Presentation on theme: "Power Point for Addiction Treatment: A Strengths Perspective 3rd Edition Katherine van Wormer Diane Rae Davis Cengage Publishing Company."— Presentation transcript:
1Power Point for Addiction Treatment: A Strengths Perspective 3rd Edition Katherine van Wormer Diane Rae Davis Cengage Publishing Company 2012 copyright
2Part I: IntroductionAddiction affects us all. Strengths perspective—strengths of clients and strengths of the contemporary models:Harm reduction12 Step approach.Rift in field.Book in 3 parts: bio-psycho-social
3Chapter I Nature of Addiction Examples of addiction---smoker dying of emphysema, crack addict arrested, pregnant mother drinking heavily, girl hooked on meth she started using to lose weightEconomic cost—health, war on drugs, over 1 million in prison for drug involvement. Big business—gambling, Philip Morris, beer
4What is addiction?(Latin) addictus---attached to something, positive. Today alcoholism called a “brain disease”or bad habit or sin. Leading assumption of the text: Addiction is the key, not the substance or behaviorAddiction defined by researchers as “a bad habit,” “a brain disease,” “helplessness,” “a problem of motivation”
5DSM-5Changes to DSM in new edition: no longer dichotomy between abuse and dependenceAddiction now the preferred term instead of dependence.Addiction now seen as a continuum.Substance use disorder requires 2 of following:tolerance inability to stopwithdrawal problems excessive spending or effortuse more than intended to obtainreduced involvement continued use
6Definitions Addiction—pattern of compulsive use. Has physical, psychological, social aspects.Emphasis on process rather than outcome.Gambling now considered an addiction in DSM-5Pattern of preoccupation, lack of control, form of escape, chasing one’s losses, serious consequences.
7Box 1.1 A Social Work Major Working in a Casino What is the ethical dilemma here?How do the managers ensure that the gamblers keep spending their money?How are the employees controlled by the establishment?
8The Disease Concept Is alcoholism a disease? Arguments pro: Arguments con:
9First, Define DiseaseDisease - as metaphor by Jellinek: “alcoholism is like a disease”Random House Dictionary, disease is a condition of the body in which this is incorrect function.Oxford University Dictionary– disease is absence of ease (in treatment – disease as: primary, progressive, chronic, and possibly fatal).Illness – term preferred here, less controversial, less medical.Best arguments pro disease: alcoholism is a brain disease because the addicted brain has changed.Best arguments against: just a habit, a behavior, need to take responsibility, people mature out of it.
10Biopsychosocial-spiritual Model Why (bio), what (psycho), where (social)Need for spiritual healing, connection with Higher PowerInteractionism and cycle of pain: pain and suffering loss pain, stress and drinking more painFamily as a system in interaction, roles
11Why Do We Need to Know about Addiction? 80% of people behind bars have problems, pervasive in child welfare system, alcoholism in the workplace.71% of social workers worked with clients with substance use disorders in the past year.Headlines:-“When Tanning Turns into an Addiction”-“Help! I’m Addicted to Facebook”Relevant movies: 28 days, Traffic, Walk the Line
12Table 1.1 Contrast Traditional Approach and Strengths Perspective Traditional approach dichotomizes alcoholic and non-alcoholic Use of labels—I am an alcoholic, addict, dysfunctional family Focus on losses, client in denial, resistant Strengths approach—avoids labels, focus on strengths, family as resource
13Two Approaches to Treatment TraditionalBioDichotomyPsychoProblems mandate—one size fits allSocialIdentify family dysfunctionStrengths-basedBioContinuumPsychoStrengths-motivationSocialHolistic family as resource
14Addiction Recovery Management Strengths-based treatment approach endorsed by UN Case management Community resources for long-term care Interventions relate to personal needs in society—mental health care, housing Success measured in drinking, using less, not total abstinence
15Different models for different folks. Strengths PerspectiveRapp and Goscha:Six critical elements: person is not the illness, choice, hope, purpose, achievement, presence of one key person to help.Finding the strengths in divergent models—harm reduction and 12 Step approachDifferent models for different folks.Very negative view of disease model: Stanton Peele: Resisting 12 Step CoercionHarm reduction and the strengths perspective— “meet the client where the client is.”Policy issues of reducing harm.
16Empirical Research Project MATCH Directed by NIAAA – 2,000 clients over 8 yrs.What works? 12 step facilitation, cognitive, motivational enhancement therapy (MET)MET most effective for those with low motivation, 12 Step with religiouspersons.Criticism: lack of a control group. MET, a shorter intervention. Models onlytested on alcoholic clients.Project MATCH confirms the effectiveness of diverse treatments. New measure for recovery is improvement, not total abstinence.Vaillant’s Research40 year longitudinal study—those who recovered had crisis with alcohol or joined AA or entered a stable relationship or had a religious conversion.
17Empirical Research Continued Research from California: 1$ spent saves 7 across states.Hester and Miller found that these treatment modalities were proven to be most effective: brief intervention, motivational interviewing (MI), use of the medication naltrexone, social skills training, aversion therapy, cognitive therapy, acupuncture. (See chapter 8)
18Treatment Trends Prescription drug misuse as increasing problem; Harm reduction recognized as important to save lives; public health approach;Belief that punitive laws cause harm;Majority of Americans favor treatment over jail;De-emphasis on incarceration, reentry programming;Drug courts, mental health courts;Attention to co-occurring disorders and extensive use of prescribed medications to reduce craving;Restorative Justice: victim-offender programming to promote healing. PEASE Academy.
20Early History Alcohol back to 5000 BC Iran Unknown to world’s indigenous peopleKoran --- condemned wine. Alcohol from Arabic al-kuhul.Arabian dr. discovered evaporated distilled spirits. Technology exceeded its graspdistilling used–gin. Booze from Dutch busen.Great devastation from England,Infant mortality, crime
21North America More beer than water on Mayflower. Slaves forbidden to drink except on special occasions, taught bingeing.Puritan traditions.18th – Quakers and Methodists disapproved of hard liquor.Male drinking cult notorious.
22Temperance movement 1825-1919: Against hard liquor. Temperance woman for women’s suffrage and ban on distilled beverages.
23Early 1900s Cocaine in Coke Tobacco outlawed for brief period. 1914 Harrison Act --- restricted opioids (associated with Chinese people) cocaine must now be prescribed.Marijuana (associated with Mexicans) State laws in southwest criminalized.Teetotaler T =total abstinence, from Ireland.
24U.S. ProhibitionGlamorized crime. Mafia/ Hollywood/Wash. DC link. Homicide rates increased.Great Depression created need for jobs.Giancana, Double Cross
25Modern War on Drugs Johnson—war on poverty Nixon tthrough the Bushes—war on drugs 1960s heroin horror stories 1980s, crack cocaine 2000s, meth Attacks directed toward poor, minorities.
26History of Gambling in U. S History of Gambling in U.S. Lotteries American Revolution Banned after Civil War and during Prohibition. 1931—casino gambling legal in Nevada 1960s—lotteries for state revenue 1972—first gambling treatment center at VA, New York 1987—Supreme Court banned state regulation of tribal casinos Mississippi River casinos Internet gambling popular today
27Themes of First Half of Chapter Dangers of potent alcohol, role of ethnic prejudice in shaping drug legislation, unintended consequences of prohibition.Example of happy Italian family enjoying wine with their meals.Modern War on Drugs, two-thirds of money for law enforcement.
28History of Addiction Treatment William White, Slaying the Dragon. Mistreatment of persons with mentally illness and alcoholics in asylums.Getting Better by Nan Robertson tells of Bill W. and Dr. Bob. Oxford Groups. Big Book. 2 million members in AA worldwide today.Jellinek (The Disease Concept, 1960) – 5 types of alcoholism based on world travels:Alpha, Beta, Gamma , Delta, Epsilon.
29Treatment History continued 1956 AMA declared alcoholism an illness, 1966, a disease.Harold Hughes –founded NIAAA.Hazelden adapted 12 Step approach.Box 2:1—“Treatment in Norway”—universal health care for support.Peele and Fingarette: addiction as bad habits not disease.
30History of Harm Reduction AIDS in Netherlands spawned new approach, to reduce the harm.Britain, 1960s and later.Heroin prescribed. Needle exchanges-U.S.Alan Marlatt, died in 2011, pioneer in spread of harm reduction approach to U.S., researcher at U. of Washington.
31Substance Misuse, Dependence, and the Body Part II BIOLOGYChapter 3Substance Misuse, Dependence, and the Body
32Substance Misuse, Dependence, and the Body Part II BIOLOGYChapter 3Substance Misuse, Dependence, and the Body
33Recent Trends Development of PET scans, fMRI— functional magnetic resonance imagingCraving researchNew facts on brain damage
34International studies show high correlation Depressants AlcoholFigure 3.1—alcohol involvement: 47% of homicides; 34% of drownings; 42% of fire injuries; 47% of young male car crashes; 50% date rape; 16% child abuse (doesn’t count neglect); 23% of suicide.International studies show high correlationwith partner violence.College student deaths per year –1,825 (NIAAA, 2010)
36Global Drinking Patterns Europeans consume six times as much alcohol as southeast AsiansMoldova, the Czech Republic, drink around 18 liters per capita each year.Eastern Europeans—hard liquorBritish and Irish—beerFrench and Italians—wineHigh rates—indigenous populations Northern Sweden and Northern Canada
37Alcohol continuedHealth effects of moderate drinkers—heart benefits, lower death rates than teetotalers.7-10% of drinkers get addicted. Signs: tolerance, withdrawal (tremors, nausea; 5% have DTs), heavy nicotine, caffeine useTolerance reversal.4 B.A.C. may be comatose.Blackouts: common at .3 BAC, case in Tom SawyerReal court cases
38NarcoticsOpiates—from opium poppy…narcotics, heroin now can be smoked or snorted.High tolerance so need greater quantities for high.Inhalants—household products, huffing, brain damage, comaMisuse of pain medication increasing todayOxyContin
39StimulantsCocaine-crack and powder, in urine 8 hrs., smoked for faster high. High lasts only minutes.Brain blocks reuptake of dopamine… Addicted rats die… heart attack.Amphetamines and meth—synthetic unlike cocaine—suppresses appetite. Used by Nazis hour high.Methland by Nick Reding about Oelwein, Iowa.Powder can be snorted, injected. Stay awake for long durations…Anhedonia---inability to feel pleasure with drug-induced brain injury.
40NicotineCan both stimulate and relax % of alcoholics smoke, reduces alcohol effects. Over half of persons with schizophrenia smoke.Nicotine decreases BAC levels.American businessman’s story from China.Malachy McCourt smoked for ad and got hooked.Box 3.1 “To Die for a Cigarette”Case of chewing tobacco—snuff.
41Hallucinogens Plants, LSD, synthetic, flashbacks, PCP Ecstasy and roofies—heightens sensory experience…raves..Can’t get back to original high due to brain changes.10% in high school have used Ecstasy.Dance Safe – harm reduction strategies.Roofies: sleeping pill in Europe.
42What Is Ecstasy?Ecstasy is a drug that has some hallucinogenic properties and is structurally related to amphetamines. Its short form chemical name is MDMA (3,4- methylenedioxymetham-phetamine).Split
43Short Term Effects of Ecstasy Feeling of confidenceSense of arousalIncreased heart rateDry and sore mouth/throatTension, High Body TemperatureMuscle twitchingDepression & Confusion
44Other Synthetic Substances Spice Bath salts—increase in ER visits associated with this drug. Hard to detect.
45CannabisMarijuanaTHC, the psychoactive ingredient, lowers blood glucose, increases appetite, Stored in fat cells, long term use possibly associated with apathy.Earlier reports of lung cancer after long-term use were not validated.
46Costs to Get High Estimates Differ by Region [not in text]Crack: $5-10 quick fix only lasts 30 min.Heroin: $ day--$20 day can by maintenance dose inject a couple of timesEcstasy: $25 may take 5 or so pills.Meth: $25 long-lasting high, popular in gay party scene in Seattle, factory workers in IowaMarijuana: $25 or higher, depends on quality
47MetabolismLiver: organ that metabolizes alcohol, alcohol circulates in the bloodstream until metabolized.Men have special enzymes that help.People metabolize ½ oz. per hour = small glass of wine.One Drink ¼ One bottle of beer (12 oz.)¼ One glass of wine (6 oz.)¼ One “single” drink (1¼ oz. of liquor)
51The Brain and Addiction Neurotransmitters affect emotions and memory
52Neurotransmitters Affect Emotions and Memory Dopamine—reuptake affected by cocaine, which blocks dopamine synapseDepletion following cocaine use. Nicotine affects dopamine too.Parkinson’s when too little. Dopamine-boosting drugs for Parkinson’s associated with mania and gambling behavior.Excess of dopamine associated with schizophrenia.Serotonin: influenced by alcohol, involved in sleep. Decreased levels linked to depression, anxiety, impulsiveness suicide.
53Depletion Following Cocaine Use Depletion Following Cocaine Use. The right scan is taken from someone who is on cocaine. The loss of red areas in the right scan compared to the left (normal) scan indicates that the brain is using less glucose and therefore is less active. This reduction in activity results in disruption of many brain functions.
54Memory and CravingAddict never gets original high—brain has changed. Addiction is a brain disease.Cues can trigger memory…picture of alcoholic beverages activates certain areas of the brain.Prozac reduces craving by regulating serotonin levels.
55Cocaine in the BrainSlides are from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) (www.nida.nih.gov)
56Gambling and the Brain Persons with gambling disorders may have abnormal levels of dopamine and serotonin. Lack of control may result. Highs enhanced when rewards uncertain. Near misses especially thrilling.
57The Role of GenesStudy of mental hospitals, prisons, 50% who used chemical substances had mental disorders.Cloninger—Sweden..259 male adoptees with alcoholic fathersType 1: late onset..75% of alcoholics, relates to harm avoidance, anxiety, guiltType 2: risk taker, (starts about age 11) male, hyperactive, antisocial, hereditaryOndansetron: works on serotonin, little effect on type 1Twins: 40-60% concurrence of alcoholism. Separated at birth monkeys drank more under stress, people with low dopamine like stimulantsPeople with ADHD risk for drug abuse.
58Medical Consequences Wernicke Korsakoff: Cases reported of Dr. Oliver SachsPeripheral neuropathy related to lack of Vitamin BConfabulation….Dr. Sachs—Awakenings
59Medical Consequences continued Liver damage…removes toxins from blood, bile circulates in blood stream Yellow skin tone, cirrhosis, immune system breakdown. Heart – nicotine, cocaine Fetal alcohol syndrome. See photograph in text. Short nose, indistinct groove between nose and mouth, thin upper lip, small head and eyes, learning problems. Role of sperm should be considered as well as mother’s role.
60Interventions Related to Biology Schick Shadel, Seattle treatment centerConditioning or aversion therapy—favorite drink plus emetine to induce vomiting.Use of truth serum on alternate days.
61Changing Brain Chemistry Brain Lock (Schwartz) cognitive treatment for OCD to “rewire the brain”Ondansetron—decreases cravingZyban and smoking; Chantix helps person produce more dopamine.Nicotine gum; patch.Naltrexone, approved 1995, not a narcotic unlike methadone.Blocks receptors for getting high.
62Synthetic Prescription Drugs Methadone (synthetic form of heroin);Methadone maintenanceHeroin maintenance in Britain, Switzerland, Vancouver.Buprenorphine can be prescribed by GPs, reduces likelihood of overdoseEating disorders and dopamineBulimics—related to depressionAnorexia—anxietyLuvox, Prozac, and Paxil decrease binges.
63Holistic Treatments Herbal remedies St. John’s wort Hypnosis Acupuncture from ChinaMassage therapyPhysical exercise to reduce tension
64Gender and Sexual Orientation Differences Chapter 4Gender and Sexual Orientation Differences
65Gender IssuesRecent trends—voices of women and gays and lesbians are increasingly heard regarding treatment, research.Some emphasis on gender-sensitive treatment.Class and cultural differences in drug use.Male/female ratios differ in drinking quantity ratios from 13:12 in Italy to 28:11 in Canada, 46:5 in Mexico, and 15:3 in Russia.In American high schools, substance use rates about the same.Adult men, twice the rate of women for marijuana and cocaine use and gambling, meth and tranquilizers about the same.More eating disorders in women
66Gender Differences Shame factor for women in treatment. Women in treatment more likely than men to have a substance-dependent partner.Treatment less accessible for mothers than fathers due to child care responsibilities.Many women lose custody of children over substance misuse.Abstinence demands unrealistic.Lack of treatment availability for pregnant women.Good results with recovery coaches and family courts.
67Gender Differences continued Meth addiction rates high among women.One study showed that 80% of female meth addicts were victims of domestic violence.Violence---3 of 4 intimate partner murders are of women.Women alcoholics ---47% in treatment molested as children in study of 472 women (Downs). Treatment needs to focus on PTSD issues. Women smoke to control weight, males to relieve boredom. Escape gamblers (women). Women start gambling later in life than men do.
68Biological Differences Women get intoxicated quicker than men.Women have a higher mortality rate with heavy drinking.Lives are shortened by 15 years on average with alcoholism—heart and liver damage.
69Women’s Treatment Needs 1. Address barriers to treatment that many women experience, such as lack of transportation, child care, and treatment availability. 2. Changing program goals and processes to accommodate women’s needs for more support, less confrontation, job skill training, and parenting skills. 3. Embracing an empowerment model of change. 4. Female counselors who can attend to shame and stigma issues. 5. Need to celebrate any significant decrease in substance use.
70Sexual OrientationHeterosexism and homophobia: U.S. studies of schools shows suicide is 14 times the heterosexual rates.Lesbians—lowest rate of AIDS of any group, but double the drug use of other women, 55% smoke at some point in their lives; 28% are obese.Reasons for high drinking rate—gay bar, fewer are mothers….G/L AA.Gay males—high risk of sexual abuse in jail cells.Religious fundamentalism correlated with suicide…alcohol problems persist across life span.Transgender….See Do’s and Don’ts…table 11.2Resources: Pride Institute and PFLAG
71Gambling, Eating Disorders, Shopping, and Other Behavioral Addictions Chapter 5Gambling, Eating Disorders, Shopping, and Other Behavioral Addictions
72Gambling Addiction Gambling, has become socially acceptable Criteria of pathological gambling---preoccupation, increasing amounts, etc. 3-7% of gamblers have problems, suicide high in gamblersCost to economy is $54 billion—bankruptcies, lost work time, crime, etc. Very high among Native Americans—over 14% have gambling problemsResearch shows counties with gambling casinos have higher crime rates and bankruptcies than others
73Gambling continued Problems among the elderly Internet gambling is the fastest growing form.2-4% in Gamblers Anonymous (GA) are women. But many helpline calls.Women gamble to escape; men for action.Associated with other problemsBox 5.1 Reflections of a Male Compulsive Gambler. Geographical relocation helped him break his habit.
74Questions for Screening Have you ever borrowed money in order to gamble or cover lost money?Have you ever thought you might have a gambling problem or been told that you might?Have you ever been untruthful about the extent of your gambling or hidden it from others?Have you ever tried to stop or cut back on how much or how often you gamble?
75Treatment Issues Treatment: cognitive work and motivational therapy Irrational thinking about winning:“I put so much money in this machine, I’m bound to win.”High profile winnersLucky machine and datesStates’ spending on treatment--$36 million is small compared to $20 billion in tax revenues from gambling
76Eating DisordersThe only one in this chapter related to a substance – food addiction. All others, for example, Internet addiction are behavioral…often clients in treatment for another disorderHeadline: “Eating disorders start in brain”90% of anorexia and bulimia is found in females.Begins in adolescence.5% of girls and women are anorexic, 1-3% bulimic.
77Anorexia Less than 89% of normal body weight and fine body hair. 10% mortality rate, often by suicide, correlated with perfectionism, ritualism, high anxietyRelated to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD):obsessive--recurrent and persistent thoughts;compulsions—ritualistic practices.
78Bulimia Gay men at risk. Bulimia with alcohol misuse--30-70%. 35% of bulimics experienced childhood sexual abuse and use food as a drug.Little information on compulsive overeating.New studies show lack of dopamine receptors in the brains of morbidly obese.Some after gastric bypass surgery turn to heavy drinking.
79InterventionsStudy in the British medical journal, Lancet—findings from twin studies showed that a strong craving for sweets predicted alcohol abuse problems, perhaps caused by a lack of dopamine.Bulimia—cognitive treatments; avoid strict dietingAnorexia—Prozac is effective in reducing compulsive behavior but only when weight has been gained.Men—muscle dysmorphia, antidepressants may help here too.
80Treatment Overeaters anonymous (OA) for compulsive eating; Group treatment.. teach moderation—CBTTheme of neuroplasticity—brain neurons can form new connections; “brain lock” can be corrected (Schwartz)Box 5.2 compares two treatment programs; the second one in Kansas City included trauma work
81Shopping or Spending Addiction Problems in about 2-8% of peopleTypical 31 yr.old female who has overspent for 13 years.DSM-5 lists kleptomania;Medications: LuvoxDebtors Anonymous groups springing up
82Cyber AddictionCaught in the Net– Internet addicts: preoccupied, excessive amounts of time involved in chat rooms, playing games;Jeopardized relationships.Fantasy world—fictitious names, office problemsSelf-efficacy for empowermentKorean government training psychiatrists to help treat
83FRAMES Feedback – assessment of use Responsibility – choice is theirs Advice – set goals togetherMenus – of self-directed change options (ex.- monitor computer use)EmpathySelf-efficacy
84Harm Reductions Strategies: -Get a timer-Cut mailing lists-No detours
85Sex Addiction Risk taker Cognitive therapy recommended. Prone to lying—one TV broadcast looked at President Clinton’s background and his sexual risk taking: others disagree.Case of Tiger Woods.Self-help group--Sex Addicts Anonymous.
86Cognitive TherapyDistortions especially with these addictions and anorexia. Tendency towards extreme behavior.Slogans of AA (“easy does it”)Rational recovery, MET, REBT more adversarial, focus on current beliefs
87Cognitive Therapy continued Teach clients to avoid black and white thinking.Ask about times when client successfully handled a problem.Use regular assessment for disease of addiction.Feeling workPositive reinforcement and reframingStress management--- modify thinking, exercises for group work: art work can reveal underlying feelings.
88TherapyPositive reframing and self talk…. Cognitive therapy can be directed toward the past as well as the present.Feeling work—anger management. Anger as a cover. Avoid all-or-nothing thinking.Stress management---- drink milk, use self talk, get exercise.Group exercises for feeling work: art, faces, grief and loss, quiz cards, dreams, assertiveness.
89Psychology Of Addiction Part IIPsychology Of AddictionChapter 6Addiction across the life span
90Erik Erikson’s Stages Birth to old age Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and DoubtStage 3: Initiative vs. GuiltStage 4: Industry vs. InferiorityStage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion years oldStage 6: Intimacy vs. IsolationStage 7: Generativity vs. StagnationStage 8: Ego Integrity vs. DespairMust resolve each crisis before going to next stageCarol Gilligan’s criticism.
91Adolescent Brain Prefrontal cortex matures until mid-20s Evidence of brain immaturity during the teen years comes from MRI scans of the adolescent brain
92Teenage Drinking Use Identity vs role confusion Alcohol is the drug of choice by American teens aged 12-17Less smoking by teens in the US than previously
93Argentina 16 year old exchange student found: No drinking ageWine or beer with supperDrinking to be social not to get drunkWhat the U.S. can learn from ArgentinaFocus on moderation and adult supervision
94Parents in Prison Loss of parent plus stigma to child. Three times the odds that children will engage in antisocial or delinquent behavior (violence or drug abuse).Negative outcomes as children and adults (school failure and unemployment).Twice the odds of developing serious mental health problems.Affects 7 and ½ times more black children.
95European vs. U.S. YouthAlcohol use more prevalent in Europe except in Mediterranean countries. Ireland vs. Italy. Driving allowed at age 18.22% Europeans smoke vs. 14% Americans at agesPeele argues in Addiction Proof Your Child for Mediterranean moderate drinking pattern in the home.Illicit drug use in Europe half that of U.S.
96SAMHSA Household survey reported Cigarette use 11.6% with 12 to 17 year olds (2010)Binge drinking by 17% of youths aged 16 and 17Age 21—around half are binge drinkers. Heavy drinkers tend to have high drug-using rates as well.Rates of past month alcohol use for ages were:16.1% among Asians; 20.4% among blacks;22% among American Indians or Alaska Natives;25.1% among Hispanics;27.5% among those reporting two or more races;and 30.4% among whites.
97SAMHSA SURVEY continued 18-25: 21.2 % illicit drug use during past month, around half of all youths used alcohol.Racial breakdown for drugs not given for youth in 2009 but previous surveys show higher rates for black than white kids, American Indians the highest.
982010 School and ER SurveysUse of alcohol, the most dangerous drug—car crashes, drownings, etc., one-third of high school seniors get drunk once a month or more; (same in Canada)Almost all current smokers also drank alcoholSchool surveys show African American and Latino seniors have rates of illicit drug use lower than that of whites; the reverse is true among 8th graders.ER visits among youth mostly for alcohol overdoses (70%).Rise in use of painkilling drugs shown in high rate of ER visits among youth.—OxyContin a major problem.
99Business Angle Rivera Live: $10 billion alcohol consumed by under 21 • Beer and liquor companies most well funded lobbies of people in Congress.80% of adult smokers start as children so big incentive to market to kids.Extensive marketing of casinos.63–82% of teenagers (12- to 17-year-olds) gamble each year, 4–7% of teens exhibit serious patterns of disordered gambling.
100Society’s InfluencesTobacco companies targeting kids; Field and Stream—ads for smokeless tobacco Children learn gambling on the Internet;Video poker, slot machines, and the lotteryStrenuous exercise programs reduce smoking. Smoking may be considered a gateway drug.
101Risks for Substance Misuse ADHD, trauma in early childhood, poor role models.Sexual abuse leads to sense of shame.Trauma changes brain chemistry and reduces later ability to cope with stress.Influence of high stress and drinking, found in juvenile mouse studies.
102Other Risk Factors Turbulent teen-father relationship Child abuse and other traumaKids who start smoking earlySmoking can be considered a gateway drug; as many girls as boys smoking, low rate among African American girls.Media-generated weight obsession, a major problem among girls of European American ethnicity.Obsession leads to major problems with eating, such as anorexia and bulimia.
103Predictions from Scandinavia: • High risk: girls who cry easily when teased are anxious and shy.• Male aggression at age 8 predicted alcoholism 18 to 20 years later.Evaluations at ages 10 and 27 showed:– High novelty seeking– Low harm avoidance (dare devil behavior)Both traits predicted early-onset alcoholism.For both sexes, poor school success predicted later drinking problems
104Child Abuse continued• Girls who are sexually abused are three times more likely than other girls to develop drinking problems later• Boys who were sexually abused more likely to be diagnosed with conduct disorder, dysthymia (mild depression), and ADHD• Abused girls are more likely to be diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder and major depression.
105Risks for GirlsDaughters of alcoholics at increased risk for alcoholism. Teenage girls who are heavy drinkers are:five times more likely to engage in sexual intercourse.a third less likely to use condomsmore likely to practice unsafe sex.
106Risks for Boys:• Study of priest abuse victims showed high heavy alcohol use rate. Biggest threat to life and health for adolescent boys is alcohol-related accidents• Male counterpart to anorexia in females is muscle dysmorphia.• Dysmorphia a diagnosis in DSM.
107More Risks for BoysObsessive body building major problem for young malesRevealed in popularity of anabolic steroidsSteroids used by 2.7 % of male high school seniors.Health hazards: stunted growth, acne, andshrinking testicles.
108College Students• Case of college pledge in Colorado who died of overdose; police not called out of fear of under-21 drinking laws. Law passed 1984.History of law—1980s to curb drinking-and-driving deaths, role of MADD and NIAAA. SAMHSA 2010 survey of past month— 63.3% college students were current drinkers, 42.1% were binge drinkers (drank 4-5 drinks at a time), and 15.6% were heavy drinkers (binge drank 5 or more times).Risk of age 21 birthday celebrations.
109Amethyst InitiativeOver 120 college presidents signed statement to consider revising under-21 drinking law.MADD notes lives saved from 1982 to % fewer fatal crashes under age 21 and a 56% decrease among 21-to 24-year-olds.May have been result of stricter drinking laws that were passed in many states starting in New seat belt regulations, stricter drinking and driving laws. Note reduction in over age 21.
110Binge Drinking: College • U.S. government imposed nationwide minimum drinking age of 21 in the 1980s, the attempt to curtail drunken driving by youth.• Fewer drink today, but those who do drink more.• “Party till you puke!” signs were posted on one university campus.
111Modern Form of Prohibition • Critics argue students are driven to partying underground and away from faculty supervision.• New campaigns for moderate drinking encouraged by University of Washington (Alan Marlatt) research.• Social norms campaign with messages of moderation were unsuccessful.
112Need for Harm Reduction College newspaper slow to restrict enticing beer ads.Most binge drinkers mature out of wild drinking days of early adulthood. But over 1,800 college students die each year from alcohol-related injuries. Rape and unsafe sex.Cigarettes--abstinence probably works better than moderation here.Two paths to drug use by youths: striving to be cool, using drugs to escapeMessages about long-term damage are apt to have little impact.
113Harm ReductionNeed for drug courts--important for family preservation and closely supervised treatmentForbid “happy hours,” free drinks on 21st birthdays at bars.Lower drinking age laws; discourage drinking hard liquorEncourage adult supervision with kids who are drinking. Encourage moderate drinking as with meals.Serve food with alcoholic beverages.
114Motivational Principles from Social Psychology From Elliot Aronson, The Social AnimalIf you state a position, you will be wedded to it.A small commitment to take action goes a long way.People with high self esteem can easier resist temptation.Working toward a goal might pay off eventually.Change of attitude might help.People desire to reduce dissonance.
115 Miller and Rollnick: MI Strategies Traps to avoid: – Premature focus, such as on client’saddictive behavior– Confrontational round between therapistand client over denial– Labeling trap--forcing the individual toaccept a label alcoholic or addict– Blaming trap, fallacy that is especiallypronounced in couples’ counseling
116Primary PreventionChild abuse, early-prevention education and treatment programsSmoking education to keep youths from ever starting to smokeHealth and skill education at schoolsReducing ads promoting addictive behaviorAdvocacy for the hiring of more school counselors and social workers
117Stage-Specific Motivational Statements: Stage of Change: Precontemplation– Goals are to establish rapport– Counselor reinforces discrepanciesAdolescent comment: “My parents can’t tell me what to do; I still use and I don’t see the harm in it- do you?”
118Motivational Enhancement continued: Stage of change: ContemplationAsk: How was life better before drug use?Emphasize choicesTypical questions are:-What do you get out of drinking?-What’s the down side?
119Resistance: Inevitable Miller advises roll with it— “roll with resistance”Use reflective summarizing
120Contemplation Stage continued: • Typical adolescent comment:I’m on top of the world when I’m high, but then when I come down, I’m really down. It was better before I got started on these things.
121Preparation Stage: Setting the date What do you think will work for you?Adolescent comments, “I’m feeling good about setting a date to quit, but who knows?”
122Action Stage:Adolescent comment: “Staying clean may be healthy, but it sure makes for a dull life. Maybe I’ll check out one of those groups.”“Therapist: “Why don’t you look at what others have done in this situation?”Help locate an appropriate group.
123Maintenance Stage: Adolescent comment: “It’s been a few months; I’m not there yet but I’m hanging out with some new friends...”
124Gender Specific Approach for Girls Equality does not mean sameness.Programs for girls do better when they focus on relationships.Waterloo,Iowa --group home-- Quakerdale specializes in care of teenage girls.Learning of life skillsGaining competency as in art
125Problems in Middle Adulthood Relapse problems.Impact of baby boom generation—illicit drug use doubled in over 50 age group.6.6% use illicit drugs over age 26; most is marijuana.10.8% of pregnant women drink; 1 in 6 smoke.
126Risk to Combat Veterans Most problems of VA clients with substance use and PTSD in younger age group, but 11% are older.Trauma is common. PTSD among female veterans who were sexually victimized (15% were victimized).Need for treatment; more is being done today.Need to control marketing of alcohol and cigarettes to soldiers.
127Substance Abuse among Older Adults 13% of U.S. population over age 65.More men with alcohol problemsOlder adults consume 20-25% of all prescription medicationsTwo types of alcoholism: early and late onsetEarly onset- - more severe levels of depression and anxiety
128Facts about Late Life Substance Use Older adults consume less alcohol than the young.5.2% over age 50 used an illicit drug in the past year; 9.1% smoke.Trend toward nursing homes for short-term alcoholism rehabilitationMany male ex-alcoholics reside in nursing homes.
129Drinking Patterns Older adults tend to: drink smaller amounts at one time, misuse drugs prescribed by doctors, experience a hidden alcohol problem.drink in connection with a number of late-life stresses, including bereavement and loss of occupational roles.
130SAMHSA 2010 Treatment Report 1 of 8 persons over age 50 sought help for substance use in 2008.Their share of treatment admissions doubledbetween 1992 and 2008.Primary substance use problems were with alcohol, heroin, cocaine.Many late onset drug users had problems with prescription medications.
131More FactsMany early onset suffer from Korsakoff’s syndrome and other alcohol-related neurological problems.Medical complications:Hip fracture, suicide, brain damageLate onset…more women here, close family ties
132Counseling Older Clients DWI and effect on self imageAge segregated vs. mixed ages in treatmentGuidelines for work in groups with elderly:-Avoid strong language, rebuild support systems-Keep pace slow
133Relapse Prevention:Teach older clients to learn the warning signs and high risk events;Review feelings that led to relapse so they can be avoided (for example, depression); HALTFocus on critical thinking skills.Help clients renew their commitment to sobriety;Find effective coping styles;Build support systems;Remember that non-confrontational approach is best.
134Counselor Pitfalls: (Beechem) Anticipate feelings of guilt and shame in older clients in trouble with the law;AgeismCountertransferenceDenial in assessmentSympathy not empathy
135Loss and grief in family members of addicted persons: Types of GuiltSurvivor guiltHelplessnessAmbivalenceSpiritual healing—sense of meaning, connectednessStrength from 12 Steps
136Spiritual HealingToday, social work education stresses importance of helping clients find spiritual meaning.Older adults often change their outlook as they look back on their lives. Seek for the meaning of life.Higher Power as nature in Norway, Native American traditions.Search for forgiveness and renewal.12 Steps as guide to self knowledge
137Chapter 7: Screening and Assessment Chapter focus on strengths perspective.Advantages of doing assessment: get information, match to counselor, get insurance reimbursement for diagnosis.Disadvantages: may set up false expectations for specialized treatment, delays actual treatment, may be inappropriate for many minority groups.
138Screening Instruments Consist of just a few questions to determine nature of help needed.Informal questions like, “Do you sometimes drink?”Effective one-question screen for women: “How many times in the past year have you had four or more drinks in a day?”
139CAGEC Have you ever felt you ought to cut down on your drinking or druguse?A Have people annoyed you by criticizing your drinking or drug use?G Have you ever felt bad or guilty about your drinking or drug use?E Have you ever had a drink or used drugs first think in the morningto steady your nerves or get rid of a hangover?
140TWEAK Tolerance Worried Eye Openers Amnesia Kut down Works well with mixed ethnic populations
141AUDIT Recommended by WHO for global use. The AUDIT includes 10 items that cover amount and frequency of drinking, alcohol dependence symptoms, personal problems, and social problems“Have you or someone else been injured because of your drinking?”
142AUDIT continuedScoring discriminates between different levels of risk—hazardous, harmful, and possible dependence.A prevention tool to assess future risks.Can be given to the client as a questionnaireto fill out, or it can be used as interview questions.Available for free on the Internet.
143Assessment Tools(CSAT) (2005) defines assessment as the “process for defining the nature of the problem and developing specific treatment recommendations for addressing the problem.”Can give a deeper picture of motivation to change.Can be beginning of relationship.
144Gambling AssessmentGamblers Anonymous has 20 questions to determine if someone has a problem. Examples:Did you ever lose time from work or school due to gambling?Has gambling ever made your home life unhappy?Did gambling affect your reputation?Have you ever felt remorse after gambling?Did you ever gamble to get money with which to pay debts or otherwise solve financial difficulties?
145DRINCThe Drinker Inventory of Consequences (Drinc) originally designed for Project MATCHA 50-item questionnaire that covers physical, social, intrapersonal, impulse control, and interpersonal problem areas. Of proven reliability, validity.Includes positive questions such as (“How often has drinking helped me to relax?”), and negatives: “How often has my ability to be a good parent been harmed by my drinking”.
146The SASSIThe Substance Abuse Screening Inventory (SASSI) (Miller & Lazowski, 1999)A different approach to assessment instruments—does not ask directly about substance misuse on one side of the form.Consists of true-false items. such as “I am often resentful,” and “I like to obey the law.”
147Assessing Levels of Care Early InterventionOutpatient TreatmentIntensive Outpatient/Partial Hospitalization TreatmentResidential/Inpatient TreatmentMedically Managed Intensive Inpatient Treatment.Each level of care includes several layers of intensity.
148ASSESSMENT OF PERSONS WITH CO-OCCURRING DISORDERS (COD) A basic program from the CSAT provides treatment for one disorder, but screens for the other disorder;An intermediate level focuses primarily on one disorder but also addresses some specific needs of the other.Advanced level provides services for both disorders.
149Guidelines for Assessment of COD Be familiar with latest DSM and criteria for diagnosis.Keep up to date on the relevant psychiatric medications.Harm reduction therapists recommend only contacting family members and others if clients so wish and with the client present.Know the community resources.
150Assessment of Older Clients Risk factors for gambling problems are:the presence of current posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, minority raceor ethnicity, and being a Veterans Affairs (VA) patient.Therefore include questions about gambling.CAGE and MAST—Geriatric version are validated for use with older adults.
151ASSESSMENT FOR STRENGTHS View clients as in charge of their own goals.Take into account social factors as well as individual factors for a comprehensive view of the situation.Move the assessment toward strengths, both intrapersonal (motivation, emotional strengths and ability to think clearly) and interpersonal (familynetworks, etc.Avoid identifying the person with a label.
152Strengths Assessment continued Key ingredients:Empathy.Provide hope.Reflective listening.
154AssessmentNeed for assessment forms to be sensitive to gender/cultural differencesLanguage differences, e.g., the word craving hard to translateCAGE and TWEAK work well with women
155CAGE Have you tried Cutting down? Have people Annoyed you? Have you felt Guilty about your ATOD use?Have you ever used ATOD as an Eye opener?
156Other Screening Forms AUDIT developed by WHO for alcohol use NIAAA—50 item instrument, Inventory of Drug Use Consequences, in public domainWHO designated areas of harm caused by drink—physical, emotional, health, family, finances, etc.
157Strengths- and Evidence-Based Helping Strategies Chapter 8Strengths- and Evidence-Based Helping Strategies
158Dennis SaleebeyFocus on possibilities, choices—providing treatment options.Resilience, healing, and wholeness.Contrast with problem-solving approach.
159Dennis SaleebeyFocus on possibilities, choices—providing treatment options.Resilience, healing, and wholeness.Contrast with problem-solving approach.Strengths-based practice defined by Saleebey as “a versatile practice approach, relying heavily on ingenuity and creativity.”
160Issue of Self-Determination How do we honor client’s self-determination when the client is harming himself-herself with substance misuse? 1.Right of choice should be extended to all social classes; as it is people in poverty have far less choice than those at high income levels. 2. Importance of providing options. Abstinence-based models do not. 3. Attend to readiness of client to change.
161First of Four Models of Strengths-Based Approaches 1. Harm reduction: public health model, prevention, outreach. Abstinence not precondition to treatment; recovery can be measured through degree of improvement.Stages of Change Model: Prochaska and DiClementePrecontemplationContemplationPreparationActionMaintenanceRelapse
162Harm Reduction Strategies Practitioners are advised to focus on harms other than substance use, such as unemployment, poverty, need for housing.Gambling problems can be prevented by removing gambling machines from shopping centers, strip malls, clubs, and hotels.Other support services, such as mental health and financial counseling should be readily available.
1632. Motivational Interviewing (MI)---William Miller Defined as a “client-centered, directivemethod for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence.”Need to ask the right questions; “Tell me about a period when you were doing well?”Smoking: on a scale of 1-10 to give up smoking, where are you now?
164MI continued Steps to enhance motivation: Express empathy Develop discrepancyAvoid argumentationRoll with resistanceSupport self-efficacyAsking open-ended questions helps clients evoke the decision to change.
1653. Solution focused therapy Finding solution to problem viewed as more important than finding the cause. Strategies:Miracle questionThe personal narrativeScaling questionsCoping questions
1664. Cognitive/Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Attributed to Aaron Beck’s work with depression.Albert Ellis challenged clients’ faulty belief systems.Currently more focus on promoting positive thoughts rather than focus on the negative.Studies consistently show CBT as the most empiricallysupported form of group therapy for addictions
167Teaching about Distortions Gambling example: conditioning used by casino owners to get players to spend more—use of bells, positive reinforcement.Gamblers often have distorted beliefs about lucky days and machines and so forth.Skills training can help clients avoid succumbing to triggers that promote gambling.Role plays and reinforcement of behaviors to resist temptation are effective strategies.
168CBT for Relapse Prevention Interpersonal coping skills help clients deal with high-risk relapse situations and to develop social support for their recovery.Teaching of refusal skills.Intrapersonal coping skills focus on learning how to cope with one’s own internal triggers, such as anger, stress, and negative moods.
169Group TherapyMost popular form of delivering substance abuse treatment.Cost effective, good source for feedback.Of proven effectiveness in teaching skills, helping people to learn from others, getting feedback.
170Early Stages of Group Therapy First step—to establish trust, build faith in the counselor and group members.Discuss rules of agency and group norms.For example, confidentiality—what is said in the group stays in the group.Motivational interviewing groups for college students shown to be helpful in reducing drinking problems.Example of drop-in group for homeless people.
171Traditional Treatment and Strengths-Based Approaches Detox—opportunity to introduce patient to choices.Outpatient—primarily group counseling.Inpatient and halfway houses.Aftercare once a month, may be 12 Step group or religious activity.
172Chapter 9Substance Misuse With A Co-Occurring Disorder Or Disability
173Co-Occurring Disorders Double whammy—substance dependence and mental disorder. Bipolar—feeling high can imitate drug use.Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 ended discrimination against consumers of mental health and substance abuse treatment services in insurance coverage.The numbers of people with serious mental disorders who misuse substances and who smoke is double the rate of those without mental health disorders.Around half of people in treatment for substance use disorder have a serious mental disorder.
174Need for Integrated Treatment Integrated Approach—fits with harm reductionAbout a third of addiction treatment programs now include treatment for psychiatric disorders.Only 8.5% offer integrated programming (2006)Anxiety disorder diagnosed in 40% of persons with drug dependency; may be effect of stimulant drugs.
175Co-Occurring Disorders continued Addiction counselors often explain psychosis as drug induced.Mental health professionals tend to see alcohol use as self medication.Truth is both/and, not either/or.Coexisting disorders: anxiety, compulsive gambling, eating and mood disorders.
176Disorders that Often Co-exist with Substance Abuse: AnxietyCompulsive gamblingMood disordersEating disordersPersonality disordersPsychosis
177Personality Disorders: Borderline personalityAnti-social personalityThese diagnoses often based on cultural biasesIntegrated treatment neededNeed to offer better housing, can rely on funding by Supplemental Security Insurance (SSI)
178PTSDDiagnosis came in 1980 in response to Vietnam war veterans and feminist movement on behalf of rape victimsAbout 25% exposed to severe trauma will develop substance related problemsHigh rate of relapse among women in substance abuse treatment with PTSD upon releaseHigh anxiety a problemTrauma from natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina
179PTSD after Combat At least 1 in 6 veterans of war in Iraq has PTSD Flashbacks commonImmediate intervention with SSRIs recommended to offset formation of locked memoriesWomen seeking help for rape trauma, someimes from attacks by fellow soldiers
180Bipolar DisorderMost commonly diagnosed of the mental disorders for those with co-occurring disorders.From mania to depression90% with this disorder have substance-related problems in a prison sample
181Schizophrenia About 1% develop schizophrenia Delusions, hallucinations, apathy and loss of pleasure, problems concentratingJohn Nash, A Beautiful Mind48% have substance-related problems, a variety of substances used“No wrong door” to treatmentProne to homelessness; Housing First programs
182Integrated Treatment Principles SAMSHA Integrated treatment specialists are trained to treat both substance use disorders and serious mental illnesses.Co-occurring disorders are treated in a stage-wise fashion with different services provided at different stages.Motivational interventions are used to treat consumers in all stages, but especially in the “persuasion” stage.
183Integrated Principles continued Substance abuse counseling, using a cognitive-behavioral approach for the active treatment and relapse prevention stages.Multiple formats for services are available, including individual, group, self-help, and family.Medication services are integrated and coordinated with psychosocial services.
184Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Unlike integrated treatment, here the counselors go to the client and are available around the clock. Only for the most severe mental illness. Principles:Team approach: ACT team members interdisciplinary and act as a whole to ensure basic needs are met.Small caseload: Teams of 10–12 serve 100 consumers.Time unlimited services. No individual caseloads.
185Housing FirstSupportive model for chronically mentally ill with substance use problems. In contrast to housing programs requiring total abstinence.Intensive case management provided. Client choices are respected.“Wet” houses.Cost effective for communities—New York City, Seattle, San Francisco, Portland, OR.
186Physical and Cognitive Disabilities 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act for full participation in services Persons with head injuries at high risk for substance misuse; many were intoxicated when injured High among wounded war veterans—Traumatic brain injury from war in Iraq Barriers to treatment—few programs with expertise to meet the need.
187Social Aspects of Addictions Chapter 10 Part IVSocial Aspects of Addictions Chapter 10
188Family Risks and Resilience Addiction is a family disease…pain and stigma.Box 10.1 Des Moines Register “Children of Addicts”—meth labs, family fights, and child neglect in IowaClassic Family Structure:Addict as symptom of carrier.Faulty communication in family >anorexiaConfusion of cause and effectFamily therapy field, little attention to addiction problems except as symptomsLittle attention to cultural diversity as well. See McGoldrick et al’s Ethnicity and Family Therapy (2005)
189History of Family Treatment Lack of insurance prevents emphasis on family treatmentVirginia Satir: studied family adaptation to person’s illness.Claudia Black“It will never happen to me”Don’t talk, trust, feel—co-alcoholic, codependent.Al-Anon—1950s
190Wegscheider’s Role Theory Codependent person, chief enabler—terms took on negative connotations later.This text uses the more positive term, family manager instead of chief enabler.Wegscheider’s terms for family roles: hero, scapegoat, lost child, mascotMelody Beattie: Codependency No More popularized the term. We suggest survivor instead of codependent, a term that has taken on a life of its own.
191Figure 9.1 Family FormsEnmeshed family: Spouses are estranged: one child here is enmeshed with father, one with motherFMCC
192Isolated family:Lack of cohesion and social support. Each member is protected by wall of defenses.FCCM
193Healthy family:All are touching, but their boundaries are not overlapping.FCCM
194Stages of Change and Family: 1. Precontemplation: Counselors describe family communication patterns.2. Contemplation: family concerns – look for solutions. Male partners may be hard to engage.3. Preparation: Breaking point--formal intervention (see boxed reading by Carroll Schutey) Family members make a list of feeling responses to addict’s actions.
195Stages continued 4. Action: Rehearsal and treatment of family without addicted member.Therapist feedback—Example of therapist response to family argument: “I note that as you, Steve said that just then, you (kid) fell out of chair.” Purpose to reveal how the family roles operate in a system.5. Maintenance:Focus on process not content “what to do if….” Transition with sobriety.
196Cultural Considerations McGoldrick et al’s book on different ethnicities. Describes work with:African American families—reciprocity a strength hereLatino families—avoid a businesslike approachAsian and Asian American families—engage most powerful person in the familyAppalachian families—engage the women who will teach health care practices
197Situations of Domestic Violence Connection of substance use and violence. Battering intervention programs. Motivational interviewing as bridge between women’s domestic violence services and substance abuse treatment. Teaching women safety plans for harm reduction. Risk of serious violence and death.
198Rules of Fighting Fair Attack behavior, not person Keep issues of manageable size, don’t label,Don’t use negative labels.Don’t rehash the past.
199Three R’s ModelRename: No labels, shopping addiction as illness, not foolish spending.Reframe: help client see things happen for a reasonReclaim: healing, we-ness, family circles to make decisions (from Native Americans)Kathy and Ed: Case Study
200Exercises Related to Family Work Drawing family maps, circlesRelapse prevention plan.Viewing excerpt from a movie or videotape.
202Mutual Aid GroupsConfusion—12 Step facilitated treatment and 12 Step self help groups (far more tolerant and non-judgmental).AA – spiritually based fellowship is freeVoluntary treatment: consistent with harm reduction.Involuntary treatment for those who failed at moderation.
203Twelve Steps Presented in Box 11.1. First five: 1. We admitted we were powerless over alcohol—that our lives had become unmanageable.2. Came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to sanity.3. Made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of God as we understood Him.4. Made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves.5. Admitted to God, to ourselves and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs.
204Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) Greater involvement in AA found to effective.Use of narratives…stories of powerlessness over the addiction, lives out of control…Feminist objections to 12 StepsMetaphor of disease—mental, physical, and spiritual, metaphor of powerlessnessMeans of expanding treatment.. words in Big Book…One day at a time…Higher Power.
205Other Self-Help Groups GA—members tend to be older and have high rate of abstinence after attending for 2 months.Addresses financial as well as spiritual problems.NA—multilingual meetings.Women for Sobriety—13 Steps.SMART Recovery----cognitive approach. Moderation Management—starts at 30 days of abstinence, a harm reduction strategy[Some say 12 Steps should be modernized. See one attempt—9 Steps at
206Recovery Community Centers A new development in some states, follow recovery management philosophy. Provides services such as telephone support (usually by a volunteer in recovery), family support groups, housing assistance, recovery group meetings, social events, and recovery coaching.
207Chapter 12Racial, Ethnic, Cultureand Class Issues
208Minority Group Membership Need to know social political context of being minority.Treatment must take into account ethnoculture norms.The Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) lists the ability to “engage diversity and difference in practice” as one of the ten core competencies.We need to know something about norms of particular groups to enhance treatment.
209Social ClassImportance of class—bell hooks- Class affects adolescents access to drugs. Drug use affected by unemployment and low income status. Often as acculturation increases, so does substance misuse
210Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Low rate of substance misuse—just over 3%.Japanese Americans drink much more than Chinese Americans.Success often is related to their level of education at home and urbanization.Cambodians - war trauma.
211Asians and HawaiiansAsian Americans - highest income of all ethnicities, filial piety.Emotional sharing may lead to loss of face.Immigration, a major stress.For Native Hawaiians female elders provide culturally based treatment.Pilot program in India uses yoga and meditation to reduce stress.
212American Indians and Alaskan Natives Historical trauma—racism and children were once sent to boarding schools to destroy culture.Native Americans are less than .9% of US population. Almost half report they are of mixed race.High rate of substance abuse or dependence: 15.5%. illicit drug use—18.3%, binge drinking—22.2%, cigarette use—41.8%. High fatal accident rate, FAS.High poverty, alcohol abuse, youth inhalant use.Use of Medicine Wheel for holistic, spiritual framework, talking circles. (Box 12.2)Red Road to Sobriety.
213Latinos 16% of population (California: 1/3 of population) 58% of Hispanics in the U.S. are Mexicans.Substance abuse or dependence for Hispanics 10.2%. Increase in treatment admissions for meth use.Treatment needs for alcohol misuse among Mexican Americans (9.2%) and Puerto Ricans (6.1%).In U.S. 21.1% of Latinos smoke. Less among women but increasing.High rate of gambling problems. HIV/AIDS a major problem.High rate of poverty; few have health insurance.Group has the highest high school drop-out rate, Puerto Ricans, the highest poverty rate.
214Treatment Issues for Latinos Male/female role differentiation.Work with family should support family strengths.Need for Spanish-speaking counselors. Understand that with second generation, women have more addiction problems.Case management services needed to get clients into GED programs where needed and job training programs.
215African Americans Are just over 12% of population. Substance abuse and addiction rate is 8.8%. 24% report binge drinking. Illicit drug abuse 9.6%. About 24% of treatment population but drug use is not much more than that of general population.In prison are 44% of inmates sentenced for illicit drug involvement.Of those who gamble, high addiction rate.45% of all new HIV cases are African American.
216African Americans continued Higher social class and church attendance are protective factors.Older African American women— over 85% abstain.Twice as many are in poverty as whites. Higher social class a protective factor.Almost half of advertising budget targets blacks.Recovery relates to spirituality and family support.David Goodson quote: “ deals with cultural pain.” Harm reduction techniques recommended.Treatment barriers—paper work for Medicaid, waiting period, wanting to conceal problem, waiting period.
217Work with Somalis Trauma from war and refugee experiences. Need for translation services.Gambling may be a problem among the young immigrants although forbidden in the culture.Immigrants will seek spiritual counseling at the mosque.
219Policy IssuesOnly 11% of those who need treatment get it, but may not want it.War on Drugs is not harm reduction, but harm maximizationSSI (Supplemental Security Income) for alcohol/drugs disabilities has been discontinuedManaged care, reduced inpatient coverage, reductions in Medicare reimbursement
220Promising Developments Drug courts, mental health courts. Baltimore uniquely has a huge number of treatment slots available. Reduction in drug overdose deaths in Washington DC thanks to more treatment funding.
221Welfare ReformFederal government denies benefits to needy people with alcohol and drug problems.TANF drug testing in some states.Removal of coverage for substance related disabilities such as alcoholism from SSI (Supplemental Security Income), loss of Medicaid eligibility through this program for treatment.Government encourages drug testing for welfare recipients; new laws in states now doing this.
222Managed CareRestrictions on care are familiar to all treatment providers. Cost containment and accountability are stressed. Focus on brief, outpatient visits. Cuts in mental health care by the states.
223Federal Confidentiality Laws “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug AbusePatient Records” (2011) apply to all agencies that provide substance abuse treatment or prevention.The rules are far more stringent than for any other category of treatment.No disclosure of content that would be harmful to the patient with or without the patient’s signed consent.This is true even with a court subpoena.This law is protect clients who seek treatment from facts about their prior drug use or dealing.
224Other Legal MattersTreatment options to AA—Supreme Court ruling related to separation of church and state.War on Drugs—failed policy, most agree in survey: injustice, racial oppression, huge expense.Media hype about drug crime, mandatory minimum sentencing.Most inmates in federal prison are minorities.Mothers of crack babies given punitive treatment.
225Ethical MattersMental health professionals have their codes of ethics as do substance abuse counselors that require:Nondiscrimination of clients on the basis of race, color, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability,Continuing professional and educational growth;Not exploiting clients sexually or financially;Reporting professional misconduct of colleagues, such as violations of client confidentiality.Avoid dual relationships.
226War on DrugsOver 40,000 killed in Mexican war on drugs—war of cartels. Global Commission on Drug Policy (2011) led by former presidents from Latin America called for end to drug wars. Need to rethink zero tolerance policies. Two-thirds of Americans agree; a slight majority of Americans favor legalization of marijuana.
227Mandatory SentencingWomen have the fastest growing prison population rate, especially in federal prisons.1986, federal mandatory minimum sentencing laws enacted.Hysteria over “crack babies”—harm to fetus actually was from the alcohol used.US Supreme Court in 2007 ruled the laws should serve as guidelines only.Drug conspiracy laws cause women to be arrested as their partners turn them in as a part of their plea bargaining agreements to get their sentences reduced.
228The New Jim CrowMichelle Alexander (2010): The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Color-Blindness 1 in 9 young black men behind bars. Many children without fathers or both parents.
229Civil Asset Forfeitures Police seize property (cars, houses) related to crimes committed based on “a mere preponderance of evidence.”Oregon requires a conviction first.Partners of drug dealers often pay the price.Informants awarded part of the value of the goods seized.
230Harm Reduction Strategies Needle exchange serves only 15% of drug injectors.Methadone and buprenorphine maintenanceHeroin prescribed to addicts in some European countriesDrug courts: a promising strategy, cost effective for communitiesThis text argues not legalization but for middle of the road policies—decriminalization—to reduce harm.
231Recommendations Concerning Gambling Restrict all gambling to those who are at least 21years of ageRemove slot machines from neighborhoodstores, banning betting on collegiate and amateurathletic events.Ban aggressive advertising that targets impoverished neighborhoods and youth,Prohibit credit card machines in casinos.
232Addiction Treatment: A Strengths Perspective, 3rd ed. The EndAddiction Treatment: A Strengths Perspective, 3rd ed.