Presentation on theme: "Individuals With Disabilities & Outdoor Adventure Programs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Individuals With Disabilities & Outdoor Adventure Programs Nicole Mees
2 DefinitionsAccessible- Something is made usable or available through some type of adaptation for individuals with disabilitiesUniversal- Creates a broadly inclusive environment that effectively blends a variety of design concepts, including accessible, into a range of meaningful options for all usersRogers, Don. To The Top, 2000
3 Definitions Continued Individuals With Disabilities Act (IDEA)- A law passed in 1990 that reemphasized a free and appropriate public education for children with disabilitiesAmericans With Disabilities Act (ADA)- A law that emphasizes rights and provisions for persons with disabilities in places of businessCarlson & Evans. Whose choice is it? Contemplating Challenge-by-Choice and Diverse Abilities ,2001
4 Definitions Continued Challenge-by-Choice- A philosophy with three core values:1. Participants should be able to set their own goals on particular challenge elements2. Allows a participant to choose how much of a particular element they will experience3. Participants make informed choicesCarlson & Evans. Whose choice is it? Contemplating Challenge-by-Choice and Diverse Abilities ,2001
5 Why do people with disabilities want to participate in outdoor adventure activities? For the same reasons why non-disabled individuals do:They desire feelings of self-accomplishmentA connection to the natural worldFriendshipsOpportunities to improve leisure outdoor skills and overcome natural obstaclesA chance to test their limitsMcAvoy, Leo. Benefits of Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure.
6 Barriers to Participation in outdoor adventure challenge activities for Individuals with DisabilitiesOverprotecting persons with disabilitiesThe term “risk recreation” is misperceived as a dangerous activityPersons with disabilities are often denied, or discriminated against participating in activities compared to “non-disabled” individualsMany disabled individuals simply don’t know the opportunity existsThe literature suggests that many programs are segregatedMany programs have inadequately trained staff and lack proper assessment of participant readiness levels, sequencing of activities and training strategiesEwert & Robb. Risk Recreation and Persons with Disabilities
7 Benefits of Participation for Individuals with Disabilities in an Integrated Outdoor Adventure ExperienceHigher levels of motivationIncreased self confidence in their abilitiesBeing more respectful/ trusting of othersAchieving a personal goalAppreciation for nature and the wildernessHolman, McAvoy, Goldberg, & Klenosky. Outcomes and personal Values Assiciated with participation in an Inclusive Adventure Program: Transferring the Benefits to Everyday Life
8 Benefits Continued Development of: Initiative Trust Cooperation Personal growthEwert & Robb. Risk Recreation and Persons with Disabilities
9 Benefits ContinuedFeeling more confident about seeking employment in the futurePerceive themselves as more competent and versatileMaking new friendsExperiencing adventure or excitementChesten & McCleary. Changing attitudes of disabled persons through adventure programs
10 Benefits of Participation for Non-disabled Individuals in an Inclusive Outdoor Adventure Experience Positive change in attitudes of the children without disabilities towards the children with disabilitiesIncreased understanding and tolerance of the capabilities and needs of persons with disabilitiesMcAvoy, Leo. Benefits of Integrated Outdoor Education and AdventureThey were more inclined to support or promote hiring of the disabled in their business after the experienceChesten & McCleary. Changing attitudes of disabled persons through adventure programs
11 How do you facilitate an inclusive adventure program? Step One: Develop a resource base of community resource people and written materialsStep two: Address personal attitudes about people with disabilitiesStep three: Obtain specific information about the various disabilities, health and safety issues, implications for instruction and equipment adaptations
12 Facilitation Continued Step four: Developing necessary adaptations for equipment, procedures, skill sequence, environmental modifications, or program modificationsStep five: Implementing the programsStep six: Evaluating the process to see what went well and what needs to be changed in the futureSugerman, Deborah. Inclusive Outdoor Education: Facilitating Groups that Include People With Disabilities
13 Research Studies carried out on the outcomes of outdoor development training Study problem StatementSubject DescriptionInstrumentProcedure & DesignFindingsWagner & Rowland (1992)How effective is outdoor training?Executives from >20 organizationsQuestionnaire: supervisory report interviewsPre & post testing course. Length varied from one to five daysSignificant improvement in group function. No significant improvement in individual behaviors. Still significant at 15 monthsBurnett (1994)What are the outcomes if outdoor development programs?46 managers at Cranfield School of managementRepertory grid Questionnaire25 subjects on 2 ½ day course: 21 controlsIncrease in individual self-esteem and complexity of thought about self still significant at 6 monthsHilton (1992)A team building exercise100 managers from BovisQuestionnairePre & post Designincrease in self knowledge & > team cohesion & open behavior still significant at 2 monthsMc Roberts (1994)Outdoor education and self esteem (SE) in young offenders14 persistent young male offendersAdapted SE questionnairePre & Post design in 31 day course10/14 subjects significant increase in SELevi (1994)Outdoor education with hearing and profoundly deaf children30 children aged (males and females)Case history and log booksPilot study of 4 days. 2 ½ day program participant observation> Team cohesion, buddy system, increase in SE
14 SummaryBoth individuals with and without disabilities benefit from participating in an integrated outdoor adventure experiencesIt’s important that facilitators and all staff are EDUCATED about the various disabilities and the health risks involved so they are able to adapt the program as needed
15 ReferencesCarlson & Evans. Whose choice is it? Contemplating Challenge-by-Choice and Diverse Abilities. The Journal of Experiential Education Spring 2001, Vol. 24, No1.Chesten & McCleary. Changing attitudes of disabled persons through outdoor adventure programs. International journal of Rehabilitation Research 13, 1990.Ewert & Robb. Risk Recreation and Persons with Disabilities. Therapeutic Recreational Journal.Farnham & Mautrie. The potential benefits of outdoor development for children with special needs. British Journal of Special Education Vol 24, No.1 (March 1997)Holman, McAvoy, Goldberg, & Klenosky. Outcomes and personal Values Assiciated with participation in an Inclusive Adventure Program: Transferring the Benefits to Everyday Life.McAvoy, Leo. Benefits of Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure.Rogers, Don. To The Top. Parks and Recreation, march, 2000, Vol.35 issue 3.Sugerman, Deborah. Inclusive Outdoor Education: Facilitating Groups that Include People With Disabilities. The Journal of Experiential Education Winter 2001, Vol. 24, No.3.