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1 Unsupervised Joint Alignment of Complex Images Gary B Huang, Vidit Jain, Erik Learned-Miller.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Unsupervised Joint Alignment of Complex Images Gary B Huang, Vidit Jain, Erik Learned-Miller."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Unsupervised Joint Alignment of Complex Images Gary B Huang, Vidit Jain, Erik Learned-Miller

2 2/12 Joint Face Alignment The Recognition Pipeline Most systems ignore the middle stage, relying on the initial detector to do a rough alignment Alignment reduces variability and allows for conditioning on spatial position and analysis of structure Two major drawbacks to current alignment methods Designed for a single class Require manually labeling of either specific features or pose More involved than simple discrete labels for detection and recognition AAM - ~80 landmarks for >100 training images Unsupervised method with congealing No manually selected landmarks or hand selected parts No image explicitly labeled as canonical pose End result entirely determined by data

3 3/12 Congealing Intuition Intra-class images have similar structure and shape Thus, low variability of pixel values at specific location Distribution Field Distribution over alphabet ({0,1} for binary images) at each pixel Set of images defines an empirical distribution field Congealing update distribution field from transformed images increase likelihood of image with respect to distribution field

4 4/12 Congealing How to align a new image after congealing? Insert into training set, re-run algorithm More efficient to save sequence of distribution fields from congealing High entropy to low entropy sequence Image Funnel Funneling: increase likelihood of new image at each iteration according to corresponding distribution field New ImageAligned Image Image Funnel

5 5/12 Congealing Complex Images Congealing has proven to work well on certain object classes Traditionally applied directly to pixel values Applied successfully to binary handwritten digits and MRI volumes Our goal: Extend congealing to deal with noise in real world images Complex and variable lighting effects Occlusions Highly varied foreground objects (hair, hats, glasses…) Highly varied backgrounds

6 6/12 Congealing Complex Images Extending Congealing to Complex Images Traditionally congealing is done on pixel intensities High variation due to lighting and variable foreground high entropy even when correctly aligned Congealing on edge values No basin of attraction, plateaus in optimization landscape Integrate over window SIFT descriptor at each pixel Each descriptor is 32 dimensional vector, too large to estimate entropy

7 7/12 Congealing Complex Images Extending Congealing to Face Images (cont) Cluster SIFT descriptors using kmeans Congealing on hard assignments forces pixels to take relatively small number of values Similar local minima problems as with edge values Initial experiments with hard assignments led to congealing terminating early with no significant changes from initial alignment Use soft assignment of pixels to clusters Each pixel is multinomial distribution, with probabilities equal to probability of belonging to each cluster Does not change nature of distribution field Distribution field is still a set of distributions, one at each pixel, over the possible clusters Analogy with grayscale using binary alphabet Gray pixels are treated as mixtures of underlying black and white subpixels

8 8/12 Congealing Complex Images Window around pixelSIFT vector and clusters Posterior distribution

9 9/12 Results (faces) Congealed with 300 images from Faces in the Wild Realistic data set of news photos with different people, complex backgrounds, variable illumination and foreground appearance

10 10/12 Results (cars) Congealed with 125 rear car images (variable background/lighting) Achieved with no labeling and no changes to code

11 11/12 Results on Recognition Tested effect on recognition Used trained hyper-feature based recognizer (Jain et al) Tested using outputs of Viola-Jones, Zhou (supervised), and funneling Congealing improves recognition with no added supervision AUC Unaligned Zhou aligned Congealing0.7549

12 12/12 Future Work Two-tier alignment process Score alignment results based on likelihood under final distribution field, align low scoring images in separate stage

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