CHALLENGES & THREATS FOR HOMOEOPATHIC PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY IN PAKISTAN
By DR. MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR QURESHI DHMS, MBBS, M. Phil Endocrinology. President Pakistan Homoeopathic Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association Director Manufacturing Homoeopathic Stores & Hospital, Lahore.
INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE HOMOEOPATHIC SECTOR Homoeopathy was founded 200 years ago by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann who gave direction to this branch of medicine with his famous concept Similia Similibus Curentur (let like cure likes).
Hahnemann studied many substances that led to establish new rules of cure by use of substances which are capable of creating such disturbances in healthy human beings, by use of same substances in micro quantitative level.
In 1866 Samuel Hahnemann founded the Homoeopathic Central Pharmacy to manufacture and sell Homoeopathic medicines. He also created prescribed standards of Homoeopathic Pharmaceuticals production known as Pharmacopoeia Homoeopathic Polyglotta which was later revised and is known as German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia
HOMOEOPATHY GLOBALLY EUROPE The sale of Homoeopathic Medicines grew by 60% from 1995 to 2005. From 590 million Euros in 1995 to 775 billion Euros in 2001 and to 930 Million Euros 2005. Now its above One Billion Euros.
FRANCE In 2004, 60% French mothers used homoeopathic medicines for their kids in first 12 years of age. In the same survey it was found that 94.5% reported pregnant women were using homoeopathic medicines. 70% of physicians are receptive to homoeopathy and consider it effective; At least 25000 physicians prescribed homoeopathic medicines.
U.K According to House of Lords report (2007), 17% of British Population use homoeopathic medicine. 42% of Physicians referred patient to Homoeopathic doctors. 20% of Irish milk producers use Homoeopathic Medicines to treat mastitis.
GERMANY In Germany sale of Homoeopathic products is above $1000 million growing @ Rate of 10%. Survey indicates that 98% Pharmacies sell homoeopathic medicines. In 2002 British Medical Journal reported that 75% of Germans use Homoeopathic Medicines.
INDIA. Overall 2.5 Iakh Practitioners Market sale volume of Homoeopathic products is 1000 crores which hold 14% share in total Indian system of medicine. All over India there are 118 Homoeopathic Medical Colleges, out of which 83 are non-governmental and about 33 government supported units. Currently over 900 manufacturing units with three multinationals.
HOMOEOPATHIC SECTOR IN PAKISTAN Homoeopathy is steadily gaining popularity in Pakistan & about a fifth of our population uses Homoeopathic Remedies. Registered homoeopaths with NCH is around 60,000. Approved Colleges by NCH is over 100. These Colleges produce more than 4000 fresh doctors every year. Naturally this has created a great demand of homoeopathic drugs. There is no official figure but the annual consumption is around 4 billion Rupees with import constituting about 40% and locally manufactured medicine about 60% share of the total annual turnover.
THE HOMOEOPATHIC SECTOR IN PAKISTAN CONSTITUTES OF Registered Homoeopathic Practitioners Manufacturing Units or Pharmacies Involved In Production Of Homoeopathic Medicines. Both Government and Non Government Homoeopathic Institutes/Council owned Privately or by the Government. Hospital And Dispensaries.
MANUFACTURING UNITS Currently there are above 200 manufacturing units in Pakistan. None of them are approved by Government in absence of any law regarding production, sale and distribution of Homoeopathic Product. The main Products manufactured by these units are medicines, products like Shampoos, Tooth Pastes and Creams are also manufactured by these units.
The Source of Homoeopathic Medicines can be classified like following 60% is Plant origin 25% is of Chemical origin 10% is of Animal origin 5% from Bacteria, micro-organisms and certain disease causing factors.
Since Homoeopathy originated from Germany, the industry is still using more than 300 types of raw materials which are of imported origin, like Plants not grown in Pakistan and minerals not found in Pakistan.
ABSENTIA OF REGULATORY APPROACH BY GOVERNMENT. Homoeopathic Industry has largely enjoyed a lack of regulatory approach by the Government.
This has led to i)Non registration of industry according to GMP. ii) Inability of Industry to export due to lack of certification and necessary documentation. iii) Flooding of the market with all type of sub standard drugs under the label of homoeopathy iv) Unani, Ayurvedic and Homoeopathic Practitioner Act 1965 does not cover the aspects relating to manufacture, import, promotion, sale, stocking, distribution, standardization and pricing of Homoeopathic Medicines.
In other words there is no check over the standard of the drugs marketed under the name of homoeopathy.
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HOMOEOPATHIC PHARMACOPOEIA (V OL -I, II, III, IV)
GERMAN HOMOEOPATHIC PHARMACOPOEIA (V OL -I, II, III)
THE PAKISTAN HOMOEOPATHIC PHARMACOPOEIA 2 ND EDITION 1997
NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR HOMOEOPATHY GUIDE LINES FOR GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE OF HOMOEOPATHIC PHARMACEUTICALS
WHO GUIDELINES ON QUALITY FOR SAFETY OF HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINES
ORDINANCE FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF DRUG REGULATORY AGENCY OF PAKISTAN
LACK OF RESEARCH AND DELVELOPMENT No agency (Private or Governmental) is involved is research and development. In India they established CCRH in 1978, which is nowadays running on a budget of Indian Rs 550 crore. There are about 60 research units supported by CCRH across India. Norway Government allocated 2 million Kroner for RnD in homoeopathy. German Government allocated 6 million German Marks For research in Homoeopathy.
Technology involved in Homoeopathy has evolved over time, scientists and pharmacists working in the industry taking American, German and French methods of Production as their base. The manufacturing base in Pakistan is however not homogenous. The production facilities available in the organized manufacturing sector are far more superior as compared to smaller units due to non affordability.
PROCURMENT OF RAW MATERIALS. ALCOHOL Is considered as basic raw material and is a life line of Homoeopathic Industry; However its high prices are making manufacturing expensive by day by. But still we are 300-400 times cost effective when compared to imported Homoeopathic Medicines. Alcohol price is Rs. 75/liter (ex mill sales). Sales Tax is 16% Provincial Excise Duty Rs. 153000/- Sales Tax on Provincial Excise duty is 16%. Export Price is Rs. 25/liter. Alcohol Rs.140/liter In India it costs about Rs. 50/liter.
HERBS No organizational data is available on procurement of herbs and their standards like Good Agricultural Practices. 60% of production depends upon herbs and as a result we have to import huge quantities from abroad costing millions of Dollars which can be easily saved by setting up of an organization guiding local Producer of Homoeopathic Pharmaceuticals to buy from local market. Allopathic industry can import raw material at 5% duty but in Homoeopathy duties are Sales Tax = 16% Custom Duty = 5% Income Tax = 5%
HUMAN RESOUCES FOR INDUSTRY No organization or university is interested in Producing Technical manpower for Homoeopathic Pharmaceutical Industry. Technical Requirement for Homoeopathic Pharmaceutical industry are high. Despite the popularity of Homoeopathy in Pakistan Technical manpower is deficient.
HOSPITAL AND DISPENSARIES Hospital and dispensaries are the most important part of infrastructure of any system of medicine. Their growth can be taken as indicator of growing importance and popularity of the system among masses. Their growth provides justification for the increased focus and expenses on the medicine system as a whole.
Over the time we have seen tremendous increase in number of privately owned clinics and dispensaries. Not a single government owned hospital exists in Pakistan both on Federal and Provincial level. Few dispensaries opened by previous governments of KPK and Punjab are vanishing due to lack of funds and are really in a bad shape.