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Presentation on theme: "GROUND WATER SCENARIO WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RAJASTHAN"— Presentation transcript:


2 Significance of ground water resources
Play vital role in sustaining the livelihoods Act as primary buffer against drought Play pivotal role in ensuring the food security at all levels Play important role in meeting the water requirements of agriculture, industrial and domestic sectors in India

3 Consumption of ground water resources in India
In India ground water meets >85 percent of India’s rural domestic water requirements 50 percent of its urban water requirements >50 percent of its irrigation requirements As per the United Nations World Water Development Report (2012) brought out by UNESCO, India is the largest user of ground water in the world.

4 Availability and withdrawal of ground water resources in India
Ground water resources reassessed as on 2009 Total annually replenishable resource : 431 bcm Net annual ground water availability: 396 bcm Annual ground water withdrawal : 243 bcm Stage of ground water development : 61% Categorization of assessment units Total No. of assessed units : 5842 No. of over-exploited units: 802 No. of critical units: 169 No. of semi-critical assessment units: 523

5 Rajasthan state – An overview
State: Largest state , >128 Countries Area: 3,42,239 sq km. , 10.4% of country Population: 5,64,73122 , 5.5% of country Most arid and drought prone state Limited water resources 1.15% of the country Surface water resources very meager Ground water resources highly depleted > 50% of fluoride affected villages of the country G.W. saline to highly saline in most western districts Rapid Industrial growth - Urbanization

6 Rainfall Ranges from < 150 to > 1500 mm
Annual average: about 1100 mm Gradually decreases from SE towards NW Highly variable, irregular and erratic Frequent droughts Consecutive drought spells of 2 to 3 years common


8 Major Aquifer Systems



11 Rajasthan – Declining trend of ground water levels



14 Rajasthan – Quality of ground water
Saline in major part of western Rajasthan -- Potable ground water is found in areas covered by sandstone and limestone of Marwar Super group, Lathi formations in Jaisalmer and Fresh in the eastern part except in a few pockets of Bharatpur district where the ground water is brackish to saline. It is saline in Barmer district, in Tertiaries in parts of Bikaner, Nagaur, Churu, Barmer and Jaisalmer districts and localized pockets in Quaternaries High fluoride in pockets in almost all the districts with varying intensity High nitrate and other constituents beyond permissible limits of drinking and irrigation also exists in some districts Increased use of fertilizers, poor sewerage system in urban agglomerates and industrial pollution have further caused deterioration in the quality of ground water


16 Rajasthan- Ground water availability vis-à-vis withdrawal
As per ground water resource assessment carried out jointly by CGWB and State GWD as on 2009 Annually replenishable resource: bcm Net annual availability : bcm Annual ground water withdrawal: bcm Stage of ground water withdrawal: 135%




20 Rajasthan- Ground water management challenges
Declining water level - Depleting ground water resources Deteriorating ground water quality Increasing demands of ground water to meet increased water demands for various purposes Growing urbanization leading to growing water demands as well as reduction in natural recharge Water logging in canal command areas Industrial and Mining pollution

21 Regulation of ground water development
Central Ground Water Authority Constituted under Section 3(3) of Environment (Protection) Act of 1986 vide Ministry of Environment & Forests’ notification dated and reconstituted under MOEF notification dated Circulated list of Over-exploited, critical and semi-critical assessment units to the State Pollution Control Boards, BIS and Ministry of Environment & Forests - evaluates proposals for new industries/ projects falling in these areas based on site specific technical studies and issues NOC for withdrawal of ground water. Notified 82 areas in the country for regulation of ground water development and management wherein installation of new ground water abstraction structures is not permitted without prior specific approval of the Authority/ Authorized officer. Issued directions to all the Residential Group Housing Societies/ Institutions/Schools/ Hotels/ Industrial Establishments falling in over-exploited and critical areas (except in the water logged areas) in the country to adopt Roof Top Rain Water harvesting systems in their premises.

22 Regulation of ground water development …. Contd.
Central Ground Water Authority Issued to all concerned for implementation of ground water recharge measures along all National Highways, State Highways and other major roads, along rail tracks by Indian Railways, in the Stadia and in Airports for Promoting Rain Water Harvesting/ adoption of artificial Recharge to Ground Water in the country (except in water logged areas) Issued directions to Chief Secretaries in 12 States and Administrations in 2 Union Territories having Over-exploited blocks to take necessary measures to promote/adopt artificial recharge to ground water/ rain water harvesting Directed large and medium Industries using ground water in the over exploited and critical areas in the country (except in the water logged areas) to take up water conservation measures including recharge of ground water/rain water harvesting and adopt practices of treatment, recycle and reuse of waste water in their premises Issued directions to Chief Secretaries/ Administrators of all the States/ Union Territories and Ministry of Urban Development to take necessary action to adopt rain water harvesting/ artificial recharge on all the Government buildings

23 Regulation of ground water development …. Contd.
2323 Regulation of ground water development …. Contd. Model Bill to regulate and control development of ground water – Salient features Setting up of Ground Water Authority Authority vested with powers to Notify areas for regulation and control of ground water development and management Identify areas worthy of artificial recharge, issue necessary guidelines for rain water harvesting and artificial recharge and give appropriate directions to concerned departments May issue directives in urban areas falling in notified areas for construction of appropriate rain water harvesting structures in all residential, industrial and other premises having an area of 100 sq.m. or more

24 Regulation of ground water development …. Contd.
Model Bill to regulate and control development of ground water – Status of enactment Enacted: Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Puducherry, Tamilnadu and West Bengal Initiated action: Maharashtra, Gujarat, Haryana, Mizoram, Orissa, Rajasthan, Delhi, Jharkhand, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chhattisgarh and Punjab Feel it not necessary: Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh Rajasthan – When??

25 Regulation of ground water development …. Contd.
Areas notified by Central Ground Water Authority in Rajasthan S.No District No of Blocks Notified 1. Ajmer 1 2. Alwar 1 3. Barmer 1 4. Churu 1 5. Jalore 5 6. Jaipur 7 7. Jhunjhunu 6 8. Jodhpur 4 9. Karauli 1 10. Nagaur 2 11. Sikar 2 Total 31

26 National Water Policy – Provisions with regard to ground water
Existing Policy (2002) Periodical reassessment of ground water potential on a scientific basis taking into consideration the quality of water available and economic viability of its extraction Regulation of exploitation of ground water resources so as to retain it within recharging possibilities and also to ensure social equity Effective prevention of over-exploitation by central and state governments Development and implementation of ground water recharge projects Conjunctive use of surface and ground water should form an integral part of project implementation Over-exploitation of ground water should be avoided especially near the coast to prevent ingress of sea water into sweet water aquifers

27 National Water Policy – Provisions with regard to ground water
Draft Revised Policy (2012) Objective : To take cognizance of the existing situation, to propose framework for the system of laws and institutions and for a plan of action with a unified national perspective Concerns expressed in the present scenario : Large parts of the country are water stressed Mismanagement of water resources has led to a critical situation in many parts of the country Wide temporal and spatial variation in availability of water Climate change may also lead to sea level rise Access to safe water for drinking and other domestic needs still a problem in many areas Encroachment of natural water bodies

28 National Water Policy – Provisions with regard to ground water ….Contd.
Draft Revised Policy (2012) – concerns expressed in the present scenario Inadequate trained personnel for scientific planning Widening gap between irrigation potential created and utilized Ground water though part of hydrological cycle and a community resource, is still perceived as an individual property and is exploited inequitably and without any consideration to its sustainability leading to its over-exploitation in several areas Growing pollution of water sources Low public consciousness about the overall scarcity and economic value of water Lack of adequate trained personnel for scientific planning Absence of holistic and interdisciplinary approach at water related problems No consultation with stakeholders by public agencies involved in water related decisions Land use and land cover changes affecting availability and quality of water resources

29 National Water Policy – Provisions with regard to ground water ….Contd.
Draft Revised Policy (2012) Strengthening of infrastructure in the water rich eastern and north-eastern states Institutionalization and strengthening of community based water management Enhancing capabilities of communities to adopt climate resilient technological options Adaptation strategies including increasing water storage in various forms and better water management through adoption of compatible agricultural strategies, cropping patterns and improved water application methods and more water efficient industrial processes Promoting stakeholder participation in land-soil-water management with scientific inputs from local scientific and academic institutions Periodic assessment of availability of water resources Augmenting utilizable water resources through direct use of rain water and avoidance of inadvertent evapotranspiration

30 National Water Policy – Provisions with regard to ground water ….Contd.
Draft Revised Policy (2012) Participatory approach in aquifer mapping Arresting declining ground water levels in OE areas through economizing water use, incentivizing efficient water use and encouraging community based management of aquifers Integrated watershed management activities with ground water perspectives Strict regulation of urban settlements, encroachments and any development activities in the protected upstream areas of reservoirs/ water bodies, key aquifer recharge areas etc. Need to ensure that industrial effluents, local cess pools, residual fertilizers and chemicals etc. don’t reach the ground water

31 National Project on Aquifer Mapping and Management
CGWB has prepared hydrogeological maps on 1: 250,000 scale National Programme for Preparation of Aquifer Maps being envisaged. In first phase (12th & 13th Five Year Plan) it is proposed to cover priority areas (OE, Critical, Coastal, pollution prone areas) on 1:50,000 scale and selected high priority area on 1:10,000 scale It is proposed to take up this activity with participation of State Governments , NGOs and local community These maps would lead to Aquifer Management programme with participation of local community (NGOs, PRIs, Water User groups, etc). The information generated would also be available to the administrators, planners and members of public

32 Thank You


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