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Aerodynamic Theory Review 1 ATC Chapter 6

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Aim To review climbing and descending

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Objectives 1.State the forces in a climb 2.Define rate and angle of climb 3.State the forces in a descent 4.Define rate and angle of descent

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R.A.F W D T L What are the four forces acting on our aircraft in straight and level? 1. Forces in a climb

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R.A.F W D T L PCW RCW We can see weight is acting at an angle to all the other forces so we can break it up into a Perpendicular Component of Weight and a Reward component of weight 1. Forces in a climb

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R.A.F W D T L PCW RCW We can now resolve the force vectors Is the aircraft in equilibrium? R2 R1 1. Forces in a climb

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R.A.F W D T L PCW RCW We must increase the power to overcome the RCW R2 R1 T The aircraft is now in equilibrium 1. Forces in a climb

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R.A.F W D L PCW RCW R2 R1 T In Summary : R1 = R2 L < W T = RCW + D The aircraft is in equilibrium 1. Forces in a climb

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We can describe climb performance as either Rate of Climb or Angle of Climb Rate of climb is the altitude gained over time. Expressed in feet per minute (fpm). 2. Rate and angle of climb Altitude Time

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We can describe climb performance as either Rate of Climb or Angle of Climb Rate of climb is the altitude gained over time. Expressed in feet per minute (fpm). 2. Rate and angle of climb Altitude Distance Angle of Climb Angle of climb is the altitude gained over distance. Expressed as an angle

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Definition of Power Work = Force x Distance Work Time Power = Force x Dist. Time Power = 2. Rate and angle of climb Power is supplied by the engine and can be described as the amount of work that can be done in a given amount of time

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Thrust is the force applied to the Airflow by the propeller As we increase speed less thrust will be imparted on the airflow Thrust is limited by the Power Available Definition of Thrust 2. Rate and angle of climb

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Maximum altitude gain over a given time. Achieved by flying at best RoC speed also known as Vy. For the C172SP Vy is 74 KIAS at Sea Level Our best Rate of Climb (V Y ) occurs at the point of Max Excess Power 2. Rate and angle of climb Best Rate of Climb Pa-Pr W RoC = x

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Maximum altitude gain over a given distance. Achieved by flying at best AoC speed, Vx. For the C172SP Vx is 62 KIAS at Sea Level Best Angle of Climb occurs at Max Excess Thrust 2. Rate and angle of climb Best Angle of Climb Thrust - Drag W AoC = Sin x

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Comparison of altitude and distance gained over the same time period at Vx and Vy. 2. Rate and angle of climb

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R.A.F W L D What are the forces acting on our aircraft in S&L? 3. Forces in a descent

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R.A.F W L D FCW PCW Again we can see weight is acting at an angle to our other forces so we can break it up 3. Forces in a descent

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R.A.F W L D FCW PCW We can now resolve the forces R The aircraft is now in equilibrium 3. Forces in a descent

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R.A.F W L D FCW PCW R In Summary: L < W R = W D = FCW 3. Forces in a descent The aircraft is now in equilibrium

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Like a climb we can describe descent performance as either Rate of Descent or Angle of Descent Rate of descent is the lost gained over time, expressed in feet per minute (fpm). 4. Rate and angle of climb Altitude Time

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Like a climb we can describe descent performance as either Rate of Descent or Angle of Descent Rate of descent is the lost gained over time, expressed in feet per minute (fpm). 4. Rate and angle of climb Angle of climb is the altitude gained over distance. Expressed as an angle Altitude Distance Angle of Descent

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Questions?

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