.
72. Use of clean & sustainable fuel. substitutes. Fossil Fuels vs 2 . Use of clean & sustainable fuel substitutes Fossil Fuels vs. Bio-oil & Bio-coal Non-renewable - Renewable Grey CO2 - Green CO2 Dirty - Clean Not cheap - Cheaper than fossil fuels
8Bio-oil What is bio-oil (BO)? Not oil in traditional sense Liquid biomass, molecular composition resembles the feedstockClean burning, carbon dioxide neutral fuelAka: pyrolysis oil, bio-crude oilCan be co-fired in furnaces, boilers, gas turbines, and diesel engines
9( Soon, for transportation fuels! ) Bio-oilGreen substitute to conventional fossil fuels in power generation for now.( Soon, for transportation fuels! )
10Benefits of Bio-oil Reduce dependence on fossil fuel Establish land coverReduce GHG emissionsCreate jobsMotivate economic activity in the countrysideSave foreign exchangeCheaper than fossil fuel
11Cost of Bio-oil“Even more importantly, bio-oil is priced at $25 - $35 a barrel…” (Zeman, 2007)Equiv crude oil: US$ – a barrelCDM benefits when factored will increase bio-oil’s competitiveness!
16Bamboo – Most Favorable Feedstock Indigenous plant speciesEasier to establish than tree speciesHigh regenerative capacity, even when burnedHigh capacity to withstand extreme environmental conditionsFast growing and high-biomass yieldShort maturity periodCo-products:- Bamboo shoots- High quality pole segments
17Bamboo BO Plant Capacity 1000 ha plantation = 100TPD BO Facility Daily BO output = TPD
18Moving Forward Invest in Bamboo Bio-oil Production and make money! Reduce dependence on fossil fuelsReduce GHG emissionsProtect the environmentCreate jobs
19Bio-coal What is bio-coal? Torrefied biomass Aka: e-coal, green coal No smoke/ odor, cleanHHV = MJ/kgEasy to mill, friableHydrophobicDecay resistant
20Benefits of Bio-coal Stores and handles like fossil coal Requires no retrofitting for coal-fired plantsConsistent and uniform fuel efficiencyGenerates electricity as efficiently as fossil coalEnables immediate GHG emissions reductionFossil coal will emit (+/-) 300% more carbon dioxide compared to bio-coalCost of bio-coal is only (+/-) 40% of the cost of fossil coal
21Bio-coal Processing Torrefaction 200-300 °C zero oxygen (+/-) 30 minutesDensificationmilling/ grindingpelletizing