3 CLIMATE CHANGEClimate Change refers to any change in climate over time whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity or changing levels of Green House Gases (GHGs).It describes the short and long term effects on the earth’s climate as a result of human activities such as fossil fuel combustion and vegetation clearing and burning.It is also now referred to as GLOBAL WARMING.
4 Causes of Climate Change Wanton utilization of fossil fuelsDeforestation
5 Effects of Climate Change Pollution of water, air and soilPolar ice caps meltingNegative economic consequencesIncreased extreme weather conditionsSpread of diseasesLandscape changesAdverse effects on agriculture and food supply
6 Solutions 1. Re-greening with trees and bamboo Bamboo is more recommended, however, considering its natural characteristics as follows:- Bamboo absorbs 35% more carbon dioxide compared to trees. It also emits 35% more oxygen. Even in finished products form, it will not release its C02 contents for decades.- It is much more sustainable and easier to plant. Even when burned, it will just grow back unlike trees.- Its maximum maturity period is only 5 years while the minimum time for trees to mature on the average is 10 years.
7 2. Use of clean & sustainable fuel. substitutes. Fossil Fuels vs 2 . Use of clean & sustainable fuel substitutes Fossil Fuels vs. Bio-oil & Bio-coal Non-renewable - Renewable Grey CO2 - Green CO2 Dirty - Clean Not cheap - Cheaper than fossil fuels
8 Bio-oil What is bio-oil (BO)? Not oil in traditional sense Liquid biomass, molecular composition resembles the feedstockClean burning, carbon dioxide neutral fuelAka: pyrolysis oil, bio-crude oilCan be co-fired in furnaces, boilers, gas turbines, and diesel engines
9 ( Soon, for transportation fuels! ) Bio-oilGreen substitute to conventional fossil fuels in power generation for now.( Soon, for transportation fuels! )
10 Benefits of Bio-oil Reduce dependence on fossil fuel Establish land coverReduce GHG emissionsCreate jobsMotivate economic activity in the countrysideSave foreign exchangeCheaper than fossil fuel
11 Cost of Bio-oil“Even more importantly, bio-oil is priced at $25 - $35 a barrel…” (Zeman, 2007)Equiv crude oil: US$ – a barrelCDM benefits when factored will increase bio-oil’s competitiveness!
16 Bamboo – Most Favorable Feedstock Indigenous plant speciesEasier to establish than tree speciesHigh regenerative capacity, even when burnedHigh capacity to withstand extreme environmental conditionsFast growing and high-biomass yieldShort maturity periodCo-products:- Bamboo shoots- High quality pole segments
17 Bamboo BO Plant Capacity 1000 ha plantation = 100TPD BO Facility Daily BO output = TPD
18 Moving Forward Invest in Bamboo Bio-oil Production and make money! Reduce dependence on fossil fuelsReduce GHG emissionsProtect the environmentCreate jobs
19 Bio-coal What is bio-coal? Torrefied biomass Aka: e-coal, green coal No smoke/ odor, cleanHHV = MJ/kgEasy to mill, friableHydrophobicDecay resistant
20 Benefits of Bio-coal Stores and handles like fossil coal Requires no retrofitting for coal-fired plantsConsistent and uniform fuel efficiencyGenerates electricity as efficiently as fossil coalEnables immediate GHG emissions reductionFossil coal will emit (+/-) 300% more carbon dioxide compared to bio-coalCost of bio-coal is only (+/-) 40% of the cost of fossil coal
21 Bio-coal Processing Torrefaction 200-300 °C zero oxygen (+/-) 30 minutesDensificationmilling/ grindingpelletizing