Presentation on theme: "Differentiation - What Works?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Differentiation - What Works? Jim Miles International Center for Leadership in Education
2 Welcome to the Middle School Mathematics Initiative! It’s All About Math!Welcome to the Middle School Mathematics Initiative!Institute Theme:Closing the Achievement Gap – Strategies to Support Struggling Learners
3 Sponsored by: Florida Department of Education It’s All About Math!Sponsored by:Florida Department of EducationFlorida and the Islands Comprehensive Center at ETS (FLICC)In Partnership with:The International Center for Leadership in EducationESCORTFlorida Council of Teachers of MathematicsPAEC
4 Objectives: Identify and define struggling learners It’s All About Math!Objectives:Identify and define struggling learnersBecome aware of innovative and practical strategies to use with students who are struggling academically in mathUtilize Rigor and Relevance materials and resources to address the needs of struggling learnersDevelop a lesson using differentiated instruction strategies to use with struggling learners
5 Agenda at a Glance: Day 1 Registration, Continental Breakfast It’s All About Math!Agenda at a Glance:Day 1Registration, Continental BreakfastWelcome, IntroductionsIce Breaker and Jump Start ActivityDefining and Identifying the Struggling LearnerBreakTheory of Practice and Differentiated InstructionLunchTheory of Practice and Differentiated Instruction (cont.)Learning StylesExamples of Differentiated Instruction – Breakout rooms
6 Agenda at a Glance: Day 2 Continental Breakfast – Large Room It’s All About Math!Agenda at a Glance:Day 2Continental Breakfast – Large RoomExamples of Differentiated Instruction – Breakout RoomsSharing of Quad D Lesson Revisions – Large RoomBreakVocabulary Strategies – Large RoomLunch – Large RoomAssessment Strategies - Large RoomAction Plan Revisions – Breakout Rooms
7 Model Lessons - Peer Review It’s All About Math!Standards Database:Model Lessons - Peer ReviewSurvey Questions:What is the name of the lesson you reviewed?What learning opportunities does this lesson provide for math students?3. Does the math content of this lesson fit the associated benchmark?
8 Model Lessons - Peer Review It’s All About Math!Standards Database:Model Lessons - Peer Review4. How well does this lesson address the following teaching and learning process standards? [each will have a text box to request justification]Problem SolvingReasoning and ProofCommunicationConnectionsRepresentations5. What modifications did or would you make to this lesson plan?6. Do you recommend this lesson for publication in the Standards Database: (select one)As isWith modificationsNot recommended
9 AGENDA Differentiated Instruction Differentiation Math Strategies Learning StylesVocabulary Strategies
10 Critical Questions What is differentiation? What does and does not work in differentiation initiatives?
11 What I know I know about Differentiation What I think I know about DifferentiationWhat I want to know about DifferentiationWhat I have learned about Differentiation
12 Characteristics of a Differentiated Classroom All students explore, apply, and understand the same benchmarksContinuous assessment is an integral part of the curriculum.Flexible grouping is used consistentlyStudents are active explorers
14 Why Differentiation Does Not Succeed in Schools… Lack of trust and climate issuesInsufficient staff developmentFocus is on teaching and not on learningFocus is on methodology and not on meeting diverse student needsTeachers work in isolationMore than a lesson plans is needed
15 Differentiating a 6th Grade math Classroom Problem SolvingProblem representationPictorial versus Schematic representationGoal: develop schematic representations: relationship among the problem partsProblem executionStationsSame concepts taught differently: algebra
16 Differentiated Instruction ContentLearn how to subtract using two-digit numbers versus larger numbers in the context of word problemsProcessAccessing the material through centers (stations) versus the webProductDemonstrate understanding of a geometric concept by solving a problem set versus building a model
17 Differentiated Instruction 30 different ways to teach the same lessonLinking student readiness to differentiationThrough relevanceStudent learning mode
18 Our Math Students English Language Learners Gifted students Struggling students
19 English Language Learners Helping English Learners acquire math languageHow can math teachers help them acquire academic language they need?ESL teachers may not have strong math skillsWhat needs to be doneAccelerate learning that is grade-level appropriate.Give students challenging work with the support they need to be successful.
20 Collaborative GroupsCreate a math classroom withrich language development activitiesstudents speaking, reading, and writingheterogeneous groups of students at varying levels of English acquisitionstudents talking to peers, in groups and in classroom discussion
21 Differentiation in the Classroom There are four supporting systems that interact to make differentiation a natural next step.
22 Supporting Structures For Natural Differentiation Aligned Curriculum and AssessmentsStrategy ToolkitPersonal ConnectionsDiagnostic Thinking
23 Aligned Curriculum and Assessments Rigor / RelevanceAligned Formative and Summative AssessmentsPerformance-basedConcept-basedCritical questionsPowerful standards
26 Instructional Strategies: How to Teach for Rigor and Relevance
27 Strategy Toolkit Literacy: Thinking and communicating DTQ Literacy Critical thinkingBrain friendlyMultiple intelligences or learning stylesResearch-basedSubgroup specificQuick Write
28 Selection of Strategies Data Collection:Areas for Focus and SupportThinkingProcess, product or performanceContentRelationship and ReflectionIndependenceStandards Basis:Areas for Focus and SupportRigorousRelevantLeverageEnduranceReadiness for next level
29 Researched-based Best Practices Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student AchievementPercentile GainIdentifying similarities and differences, using metaphors and analogies45Summarizing and notetaking34Reinforcing effort and providing recognition29Homework and practice28Nonlinguistic representations27Cooperative learningSetting objectives and providing feedback23Generating and testing hypothesesQuestions, cues, and advance organizers22Marzano, R., Pickering, D., & Pollack, J., Classroom Instruction That Works, 200142
30 Personal Connections For students and staff Relationships Reflection TrustCoaching and mentoringInvolvementLearning communities
31 In a Culture of Learning, Students Exhibit purposeful actionCan describe next stepsAppropriately ask for assistanceQuestions are about aspects of complex thinking rather than procedureAdhere to class normsAttitude and demeanor are positiveCollaborate as needed without promptsPositively reinforce each otherCan self-evaluate work in progress
32 Student Engagement Cultivate one-on-one relationships Learn and use new skills and habitsUse effective instructional strategiesEngage ALL students in activities/discussionsPromote School wide culture of engagementProfessional development
33 The “How to” for Student Engagement Design for rigorous and relevant learningPersonalize the learning giving choices, attending to learning styles, and using background knowledge and talentsUse active learning strategiesFocus on literacy in ALL classesCreate the ideal classroom environment physically, visually, and emotionally
34 Diagnostic Thinking Assessment-based planning Formative and summative data design, collection, and analysisSelected strategies based on dataDiagnostic dialogueStudent Growth
35 Total Group Alone Paired Small Groups Comprehension Recall Modeling other levels of thinkingChecking for levelTotal GroupAlonePairedSmallGroupsAnalyzeSynthesizeAdaptive reasoningEvaluationAnalyticalSynthesizeDecision makingEvaluationSystems thinkingApplicationDecision makingCriteria establishmentComprehension
36 Meeting Diverse Learner Needs: Assessing Your Assets DiagnosticThinkingStrategyToolkitAlignedCurriculumandAssessmentsPersonalConnections
37 What can You Differentiate? TimeTeaching StrategiesLearning StrategiesClassroom AssessmentsMaterials and ResourcesGroupingExpectations
38 Differentiated Instruction IS NOT…IS…- Tracking- A New Strategy- Static- Teaching to the Middle- A series of activities- Lowering the Bar- Flexible Grouping- Student Centered- Rigorous / Relevant- For all Learners- Based on academic and personal needs- Fosters relationships and reflection
39 What does it take to differentiate? Set rigorous and relevant goalsStudents need to know / be able to do?Where are they on the learning curve now?Select instructional strategies that will enhance the learning.Monitor student progress and adjust instruction if needed.
40 Natural Differentiation When meeting student needs is just a part of what you do, how you think, and the results you get with studentsStudents can begin to differentiate for themselves.
41 Learning Styles/ Personality Types Florida and the Islands Comprehensive CenterLearning Styles is one strategy to use for differentiated instruction. This presentation is based on the work of Myers-Briggs, Keirsey-Bates, and Carl Jung.
42 Brain research confirms what experienced teachers have always known: No two children are alikeNo two children learn in the identical wayAn enriched environment for one student is not necessarily enriched for anotherIn the classroom we should teach children to think for themselvesMarian Diamond
43 Why should I care about learning styles? The way a child learns affects his/her entire personality and development.Understanding learning styles will help teachers and students to better communicate.Understanding learning styles will help teachers to differentiate instruction.
44 What is a learning style? A learning style is…a way to take in and process informationa preference that gets stronger the more it is usedthe way the mind operatesthe way we learn!After reviewing this slide, ask participants to view the next four pictures and as they are looking at them, to think of the characteristics of each. Tell them that after they have viewed all four pictures, they will be asked to “choose” one picture that they seemed to identify with, based upon the characteristics they associated with each picture.
45 Show for about 15 seconds and move to next picture.
46 Show for about 15 seconds and move to next picture.
47 Show for about 15 seconds and move to next picture.
48 Show for about 15 seconds. Ask participants to think about all four pictures and then choose the one they “identified” with. If they didn’t identify with any, ask them to choose which one they like the best.Next, ask participants to go to the chart paper (hung on the wall) that displays the picture they chose. Once in groups, participants will chart the answers to these questions: What makes you feel in-esteem or high? What makes you feel out of esteem or low? Give participants about five minutes to discuss and chart their answers. Ask that they try to come to a consensus in the group. When they are done charting, each group will chose someone to share out the group’s chart, and the rest of the group will return to their seats. Each group will share out. The goal will be for everyone to see the characteristics and commonalities among the people in each group, and the differences in characteristics and commonalities among the different picture groups. In most cases, the picture that a person chooses ends up representing that person’s learning style. After all groups have shared out and discussion is over, continue on with the next slide.
49 Sensing Thinking Learner (ST) Likes:Immediate responses and feedbackDetails and sequential orderHands-on activities with a specific, correct answerClear, concise, step-by-step directionsKnowing exact expectations; why something has to be done, and how well it is to be doneDrill and practice
50 Intuitive Thinking Learner (NT) Likes:Planning and organizing before workingWorking independentlyAnalyzing and examining pros and consArguing and debatingThinking about ideas and how they are relatedFinding/designing a new way to do somethingLogical and strategic games
51 Intuitive Feeling Learner (NF) Likes:Learning without time constraintsPraise for personal ideas and insightsUsing creativity and imaginationOpen-ended activities with many possibilitiesWorking on many things at onceSelf-expression and self-discoveryCreative and artistic activities
52 Sensing Feeling Learner (SF) Likes:Getting personal attention and praiseSharing feelings and experiencesWorking in groups/being part of a teamHaving someone show how to do somethingRole-playing and personal expressionNon-competitive games where no one losesInterpersonal activities; opportunities to learn about himself/herself
53 What is your learning style? Sensing Thinking (ST)Intuitive Thinking (NT)Intuitive Feeling (NF)Sensing Feeling (SF)Refer to handout “Identify Type Preference”. Ask participants to review it and check off the characteristics they feel address them. The quadrant with the most checks is most likely their learning style.
54 Questions: Sensing Thinking (ST): WHAT? Intuitive Thinking (NT): WHY? Intuitive Feeling (NF): WHAT IF?Sensing Feeling (SF): WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO ME?Example questions:ST: WHAT is the correct way to do this?NT: WHY does is have to be done this way?NF: WHAT IF we tried doing it this way?SF: WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO ME to do this?
55 In A Nutshell… No one learning style is better than another. We all have characteristics of each learning style; some characteristics are just stronger than others.Learning about each style will help us to better understand and communicate with our students.Knowing about each learning style will help teachers to better understand how students learn and how to differentiate instruction.
56 Differentiated Instruction IS NOT…IS…- Tracking- A New Strategy- Static- Teaching to the Middle- A series of activities- Lowering the Bar- Flexible Grouping- Student Centered- Rigorous / Relevant- For all Learners- Based on academic and personal needs- Fosters relationships and reflection
57 Differentiated Instruction ContentLearn how to subtract using two-digit numbers versus larger numbers in the context of word problemsProcessAccessing the material through centers (stations) versus the webProductDemonstrate understanding of a geometric concept by solving a problem set versus building a model
58 Meeting Diverse Learner Needs: Assessing Your Assets DiagnosticThinkingStrategyToolkitAlignedCurriculumandAssessmentsPersonalConnections
60 Vocabulary Strategies English language learners need to develop the language of mathematics.Vocabulary StrategiesPair/Share: How do you teach vocabulary?
61 Vocabulary is the Gateway to Inferential Thinking Most of us learned to teach vocabulary by having students:Write the word several timesFind the definitionWrite it in a sentenceMeta-research from William Nagy, Teaching Vocabulary to Improve Comprehension, ERIC, 2000 reports that…These are the three least effective methods of initially teaching vocabulary!
62 Larry Bell’s 12 Powerful Words 1. Trace List in steps2. Analyze Break apart3. Infer Read between the lines4. Evaluate Judge5. Formulate Create6. Describe Tell all about7. Support Back up with details8. Explain Tell how9. Summarize Give me the short version10. Compare All the ways they are alike11. Contrast All the ways they are different12. Predict What will happen next
63 Verbal Rehearsal Connect with prior learning Association method Think-Pair-Share
64 Visual Clueing Post key words Color code or place with pictures, clip art
65 3. Examples and Non-Examples Most famous strategy is the “Frayer Method”Non-linguistic symbol creationWhat is it, what isn’t it?Add to a class Blog
66 Frayer Method Examples Non-examples Non-linguistic Representation Use orApplication – put in contextNow write your own definition:Concept
67 Analogies Connect to prior knowledge. Use opposites. Use as prompt, questions for discussion.Use verbal, visual or written analogies.Analogies are one of the pre-requisites for inference.
68 Pictures and Demonstrations Use posters for a demonstrationUse pictures on homeworkDemonstrate an idea and use visuals or PowerPointHave students role play an ideaUse color highlighting in print and electronicallyText message and add a picture or require and action
69 Graphic Organizers Brain friendly Creates patterns for the brain Supports concept developmentMulti-purposeCross content application with little modification (101 Uses)Motivating to reluctant writers – small spaces
74 Vocabulary Strategies, Writing Strategies and Graphic Organizers Combine for High Payoff Add some cooperative grouping and you have instant results based learning
75 May Your Moments be Many! “Educators are addicted to the moment when a student’s eyes light up, when the teaching becomes learning. May your days be filled with such moments.”Philip Patrick Horenstein
77 Analogical Reasoning What is it? Identifying how one set of concepts has similar relationships to those found in another set of conceptsProcess:Identify relationships between the two elements in the first set.Identify which element in the first set is most closely related to the single element in the second set.Identify an element that would make the second set of elements have the same relationship as the first set.(Marzano and Arrendando)
78 Analogical Reasoning: Your Turn Fly is to soar like yell is to:WhisperShoutSwimTree: penny :: lion:HorseSkyPencilMorning: night :: 4 :136Rain: mud :: bud:WingsFlowerFertilizer
79 Nine Analogical Relationships One concept performs a function on another (territory dispute-war)Time or sequence relationship (morning-noon)Quantity, size, or physical dimension relationship (tall-Empire State Building)Part to whole (hero-fantasy)Why are these important?What are some examples in in math at your grade level?Synonyms or similar relationships (pretty-cute)Antonyms or dissimilar relationships (hot-cold)Concepts within the same class (independent variables and dependent variables)Category name and member (cells-plant cells)One concept turns into another (tadpole-frog)
80 6. Combining Clues to Utilize the Definition Give clues leading to a definition.Develop characteristics or map patterns.Develop relationships to prior knowledge - web the features before the center of the web.Have students guess the word with clues and give a use.Also known as “constructivist vocabulary development”
81 7. Verbal and Physical Memories What does it look like…What does it feel like…Verbalize as you perform an actionAttach a physical movement with the workType a written response that uses the conceptAct it out, performance-basedExplain as you perform an experiment
82 8. Key Word MethodNot all words are equal, so teach the underlying concepts through bold print, color, websUse feature analysisEstablish parts to whole relationshipsCreate an array with concepts in different degrees
83 9. Creating Patterns and Graphic Organizers Use cause and effect mappingUse multiple column note-taking with wordsUse linear or hierarchical arrays to show relationships
84 Two More Vocabulary Strategies that are Graphical The next two strategies include the use of graphic organizers.In addition, some content areas and some types of text work with non-prose materials, so what are some graphic organizers that support math, science and the use of visual materials
86 Adjusted or Triple Venn INFLUENCE OF MULTIPLES:ElementsPartsCausesConditions
87 10. Semantic Feature Analysis Traditional Semantic Feature Analysis Comparison of Pets
88 Big Idea 1:Develop an understanding of and fluency with multiplication and division of fractions and decimals.MA.6.A.1.1-Explain and justify procedures for multiplying and dividing fractions and decimals