Presentation on theme: "Teaching with the Revised Bloom’sTaxonomy"— Presentation transcript:
1Teaching with the Revised Bloom’sTaxonomy Janet GiesenFaculty Development and Instructional Design CenterBLOOM INTERESTED IN STUDENT LEARNING – CENTRAL TO HIS LIFE’S WORKWROTE OR CO-AUTHORED 18 BOOKSIN LOVE WITH PROCESS OF “FINDING OUT”ONE OF MOST WIDELY APPLIED AND MOST OFTEN CITED REFERENCES IN EDUCATIONTRANSLATED INTO 22 LANGUAGESB. 1913D. 1999
2Taxonomy = Classification Classification of thinkingSix cognitive levels of complexityTaxonomy of Cognitive Objectives1950s- developed by Benjamin BloomMeans of expressing qualitatively different kinds of thinkingAdapted for classroom use as a planning toolContinues to be one of the most universally applied modelsProvides a way to organize thinking skills into six levels, from the most basic to the higher order levels of thinking1990s- Lorin Anderson (former student of Bloom) revisited the taxonomyAs a result, a number of changes were made
3Why use Bloom’s taxonomy? Write and revise learning objectivesPlan curriculumIdentifies simple to most difficult skillsEffectively align objectives to assessment techniques and standardsIncorporate knowledge to be learned (knowledge dimension) and cognitive process to learnFacilitate questioning (oral language = important role within framework)
4Original Revised Noun Verb EvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledgeCreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRememberingRemembering = Rote memorizationClassifying cognitive thinking into different levels, each building on the previous level, from the most simple to the most abstractORIGINAL = 8 yearsREVISED = 6 yearsApplication (noun) to knowledge (verb)NounVerb
5Original Revised Noun Verb EvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledgeCreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRememberingORIGINAL AND REVISED TAXONOMIES DEPICTED AS A PYRAMID, WITH THE LOWER LEVELS AT THE BOTTOM OF THE FIGURE, INDICATING A LARGER BODY OF KNOWLEDGE AVAILABLE IN FOUNDATIONAL MATERIAL.NounVerb
6Original Revised Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application ComprehensionKnowledgeCreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRememberingI FELT THAT THE ORIGINAL PYRAMID DID NOT FULLY ILLUSTRATE THE FACT THAT AS ONE MOVES UP THE HIERARCHY, MORE IS LEARNED, THUS, EXPANDING THE KNOWLEDGE GAINED. THE INVERTED PYRAMID MORE CLOSELY DEPICTS THIS EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE.NounVerb
7Remembering Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating BLOOM’S TAXONOMY MAY BE DEPICTED AS A SET OF STAIRS THAT STUDENTS CLIMB FROM ONE LEVEL TO THE NEXT.
8Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering LEVELS OR PRE-REQUISITESSUGGESTED THAT A STUDENT CANNOT EFFECTIVELY – OR OUGHT NOT TRY TO – ADDRESS HIGHER LEVELS UNTIL THOSE BELOW THEM HAVE BEEN COVEREDEACH LEVEL IS SUBSUMED BY THE HIGHER LEVELLEVELS OF LEARNING CREATE AN EXPECTED CEILING FOR A GIVEN PROGRAM OR CURRICULUMPROGRESSIVE CONTEXTUALIZATIONLOWER LEVELS PERHAPS JUST ENOUGH FOR A TECHNICIAN’S LEVEL OF COMPETENCE AND NOT BEYOND (FOR A MORE ADVANCED POSITION)
9Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain Articulating Imitating Manipulating Performing PrecisioningAnalyzingApplyingCreatingEvaluatingRememberingUnderstandingCharacterizing by value or value conceptOrganizing & conceptualizingReceivingRespondingValuingTHREE TYPES OF LEARNING:COGNITIVE DOMAIN: Thinking, intellectual abilities. Comprehending information, organizing ideas, evaluating information and actions.AFFECTIVE DOMAIN: A learner’s emotions toward learning. Interests, attitudes, opinions, appreciations, values, emotional sets.PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN: Basic motor skills, coordination, and physical movement. Speech development, reading readiness, handwriting, physical education, manipulative skills (keyboarding), industrial technology, performance areas in science, art, music.American education has been leaning more toward the cognitive domain at the exclusion of the affective and psychomotor domains. Well-rounded and fully functioning people need development in all three domains.
10Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain Articulating Imitating Manipulating Performing PrecisioningAnalyzingApplyingCreatingEvaluatingRememberingUnderstandingCharacterizing by value or value conceptOrganizing & conceptualizingReceivingRespondingValuingCOGNITIVE DOMAIN: Thinking, intellectual abilities. Comprehending information, organizing ideas, evaluating information and actions.AFFECTIVE DOMAIN: A learner’s emotions toward learning. Interests, attitudes, opinions, appreciations, values, emotional sets.PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN: Basic motor skills, coordination, and physical movement. Speech development, reading readiness, handwriting, physical education, manipulative skills (keyboarding), industrial technology, performance areas in science, art, music.American education has been leaning more toward the cognitive domain at the exclusion of the affective and psychomotor domains. Well-rounded and fully functioning people need development in all three domains.
11Change in Terms Categories noun to verb Reorganized categories Taxonomy reflects different forms of thinking (thinking is an active process) verbs describe actions, nouns do notReorganized categoriesKnowledge = product/outcome of thinking (inappropriate to describe a category of thinking) now rememberingComprehension now understandingSynthesis now creating to better reflect nature of thinking described by each categoryHandout #
12Changes in Structure Products of thinking part of taxonomy Forms of knowledge = factual, conceptual, procedural, metacognitive (thinking about thinking)Synthesis (creating) and evaluation (evaluating) interchangedCreative thinking more complex form of thinking than critical thinking (evaluating)ONE CAN BE CRITICAL WITHOUT BEING CREATIVE (i.e., JUDGE AN IDEA AND JUSTIFY CHOICES) BUT CREATIVE PRODUCTION OFTEN REQUIRES CRITICAL THINKING (1.E., ACCEPTING AND REJECTING IDEAS ON THE PATH TO CREATING A NEW IDEA, PRODUCT, OR WAY OF LOOKING AT THINGS (POHL, 2000).ONE DIMENTIONAL TO TWO-DIMENTIONAL FORM (SEE HANDOUT WITH VERBS AND OUTCOMES/PRODUCTS)KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION – KIND OF KNOWLEDGE TO BE LEARNED (FACTUAL, CONCEPTUAL, PROCEDURAL, META-COGNITIVE)COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION – PROCESS USED TO LEARN (REMEMBER, UNDERSTAND, APPLY, ANALYZE, EVALUATE, CREATE)(SOURCE: MARY FOREHAND, 2008)Handout #
13Changes in EmphasisUSE: More authentic tool for curriculum planning, instructional delivery and assessmentAimed at broader audienceEasily applied to all levels of educationRevision emphasizes explanation and description of subcategoriesBloom’s taxonomy was traditionally viewed as a tool best applied in the earlier years of schooling (i.e., primary and junior primary years). The revised taxonomy is more universal and easily applicable at elementary, secondary, and higher education levels.Revision emphasizes explanation and description of subcategories. See handout.Handout #
14Can students recall information? Remembering The learner is able to recall, restate and remember learned informationDescribingFindingIdentifyingListingRetrievingNamingLocatingRecognizingMake a story map showing the main events of the story.Make a time line of your typical day.Make a concept map of the topic.Write a list of keywords you know about….What characters were in the story?Make a chart showing…Make an acrostic poem about…Recite a poem you have learned.Can students recall information?
15Can students explain ideas or concepts? Understanding Student grasps meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learnedClassifyingComparingExemplifyingExplainingInferringInterpretingParaphrasingSummarizingWrite in your own words…Cut out, or draw pictures to illustrate a particular event in the story.Report to the class…Illustrate what you think the main idea may have been.Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events in the story.Write and perform a play based on the story.Write a brief outline to explain this story to someone elseExplain why the character solved the problem in this particular wayWrite a summary report of the event.Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events.Make a coloring book.Paraphrase this chapter in the book.Retell in your own words.Outline the main points.Can students explain ideas or concepts?
16 Can students use the information in another familiar situation? Applying Student makes use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learnedImplementingCarrying outUsingExecutingc=Construct a model to demonstrate how it looks or worksPractice a play and perform it for the classMake a diorama to illustrate an eventWrite a diary entryMake a scrapbook about the area of study.Prepare invitations for a character’s birthday partyMake a topographic mapTake and display a collection of photographs on a particular topic.Make up a puzzle or a game about the topic.Write an explanation about this topic for others.Dress a doll in national costume.Make a clay model…Paint a mural using the same materials.Continue the story… Can students use the information in another familiar situation?
17Analyzing Student breaks learned information into its parts to best understand that information AttributingComparingDeconstructingFindingIntegratingOrganizingOutliningStructuringUse a Venn Diagram to show how two topics are the same and differentDesign a questionnaire to gather information.Survey classmates to find out what they think about a particular topic. Analyse the results.Make a flow chart to show the critical stages.Classify the actions of the characters in the bookCreate a sociogram from the narrativeConstruct a graph to illustrate selected information.Make a family tree showing relationships.Devise a roleplay about the study area.Write a biography of a person studied.Prepare a report about the area of study.Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view.Review a work of art in terms of form, color and texture.Draw a graphComplete a Decision Making Matrix to help you decide which breakfast cereal to purchaseCan students break information into parts to explore understandings and relationships?
18Can students justify a decision or a course of action? Evaluating Student makes decisions based on in-depth reflection, criticism and assessmentCheckingCritiquingDetectingExperimentingHypothesisingJudgingMonitoringTestingWrite a letter to the editorPrepare and conduct a debatePrepare a list of criteria to judge…Write a persuasive speech arguing for/against…Make a booklet about five rules you see as important. Convince others.Form a panel to discuss viewpoints on….Write a letter to. ..advising on changes needed.Write a half-yearly report.Prepare a case to present your view about...Complete a PMI on…Evaluate the character’s actions in the storyCan students justify a decision or a course of action?
19 Can students generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things? Creating Student creates new ideas and information using what previously has been learnedConstructingDesigningDevisingInventingMakingPlanningProducingUse the strategy to invent a new type of sports shoe.Invent a machine to do a specific task.Design a robot to do your homework.Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign.Write about your feelings in relation to...Write a TV show play, puppet show, role play, song or pantomime about..Design a new monetary systemDevelop a menu for a new restaurant using a variety of healthy foodsDesign a CD, book or magazine cover for...Sell an ideaDevise a way to...Make up a new language and use it in an exampleWrite a jingle to advertise a new product.(Adapted from Dalton, 1986) Can students generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things?
20Questioning . . .Lower level questions—remembering, understanding & lower level applying levelsLower level questionsEvaluate students’ preparation and comprehensionDiagnose students’ strengths and weaknessesReview and/or summarizing contentUniversity of Illinois (2006)Handout #
21Questioning . . .Higher level questions require complex application, analysis, evaluation or creation skillsHigher level questionsEncourage students to think more deeply and criticallyFacilitate problem solvingEncourage discussionsStimulate students to seek information on their ownUniversity of Illinois (2006)Handout #
22“Remembering” stems What happened after...? How many...? What is...? Who was it that...?Name ...Find the definition of…Describe what happened after…Who spoke to...?Which is true or false...?(Pohl, 2000)
23“Understanding” stems Explain why…Write in your own words…How would you explain…?Write a brief outline...What do you think could have happened next...?Who do you think...?What was the main idea...?Clarify…Illustrate…(Pohl, 2000)
24“Applying” stems Explain another instance where… Group by characteristics such as…Which factors would you change if…?What questions would you ask of…?From the information given, develop a set of instructions about…(Pohl, 2000)
25“Analyzing” stems Which events could not have happened? If. ..happened, what might the ending have been?How is...similar to...?What do you see as other possible outcomes?Why did...changes occur?Explain what must have happened when...What are some or the problems of...?Distinguish between...What were some of the motives behind..?What was the turning point?What was the problem with...?(Pohl, 2000)
26“Evaluating” stems Judge the value of... What do you think about...? Defend your position about...Do you think...is a good or bad thing?How would you have handled...?What changes to… would you recommend?Do you believe...? How would you feel if...?How effective are...?What are the consequences...?What influence will....have on our lives?What are the pros and cons of....?Why is....of value?What are the alternatives?Who will gain & who will loose? (Pohl, 2000)
27“Creating” stems Design a...to... Devise a possible solution to... If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...?Devise your own way to...What would happen if ...?How many ways can you...?Create new and unusual uses for...Develop a proposal which would...(Pohl, 2000)
28Summary Bloom’s revised taxonomy Systematic process of thinking & learningAssists assessment efforts with easy-to-use formatVisual representation of alignment between goals & objectives with standards, activities, & outcomesHelps form challenging questions to help students gain knowledge & critical thinking skillsAssists in development of goals, objectives, & lesson plansGOLDILOCKS STORY
30Discussion and Questions Thank You!Discussion and Questions
31References and Resources Cruz, E. (2003). Bloom's revised taxonomy. In B. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Technology.Dalton, J. & Smith, D. (1986) Extending children’s special abilities: Strategies for primary classrooms.Ferguson, C. (2002). Using the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy to plan and deliver team-taught, integrated, thematic units. Theory into Practice, 41(4),Forehand, M. (2008). Bloom’s Taxonomy: From emerging perspectives on learning, teaching and technology.Mager, R. E. (1997). Making instruction work or skillbloomers: A step-by-step guide to designing and developing instruction that works, (2nd ed.). Atlanta, GA: The Center for Effective Performance, Inc.Mager, R. E. (1997). Preparing instructional objectives: A critical tool in the development of effective instruction, (3rd ed.). Atlanta, GA: The Center for Effective Performance, Inc.Pohl, Michael. (2000). Learning to think, thinking to learn: Models and strategies to develop a classroom culture of thinking. Cheltenham, Vic.: Hawker Brownlow.Tarlinton (2003). Bloom’s revised taxonomy.University of Illinois, Center for Teaching Excellence (2006). Bloom’s taxonomy.