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Individuals With Disabilities & Outdoor Adventure Programs Nicole Mees.

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Presentation on theme: "Individuals With Disabilities & Outdoor Adventure Programs Nicole Mees."— Presentation transcript:

1 Individuals With Disabilities & Outdoor Adventure Programs Nicole Mees

2 Definitions Accessible- Something is made usable or available through some type of adaptation for individuals with disabilities Accessible- Something is made usable or available through some type of adaptation for individuals with disabilities Universal- Creates a broadly inclusive environment that effectively blends a variety of design concepts, including accessible, into a range of meaningful options for all users Universal- Creates a broadly inclusive environment that effectively blends a variety of design concepts, including accessible, into a range of meaningful options for all users Rogers, Don. To The Top, 2000 Rogers, Don. To The Top, 2000

3 Definitions Continued Individuals With Disabilities Act (IDEA)- A law passed in 1990 that reemphasized a free and appropriate public education for children with disabilities Individuals With Disabilities Act (IDEA)- A law passed in 1990 that reemphasized a free and appropriate public education for children with disabilities Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)- A law that emphasizes rights and provisions for persons with disabilities in places of business Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)- A law that emphasizes rights and provisions for persons with disabilities in places of business Carlson & Evans. Whose choice is it? Contemplating Challenge-by-Choice and Diverse Abilities,2001 Carlson & Evans. Whose choice is it? Contemplating Challenge-by-Choice and Diverse Abilities,2001

4 Definitions Continued Challenge-by-Choice- A philosophy with three core values: Challenge-by-Choice- A philosophy with three core values: 1. Participants should be able to set their own goals on particular challenge elements 1. Participants should be able to set their own goals on particular challenge elements 2. Allows a participant to choose how much of a particular element they will experience 2. Allows a participant to choose how much of a particular element they will experience 3. Participants make informed choices 3. Participants make informed choices Carlson & Evans. Whose choice is it? Contemplating Challenge-by-Choice and Diverse Abilities,2001 Carlson & Evans. Whose choice is it? Contemplating Challenge-by-Choice and Diverse Abilities,2001

5 Why do people with disabilities want to participate in outdoor adventure activities? For the same reasons why non-disabled individuals do: They desire feelings of self- accomplishment They desire feelings of self- accomplishment A connection to the natural world A connection to the natural world Friendships Friendships Opportunities to improve leisure outdoor skills and overcome natural obstacles Opportunities to improve leisure outdoor skills and overcome natural obstacles A chance to test their limits A chance to test their limits McAvoy, Leo. Benefits of Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure. McAvoy, Leo. Benefits of Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure.

6 Barriers to Participation in outdoor adventure challenge activities for Individuals with Disabilities Overprotecting persons with disabilities Overprotecting persons with disabilities The term risk recreation is misperceived as a dangerous activity The term risk recreation is misperceived as a dangerous activity Persons with disabilities are often denied, or discriminated against participating in activities compared to non- disabled individuals Persons with disabilities are often denied, or discriminated against participating in activities compared to non- disabled individuals Many disabled individuals simply dont know the opportunity exists Many disabled individuals simply dont know the opportunity exists The literature suggests that many programs are segregated The literature suggests that many programs are segregated Many programs have inadequately trained staff and lack proper assessment of participant readiness levels, sequencing of activities and training strategies Many programs have inadequately trained staff and lack proper assessment of participant readiness levels, sequencing of activities and training strategies Ewert & Robb. Risk Recreation and Persons with Disabilities Ewert & Robb. Risk Recreation and Persons with Disabilities

7 Benefits of Participation for Individuals with Disabilities in an Integrated Outdoor Adventure Experience Higher levels of motivation Higher levels of motivation Increased self confidence in their abilities Increased self confidence in their abilities Being more respectful/ trusting of others Being more respectful/ trusting of others Achieving a personal goal Achieving a personal goal Appreciation for nature and the wilderness Appreciation for nature and the wilderness Holman, McAvoy, Goldberg, & Klenosky. Outcomes and personal Values Assiciated with participation in an Inclusive Adventure Program: Transferring the Benefits to Everyday Life Holman, McAvoy, Goldberg, & Klenosky. Outcomes and personal Values Assiciated with participation in an Inclusive Adventure Program: Transferring the Benefits to Everyday Life

8 Benefits Continued Development of: Development of: Initiative Initiative Trust Trust Cooperation Cooperation Personal growth Personal growth Ewert & Robb. Risk Recreation and Persons with Disabilities Ewert & Robb. Risk Recreation and Persons with Disabilities

9 Benefits Continued Feeling more confident about seeking employment in the future Feeling more confident about seeking employment in the future Perceive themselves as more competent and versatile Perceive themselves as more competent and versatile Making new friends Making new friends Experiencing adventure or excitement Experiencing adventure or excitement Chesten & McCleary. Changing attitudes of disabled persons through adventure programs Chesten & McCleary. Changing attitudes of disabled persons through adventure programs

10 Benefits of Participation for Non-disabled Individuals in an Inclusive Outdoor Adventure Experience Positive change in attitudes of the children without disabilities towards the children with disabilities Positive change in attitudes of the children without disabilities towards the children with disabilities Increased understanding and tolerance of the capabilities and needs of persons with disabilities Increased understanding and tolerance of the capabilities and needs of persons with disabilities McAvoy, Leo. Benefits of Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure McAvoy, Leo. Benefits of Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure They were more inclined to support or promote hiring of the disabled in their business after the experience They were more inclined to support or promote hiring of the disabled in their business after the experience Chesten & McCleary. Changing attitudes of disabled persons through adventure programs Chesten & McCleary. Changing attitudes of disabled persons through adventure programs

11 How do you facilitate an inclusive adventure program? Step One: Develop a resource base of community resource people and written materials Step two: Address personal attitudes about people with disabilities Step three: Obtain specific information about the various disabilities, health and safety issues, implications for instruction and equipment adaptations

12 Facilitation Continued Step four: Developing necessary adaptations for equipment, procedures, skill sequence, environmental modifications, or program modifications Step four: Developing necessary adaptations for equipment, procedures, skill sequence, environmental modifications, or program modifications Step five: Implementing the programs Step five: Implementing the programs Step six: Evaluating the process to see what went well and what needs to be changed in the future Step six: Evaluating the process to see what went well and what needs to be changed in the future Sugerman, Deborah. Inclusive Outdoor Education: Facilitating Groups that Include People With Disabilities Sugerman, Deborah. Inclusive Outdoor Education: Facilitating Groups that Include People With Disabilities

13 Research Studies carried out on the outcomes of outdoor development training Study problem Statement Subject Description Instrument Procedure & Design Findings Wagner & Rowland (1992) How effective is outdoor training? Executives from >20 organizations Questionnaire: supervisory report interviews Pre & post testing course. Length varied from one to five days Significant improvement in group function. No significant improvement in individual behaviors. Still significant at 15 months Burnett (1994) What are the outcomes if outdoor development programs? 46 managers at Cranfield School of management Repertory grid Questionnaire 25 subjects on 2 ½ day course: 21 controls Increase in individual self-esteem and complexity of thought about self still significant at 6 months Hilton (1992) A team building exercise 100 managers from Bovis Questionnaire Pre & post Design increase in self knowledge & > team cohesion & open behavior still significant at 2 months Mc Roberts (1994) Outdoor education and self esteem (SE) in young offenders 14 persistent young male offenders Adapted SE questionnaire Pre & Post design in 31 day course 10/14 subjects significant increase in SE Levi (1994) Outdoor education with hearing and profoundly deaf children 30 children aged (males and females) 30 children aged (males and females) Case history and log books Pilot study of 4 days. 2 ½ day program participant observation > Team cohesion, buddy system, increase in SE

14 Summary Both individuals with and without disabilities benefit from participating in an integrated outdoor adventure experiences Both individuals with and without disabilities benefit from participating in an integrated outdoor adventure experiences Its important that facilitators and all staff are EDUCATED about the various disabilities and the health risks involved so they are able to adapt the program as needed Its important that facilitators and all staff are EDUCATED about the various disabilities and the health risks involved so they are able to adapt the program as needed

15 References Carlson & Evans. Whose choice is it? Contemplating Challenge-by-Choice and Diverse Abilities. The Journal of Experiential Education Spring 2001, Vol. 24, No1. Carlson & Evans. Whose choice is it? Contemplating Challenge-by-Choice and Diverse Abilities. The Journal of Experiential Education Spring 2001, Vol. 24, No1. Chesten & McCleary. Changing attitudes of disabled persons through outdoor adventure programs. International journal of Rehabilitation Research 13, Chesten & McCleary. Changing attitudes of disabled persons through outdoor adventure programs. International journal of Rehabilitation Research 13, Ewert & Robb. Risk Recreation and Persons with Disabilities. Therapeutic Recreational Journal. Ewert & Robb. Risk Recreation and Persons with Disabilities. Therapeutic Recreational Journal. Farnham & Mautrie. The potential benefits of outdoor development for children with special needs. British Journal of Special Education Vol 24, No.1 (March 1997) Farnham & Mautrie. The potential benefits of outdoor development for children with special needs. British Journal of Special Education Vol 24, No.1 (March 1997) Holman, McAvoy, Goldberg, & Klenosky. Outcomes and personal Values Assiciated with participation in an Inclusive Adventure Program: Transferring the Benefits to Everyday Life. Holman, McAvoy, Goldberg, & Klenosky. Outcomes and personal Values Assiciated with participation in an Inclusive Adventure Program: Transferring the Benefits to Everyday Life. McAvoy, Leo. Benefits of Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure. McAvoy, Leo. Benefits of Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure. Rogers, Don. To The Top. Parks and Recreation, march, 2000, Vol.35 issue 3. Rogers, Don. To The Top. Parks and Recreation, march, 2000, Vol.35 issue 3. Sugerman, Deborah. Inclusive Outdoor Education: Facilitating Groups that Include People With Disabilities. The Journal of Experiential Education Winter 2001, Vol. 24, No.3. Sugerman, Deborah. Inclusive Outdoor Education: Facilitating Groups that Include People With Disabilities. The Journal of Experiential Education Winter 2001, Vol. 24, No.3.


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