# Differentiation - What Works?

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Differentiation - What Works?
Jim Miles International Center for Leadership in Education

Welcome to the Middle School Mathematics Initiative!
It’s All About Math! Welcome to the Middle School Mathematics Initiative! Institute Theme: Closing the Achievement Gap – Strategies to Support Struggling Learners

Sponsored by: Florida Department of Education
It’s All About Math! Sponsored by: Florida Department of Education Florida and the Islands Comprehensive Center at ETS (FLICC) In Partnership with: The International Center for Leadership in Education ESCORT Florida Council of Teachers of Mathematics PAEC

Objectives: Identify and define struggling learners
It’s All About Math! Objectives: Identify and define struggling learners Become aware of innovative and practical strategies to use with students who are struggling academically in math Utilize Rigor and Relevance materials and resources to address the needs of struggling learners Develop a lesson using differentiated instruction strategies to use with struggling learners

Agenda at a Glance: Day 1 Registration, Continental Breakfast
It’s All About Math! Agenda at a Glance: Day 1 Registration, Continental Breakfast Welcome, Introductions Ice Breaker and Jump Start Activity Defining and Identifying the Struggling Learner Break Theory of Practice and Differentiated Instruction Lunch Theory of Practice and Differentiated Instruction (cont.) Learning Styles Examples of Differentiated Instruction – Breakout rooms

Agenda at a Glance: Day 2 Continental Breakfast – Large Room
It’s All About Math! Agenda at a Glance: Day 2 Continental Breakfast – Large Room Examples of Differentiated Instruction – Breakout Rooms Sharing of Quad D Lesson Revisions – Large Room Break Vocabulary Strategies – Large Room Lunch – Large Room Assessment Strategies - Large Room Action Plan Revisions – Breakout Rooms

Model Lessons - Peer Review
It’s All About Math! Standards Database: Model Lessons - Peer Review Survey Questions: What is the name of the lesson you reviewed? What learning opportunities does this lesson provide for math students? 3. Does the math content of this lesson fit the associated benchmark?

Model Lessons - Peer Review
It’s All About Math! Standards Database: Model Lessons - Peer Review 4. How well does this lesson address the following teaching and learning process standards? [each will have a text box to request justification] Problem Solving Reasoning and Proof Communication Connections Representations 5. What modifications did or would you make to this lesson plan? 6. Do you recommend this lesson for publication in the Standards Database: (select one) As is With modifications Not recommended

AGENDA Differentiated Instruction Differentiation Math Strategies
Learning Styles Vocabulary Strategies

Critical Questions What is differentiation?
What does and does not work in differentiation initiatives?

What I know I know about Differentiation
What I think I know about Differentiation What I want to know about Differentiation What I have learned about Differentiation

Characteristics of a Differentiated Classroom
All students explore, apply, and understand the same benchmarks Continuous assessment is an integral part of the curriculum. Flexible grouping is used consistently Students are active explorers

All Students

Why Differentiation Does Not Succeed in Schools…
Lack of trust and climate issues Insufficient staff development Focus is on teaching and not on learning Focus is on methodology and not on meeting diverse student needs Teachers work in isolation More than a lesson plans is needed

Differentiating a 6th Grade math Classroom
Problem Solving Problem representation Pictorial versus Schematic representation Goal: develop schematic representations: relationship among the problem parts Problem execution Stations Same concepts taught differently: algebra

Differentiated Instruction
Content Learn how to subtract using two-digit numbers versus larger numbers in the context of word problems Process Accessing the material through centers (stations) versus the web Product Demonstrate understanding of a geometric concept by solving a problem set versus building a model

Differentiated Instruction
30 different ways to teach the same lesson Linking student readiness to differentiation Through relevance Student learning mode

Our Math Students English Language Learners Gifted students
Struggling students

English Language Learners
Helping English Learners acquire math language How can math teachers help them acquire academic language they need? ESL teachers may not have strong math skills What needs to be done Accelerate learning that is grade-level appropriate. Give students challenging work with the support they need to be successful.

Collaborative Groups Create a math classroom with rich language development activities students speaking, reading, and writing heterogeneous groups of students at varying levels of English acquisition students talking to peers, in groups and in classroom discussion

Differentiation in the Classroom
There are four supporting systems that interact to make differentiation a natural next step.

Supporting Structures For Natural Differentiation
Aligned Curriculum and Assessments Strategy Toolkit Personal Connections Diagnostic Thinking

Aligned Curriculum and Assessments
Rigor / Relevance Aligned Formative and Summative Assessments Performance-based Concept-based Critical questions Powerful standards

Rigor/ Relevance Handbook

Instructional Strategies: How to Teach for Rigor and Relevance

Strategy Toolkit Literacy: Thinking and communicating DTQ Literacy
Critical thinking Brain friendly Multiple intelligences or learning styles Research-based Subgroup specific Quick Write

Selection of Strategies
Data Collection: Areas for Focus and Support Thinking Process, product or performance Content Relationship and Reflection Independence Standards Basis: Areas for Focus and Support Rigorous Relevant Leverage Endurance Readiness for next level

Researched-based Best Practices
Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement Percentile Gain Identifying similarities and differences, using metaphors and analogies 45 Summarizing and notetaking 34 Reinforcing effort and providing recognition 29 Homework and practice 28 Nonlinguistic representations 27 Cooperative learning Setting objectives and providing feedback 23 Generating and testing hypotheses Questions, cues, and advance organizers 22 Marzano, R., Pickering, D., & Pollack, J., Classroom Instruction That Works, 2001 42

Personal Connections For students and staff Relationships Reflection
Trust Coaching and mentoring Involvement Learning communities

In a Culture of Learning, Students
Exhibit purposeful action Can describe next steps Appropriately ask for assistance Questions are about aspects of complex thinking rather than procedure Adhere to class norms Attitude and demeanor are positive Collaborate as needed without prompts Positively reinforce each other Can self-evaluate work in progress

Student Engagement Cultivate one-on-one relationships
Learn and use new skills and habits Use effective instructional strategies Engage ALL students in activities/discussions Promote School wide culture of engagement Professional development

The “How to” for Student Engagement
Design for rigorous and relevant learning Personalize the learning giving choices, attending to learning styles, and using background knowledge and talents Use active learning strategies Focus on literacy in ALL classes Create the ideal classroom environment physically, visually, and emotionally

Diagnostic Thinking Assessment-based planning
Formative and summative data design, collection, and analysis Selected strategies based on data Diagnostic dialogue Student Growth

Total Group Alone Paired Small Groups Comprehension Recall
Modeling other levels of thinking Checking for level Total Group Alone Paired Small Groups Analyze Synthesize Adaptive reasoning Evaluation Analytical Synthesize Decision making Evaluation Systems thinking Application Decision making Criteria establishment Comprehension

Meeting Diverse Learner Needs: Assessing Your Assets
Diagnostic Thinking Strategy Toolkit Aligned Curriculum and Assessments Personal Connections

What can You Differentiate?
Time Teaching Strategies Learning Strategies Classroom Assessments Materials and Resources Grouping Expectations

Differentiated Instruction
IS NOT… IS… - Tracking - A New Strategy - Static - Teaching to the Middle - A series of activities - Lowering the Bar - Flexible Grouping - Student Centered - Rigorous / Relevant - For all Learners - Based on academic and personal needs - Fosters relationships and reflection

What does it take to differentiate?
Set rigorous and relevant goals Students need to know / be able to do? Where are they on the learning curve now? Select instructional strategies that will enhance the learning. Monitor student progress and adjust instruction if needed.

Natural Differentiation
When meeting student needs is just a part of what you do, how you think, and the results you get with students Students can begin to differentiate for themselves.

Learning Styles/ Personality Types
Florida and the Islands Comprehensive Center Learning Styles is one strategy to use for differentiated instruction. This presentation is based on the work of Myers-Briggs, Keirsey-Bates, and Carl Jung.

Brain research confirms what experienced teachers have always known:
No two children are alike No two children learn in the identical way An enriched environment for one student is not necessarily enriched for another In the classroom we should teach children to think for themselves Marian Diamond

Why should I care about learning styles?
The way a child learns affects his/her entire personality and development. Understanding learning styles will help teachers and students to better communicate. Understanding learning styles will help teachers to differentiate instruction.

What is a learning style?
A learning style is… a way to take in and process information a preference that gets stronger the more it is used the way the mind operates the way we learn! After reviewing this slide, ask participants to view the next four pictures and as they are looking at them, to think of the characteristics of each. Tell them that after they have viewed all four pictures, they will be asked to “choose” one picture that they seemed to identify with, based upon the characteristics they associated with each picture.

Show for about 15 seconds and move to next picture.

Show for about 15 seconds and move to next picture.

Show for about 15 seconds and move to next picture.

Sensing Thinking Learner (ST)
Likes: Immediate responses and feedback Details and sequential order Hands-on activities with a specific, correct answer Clear, concise, step-by-step directions Knowing exact expectations; why something has to be done, and how well it is to be done Drill and practice

Intuitive Thinking Learner (NT)
Likes: Planning and organizing before working Working independently Analyzing and examining pros and cons Arguing and debating Thinking about ideas and how they are related Finding/designing a new way to do something Logical and strategic games

Intuitive Feeling Learner (NF)
Likes: Learning without time constraints Praise for personal ideas and insights Using creativity and imagination Open-ended activities with many possibilities Working on many things at once Self-expression and self-discovery Creative and artistic activities

Sensing Feeling Learner (SF)
Likes: Getting personal attention and praise Sharing feelings and experiences Working in groups/being part of a team Having someone show how to do something Role-playing and personal expression Non-competitive games where no one loses Interpersonal activities; opportunities to learn about himself/herself

Sensing Thinking (ST) Intuitive Thinking (NT) Intuitive Feeling (NF) Sensing Feeling (SF) Refer to handout “Identify Type Preference”. Ask participants to review it and check off the characteristics they feel address them. The quadrant with the most checks is most likely their learning style.

Questions: Sensing Thinking (ST): WHAT? Intuitive Thinking (NT): WHY?
Intuitive Feeling (NF): WHAT IF? Sensing Feeling (SF): WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO ME? Example questions: ST: WHAT is the correct way to do this? NT: WHY does is have to be done this way? NF: WHAT IF we tried doing it this way? SF: WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO ME to do this?

In A Nutshell… No one learning style is better than another.
We all have characteristics of each learning style; some characteristics are just stronger than others. Learning about each style will help us to better understand and communicate with our students. Knowing about each learning style will help teachers to better understand how students learn and how to differentiate instruction.

Differentiated Instruction
IS NOT… IS… - Tracking - A New Strategy - Static - Teaching to the Middle - A series of activities - Lowering the Bar - Flexible Grouping - Student Centered - Rigorous / Relevant - For all Learners - Based on academic and personal needs - Fosters relationships and reflection

Differentiated Instruction
Content Learn how to subtract using two-digit numbers versus larger numbers in the context of word problems Process Accessing the material through centers (stations) versus the web Product Demonstrate understanding of a geometric concept by solving a problem set versus building a model

Meeting Diverse Learner Needs: Assessing Your Assets
Diagnostic Thinking Strategy Toolkit Aligned Curriculum and Assessments Personal Connections

Vocabulary Strategies

Vocabulary Strategies
English language learners need to develop the language of mathematics. Vocabulary Strategies Pair/Share: How do you teach vocabulary?

Vocabulary is the Gateway to Inferential Thinking
Most of us learned to teach vocabulary by having students: Write the word several times Find the definition Write it in a sentence Meta-research from William Nagy, Teaching Vocabulary to Improve Comprehension, ERIC, 2000 reports that… These are the three least effective methods of initially teaching vocabulary!

Larry Bell’s 12 Powerful Words
1. Trace          List in steps 2. Analyze        Break apart 3. Infer             Read between the lines 4. Evaluate       Judge 5. Formulate     Create 6. Describe      Tell all about 7. Support       Back up with details 8. Explain         Tell how 9. Summarize   Give me the short version 10. Compare   All the ways they are alike 11. Contrast    All the ways they are different 12. Predict      What will happen next

Verbal Rehearsal Connect with prior learning Association method
Think-Pair-Share

Visual Clueing Post key words
Color code or place with pictures, clip art

3. Examples and Non-Examples
Most famous strategy is the “Frayer Method” Non-linguistic symbol creation What is it, what isn’t it? Add to a class Blog

Frayer Method Examples Non-examples Non-linguistic Representation
Use or Application – put in context Now write your own definition: Concept

Analogies Connect to prior knowledge. Use opposites.
Use as prompt, questions for discussion. Use verbal, visual or written analogies. Analogies are one of the pre-requisites for inference.

Pictures and Demonstrations
Use posters for a demonstration Use pictures on homework Demonstrate an idea and use visuals or PowerPoint Have students role play an idea Use color highlighting in print and electronically Text message and add a picture or require and action

Graphic Organizers Brain friendly Creates patterns for the brain
Supports concept development Multi-purpose Cross content application with little modification (101 Uses) Motivating to reluctant writers – small spaces

Array Web Parts or Characteristics Concept

T-Charts DATA or IDEA T- Chart IDEA T-Chart Opinion or Proof or
Estimate Evidence

Venn Diagram

Vocabulary Strategies, Writing Strategies and Graphic Organizers Combine for High Payoff
Add some cooperative grouping and you have instant results based learning

“Educators are addicted to the moment when a student’s eyes light up, when the teaching becomes learning. May your days be filled with such moments.” Philip Patrick Horenstein

1587 Route 146, Rexford, NY - Phone (518) Fax (518)

Analogical Reasoning What is it?
Identifying how one set of concepts has similar relationships to those found in another set of concepts Process: Identify relationships between the two elements in the first set. Identify which element in the first set is most closely related to the single element in the second set. Identify an element that would make the second set of elements have the same relationship as the first set. (Marzano and Arrendando)

Fly is to soar like yell is to: Whisper Shout Swim Tree: penny :: lion: Horse Sky Pencil Morning: night :: 4 : 1 3 6 Rain: mud :: bud: Wings Flower Fertilizer

Nine Analogical Relationships
One concept performs a function on another (territory dispute-war) Time or sequence relationship (morning-noon) Quantity, size, or physical dimension relationship (tall-Empire State Building) Part to whole (hero-fantasy) Why are these important? What are some examples in in math at your grade level? Synonyms or similar relationships (pretty-cute) Antonyms or dissimilar relationships (hot-cold) Concepts within the same class (independent variables and dependent variables) Category name and member (cells-plant cells) One concept turns into another (tadpole-frog)

6. Combining Clues to Utilize the Definition
Give clues leading to a definition. Develop characteristics or map patterns. Develop relationships to prior knowledge - web the features before the center of the web. Have students guess the word with clues and give a use. Also known as “constructivist vocabulary development”

7. Verbal and Physical Memories
What does it look like… What does it feel like… Verbalize as you perform an action Attach a physical movement with the work Type a written response that uses the concept Act it out, performance-based Explain as you perform an experiment

8. Key Word Method Not all words are equal, so teach the underlying concepts through bold print, color, webs Use feature analysis Establish parts to whole relationships Create an array with concepts in different degrees

9. Creating Patterns and Graphic Organizers
Use cause and effect mapping Use multiple column note-taking with words Use linear or hierarchical arrays to show relationships

Two More Vocabulary Strategies that are Graphical
The next two strategies include the use of graphic organizers. In addition, some content areas and some types of text work with non-prose materials, so what are some graphic organizers that support math, science and the use of visual materials

Sequence or Time Sequence

INFLUENCE OF MULTIPLES: Elements Parts Causes Conditions

10. Semantic Feature Analysis Traditional Semantic Feature Analysis
Comparison of Pets

Big Idea 1: Develop an understanding of and fluency with multiplication and division of fractions and decimals. MA.6.A.1.1-Explain and justify procedures for multiplying and dividing fractions and decimals