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Differentiation - What Works? Jim Miles International Center for Leadership in Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Differentiation - What Works? Jim Miles International Center for Leadership in Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Differentiation - What Works? Jim Miles International Center for Leadership in Education

2 Its All About Math! Welcome to the Middle School Mathematics Initiative! Institute Theme: Closing the Achievement Gap – Strategies to Support Struggling Learners

3 Its All About Math! Sponsored by: Florida Department of Education Florida and the Islands Comprehensive Center at ETS (FLICC) In Partnership with: The International Center for Leadership in Education ESCORT Florida Council of Teachers of Mathematics PAEC

4 Its All About Math! Objectives: Identify and define struggling learners Become aware of innovative and practical strategies to use with students who are struggling academically in math Utilize Rigor and Relevance materials and resources to address the needs of struggling learners Develop a lesson using differentiated instruction strategies to use with struggling learners

5 Its All About Math! Agenda at a Glance: Day 1 Registration, Continental Breakfast Welcome, Introductions Ice Breaker and Jump Start Activity Defining and Identifying the Struggling Learner Break Theory of Practice and Differentiated Instruction Lunch Theory of Practice and Differentiated Instruction (cont.) Learning Styles Examples of Differentiated Instruction – Breakout rooms

6 Its All About Math! Agenda at a Glance: Day 2 Continental Breakfast – Large Room Examples of Differentiated Instruction – Breakout Rooms Sharing of Quad D Lesson Revisions – Large Room Break Vocabulary Strategies – Large Room Lunch – Large Room Assessment Strategies - Large Room Action Plan Revisions – Breakout Rooms

7 Its All About Math! Standards Database: Model Lessons - Peer Review Survey Questions: 1.What is the name of the lesson you reviewed? 2.What learning opportunities does this lesson provide for math students? 3. Does the math content of this lesson fit the associated benchmark?

8 Its All About Math! Standards Database: Model Lessons - Peer Review 4. How well does this lesson address the following teaching and learning process standards? [each will have a text box to request justification] Problem Solving Reasoning and Proof Communication Connections Representations 5. What modifications did or would you make to this lesson plan? 6. Do you recommend this lesson for publication in the Standards Database: (select one) As is With modifications Not recommended

9 AGENDA Differentiated Instruction Differentiation Math Strategies Learning Styles Vocabulary Strategies

10 Critical Questions What is differentiation? What does and does not work in differentiation initiatives?

11 What I know I know about Differentiation What I think I know about Differentiation What I want to know about Differentiation What I have learned about Differentiation

12 Characteristics of a Differentiated Classroom All students explore, apply, and understand the same benchmarks Continuous assessment is an integral part of the curriculum. Flexible grouping is used consistently Students are active explorers

13 All Students

14 Why Differentiation Does Not Succeed in Schools… Lack of trust and climate issues Insufficient staff development Focus is on teaching and not on learning Focus is on methodology and not on meeting diverse student needs Teachers work in isolation More than a lesson plans is needed

15 Problem Solving Problem representation Pictorial versus Schematic representation Goal: develop schematic representations: relationship among the problem parts Problem execution Stations Same concepts taught differently: algebra Differentiating a 6 th Grade math Classroom

16 Differentiated Instruction Content Learn how to subtract using two-digit numbers versus larger numbers in the context of word problems Process Accessing the material through centers (stations) versus the web Product Demonstrate understanding of a geometric concept by solving a problem set versus building a model

17 Differentiated Instruction 30 different ways to teach the same lesson Linking student readiness to differentiation Through relevance Student learning mode

18 Our Math Students English Language Learners Gifted students Struggling students

19 English Language Learners Helping English Learners acquire math language How can math teachers help them acquire academic language they need? ESL teachers may not have strong math skills What needs to be done Accelerate learning that is grade-level appropriate. Give students challenging work with the support they need to be successful.

20 Collaborative Groups Create a math classroom with rich language development activities students speaking, reading, and writing heterogeneous groups of students at varying levels of English acquisition students talking to peers, in groups and in classroom discussion

21 Differentiation in the Classroom There are four supporting systems that interact to make differentiation a natural next step.

22 Supporting Structures For Natural Differentiation 1.Aligned Curriculum and Assessments 2.Strategy Toolkit 3.Personal Connections 4.Diagnostic Thinking

23 Aligned Curriculum and Assessments Rigor / Relevance Aligned Formative and Summative Assessments Performance-based Concept-based Critical questions Powerful standards

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25 Rigor/ Relevance Handbook

26 Instructional Strategies: How to Teach for Rigor and Relevance

27 Literacy: Thinking and communicating DTQ Literacy Critical thinking Brain friendly Multiple intelligences or learning styles Research-based Subgroup specific Quick Write Strategy Toolkit

28 Selection of Strategies Data Collection: Areas for Focus and Support Thinking Process, product or performance Content Relationship and Reflection Independence Standards Basis: Areas for Focus and Support Rigorous Relevant Leverage Endurance Readiness for next level

29 Researched-based Best Practices Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement Percentile Gain Identifying similarities and differences, using metaphors and analogies 45 Summarizing and notetaking34 Reinforcing effort and providing recognition29 Homework and practice28 Nonlinguistic representations27 Cooperative learning27 Setting objectives and providing feedback23 Generating and testing hypotheses23 Questions, cues, and advance organizers22 Marzano, R., Pickering, D., & Pollack, J., Classroom Instruction That Works,

30 Personal Connections For students and staff Relationships Reflection Trust Coaching and mentoring Involvement Learning communities

31 In a Culture of Learning, Students Exhibit purposeful action Can describe next steps Appropriately ask for assistance Questions are about aspects of complex thinking rather than procedure Adhere to class norms Attitude and demeanor are positive Collaborate as needed without prompts Positively reinforce each other Can self-evaluate work in progress

32 Student Engagement Cultivate one-on-one relationships Learn and use new skills and habits Use effective instructional strategies Engage ALL students in activities/discussions Promote School wide culture of engagement Professional development

33 The How to for Student Engagement Design for rigorous and relevant learning Personalize the learning giving choices, attending to learning styles, and using background knowledge and talents Use active learning strategies Focus on literacy in ALL classes Create the ideal classroom environment physically, visually, and emotionally

34 Diagnostic Thinking Assessment-based planning Formative and summative data design, collection, and analysis Selected strategies based on data Diagnostic dialogue Student Growth

35 T Total Group A Alone P Paired S Small Groups Comprehension Recall Modeling other levels of thinking Checking for level Analyze Synthesize Adaptive reasoning Evaluation Analytical Synthesize Decision making Evaluation Systems thinking Application Decision making Criteria establishment Comprehension

36 Meeting Diverse Learner Needs: Assessing Your Assets Meeting Diverse Learner Needs Diagnostic Thinking Strategy Toolkit Aligned Curriculum and Assessments Personal Connections

37 What can You Differentiate? Time Teaching Strategies Learning Strategies Classroom Assessments Materials and Resources Grouping Expectations

38 - Tracking - A New Strategy - Static - Teaching to the Middle - A series of activities - Lowering the Bar - Flexible Grouping - Student Centered - Rigorous / Relevant - For all Learners - Based on academic and personal needs - Fosters relationships and reflection IS NOT…IS… Differentiated Instruction

39 What does it take to differentiate? Set rigorous and relevant goals Students need to know / be able to do? Where are they on the learning curve now? Select instructional strategies that will enhance the learning. Monitor student progress and adjust instruction if needed.

40 Natural Differentiation When meeting student needs is just a part of what you do, how you think, and the results you get with students Students can begin to differentiate for themselves.

41 Learning Styles/ Personality Types Florida and the Islands Comprehensive Center

42 Brain research confirms what experienced teachers have always known: No two children are alike No two children are alike No two children learn in the identical way No two children learn in the identical way An enriched environment for one student is not necessarily enriched for another An enriched environment for one student is not necessarily enriched for another In the classroom we should teach children to think for themselves In the classroom we should teach children to think for themselves Marian Diamond

43 Why should I care about learning styles? The way a child learns affects his/her entire personality and development. The way a child learns affects his/her entire personality and development. Understanding learning styles will help teachers and students to better communicate. Understanding learning styles will help teachers and students to better communicate. Understanding learning styles will help teachers to differentiate instruction. Understanding learning styles will help teachers to differentiate instruction.

44 What is a learning style? A learning style is… A learning style is… –a way to take in and process information –a preference that gets stronger the more it is used –the way the mind operates –the way we learn!

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49 Sensing Thinking Learner (ST) Likes: Likes: –Immediate responses and feedback –Details and sequential order –Hands-on activities with a specific, correct answer –Clear, concise, step-by-step directions –Knowing exact expectations; why something has to be done, and how well it is to be done –Drill and practice

50 Intuitive Thinking Learner (NT) Likes: Likes: –Planning and organizing before working –Working independently –Analyzing and examining pros and cons –Arguing and debating –Thinking about ideas and how they are related –Finding/designing a new way to do something –Logical and strategic games

51 Intuitive Feeling Learner (NF) Likes: Likes: –Learning without time constraints –Praise for personal ideas and insights –Using creativity and imagination –Open-ended activities with many possibilities –Working on many things at once –Self-expression and self-discovery –Creative and artistic activities

52 Sensing Feeling Learner (SF) Likes: Likes: –Getting personal attention and praise –Sharing feelings and experiences –Working in groups/being part of a team –Having someone show how to do something –Role-playing and personal expression –Non-competitive games where no one loses –Interpersonal activities; opportunities to learn about himself/herself

53 What is your learning style? Sensing Thinking (ST) Intuitive Thinking (NT) Intuitive Feeling (NF) Sensing Feeling (SF)

54 Questions: Sensing Thinking (ST): WHAT? Sensing Thinking (ST): WHAT? Intuitive Thinking (NT): WHY? Intuitive Thinking (NT): WHY? Intuitive Feeling (NF): WHAT IF? Intuitive Feeling (NF): WHAT IF? Sensing Feeling (SF): WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO ME? Sensing Feeling (SF): WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO ME?

55 In A Nutshell… No one learning style is better than another. No one learning style is better than another. We all have characteristics of each learning style; some characteristics are just stronger than others. We all have characteristics of each learning style; some characteristics are just stronger than others. Learning about each style will help us to better understand and communicate with our students. Learning about each style will help us to better understand and communicate with our students. Knowing about each learning style will help teachers to better understand how students learn and how to differentiate instruction. Knowing about each learning style will help teachers to better understand how students learn and how to differentiate instruction.

56 - Tracking - A New Strategy - Static - Teaching to the Middle - A series of activities - Lowering the Bar - Flexible Grouping - Student Centered - Rigorous / Relevant - For all Learners - Based on academic and personal needs - Fosters relationships and reflection IS NOT…IS… Differentiated Instruction

57 Content Learn how to subtract using two-digit numbers versus larger numbers in the context of word problems Process Accessing the material through centers (stations) versus the web Product Demonstrate understanding of a geometric concept by solving a problem set versus building a model

58 Meeting Diverse Learner Needs: Assessing Your Assets Meeting Diverse Learner Needs Diagnostic Thinking Strategy Toolkit Aligned Curriculum and Assessments Personal Connections

59 Vocabulary Strategies

60 English language learners need to develop the language of mathematics. Pair/Share: How do you teach vocabulary?

61 Vocabulary is the Gateway to Inferential Thinking Most of us learned to teach vocabulary by having students: Write the word several times Find the definition Write it in a sentence Meta-research from William Nagy, Teaching Vocabulary to Improve Comprehension, ERIC, 2000 reports that… These are the three least effective methods of initially teaching vocabulary!

62 Larry Bells 12 Powerful Words 1. Trace List in steps 2. Analyze Break apart 3. Infer Read between the lines 4. Evaluate Judge 5. Formulate Create 6. Describe Tell all about 7. Support Back up with details 8. Explain Tell how 9. Summarize Give me the short version 10. Compare All the ways they are alike 11. Contrast All the ways they are different 12. Predict What will happen next

63 Verbal Rehearsal Connect with prior learning Association method Think-Pair-Share

64 Visual Clueing Post key words Color code or place with pictures, clip art

65 3. Examples and Non-Examples Most famous strategy is the Frayer Method Non-linguistic symbol creation What is it, what isnt it? Add to a class Blog

66 Frayer Method ExamplesNon-examples Non-linguistic Representation Use or Application – put in context Now write your own definition: Concept

67 Analogies Connect to prior knowledge. Use opposites. Use as prompt, questions for discussion. Use verbal, visual or written analogies. Analogies are one of the pre-requisites for inference.

68 Pictures and Demonstrations Use posters for a demonstration Use pictures on homework Demonstrate an idea and use visuals or PowerPoint Have students role play an idea Use color highlighting in print and electronically Text message and add a picture or require and action

69 Graphic Organizers Brain friendly Creates patterns for the brain Supports concept development Multi-purpose Cross content application with little modification (101 Uses) Motivating to reluctant writers – small spaces

70 Array Web Concept Parts or Characteristics

71 T-Charts DATA or IDEA T- Chart IDEA T-Chart Opinion or Proof or Estimate Evidence

72 Venn Diagram

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74 Vocabulary Strategies, Writing Strategies and Graphic Organizers Combine for High Payoff Add some cooperative grouping and you have instant results based learning

75 May Your Moments be Many! Educators are addicted to the moment when a students eyes light up, when the teaching becomes learning. May your days be filled with such moments. Philip Patrick Horenstein

76 1587 Route 146, Rexford, NY Phone (518) Fax (518)

77 Analogical Reasoning What is it? Identifying how one set of concepts has similar relationships to those found in another set of concepts Process: 1.Identify relationships between the two elements in the first set. 2.Identify which element in the first set is most closely related to the single element in the second set. 3.Identify an element that would make the second set of elements have the same relationship as the first set. (Marzano and Arrendando)

78 Analogical Reasoning: Your Turn Fly is to soar like yell is to: –Whisper –Shout –Swim Tree: penny :: lion: –Horse –Sky –Pencil Morning: night :: 4 : –1 –3 –6 Rain: mud :: bud: –Wings –Flower –Fertilizer

79 Nine Analogical Relationships Synonyms or similar relationships (pretty-cute) Antonyms or dissimilar relationships (hot-cold) Concepts within the same class (independent variables and dependent variables) Category name and member (cells-plant cells) One concept turns into another (tadpole-frog) One concept performs a function on another (territory dispute-war) Time or sequence relationship (morning-noon) Quantity, size, or physical dimension relationship (tall- Empire State Building) Part to whole (hero-fantasy) Why are these important? What are some examples in in math at your grade level?

80 6. Combining Clues to Utilize the Definition Give clues leading to a definition. Develop characteristics or map patterns. Develop relationships to prior knowledge - web the features before the center of the web. Have students guess the word with clues and give a use. Also known as constructivist vocabulary development

81 7. Verbal and Physical Memories What does it look like… What does it feel like… Verbalize as you perform an action Attach a physical movement with the work Type a written response that uses the concept Act it out, performance-based Explain as you perform an experiment

82 8. Key Word Method Not all words are equal, so teach the underlying concepts through bold print, color, webs Use feature analysis Establish parts to whole relationships Create an array with concepts in different degrees

83 9. Creating Patterns and Graphic Organizers Use cause and effect mapping Use multiple column note-taking with words Use linear or hierarchical arrays to show relationships

84 Two More Vocabulary Strategies that are Graphical The next two strategies include the use of graphic organizers. In addition, some content areas and some types of text work with non-prose materials, so what are some graphic organizers that support math, science and the use of visual materials

85 Sequence or Time Sequence

86 Adjusted or Triple Venn INFLUENCE OF MULTIPLES: Elements Parts Causes Conditions

87 10. Semantic Feature Analysis Traditional Semantic Feature Analysis Comparison of Pets

88 Big Idea 1: Develop an understanding of and fluency with multiplication and division of fractions and decimals. MA.6.A.1.1-Explain and justify procedures for multiplying and dividing fractions and decimals


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