Presentation on theme: "GROUND WATER SCENARIO WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RAJASTHAN"— Presentation transcript:
1GROUND WATER SCENARIO WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RAJASTHAN P.K. PARCHUREREGIONAL DIRECTORCENTRAL GROUND WATER BOARDWESTERN REGION, JAIPUR
2Significance of ground water resources Play vital role in sustaining the livelihoodsAct as primary buffer against droughtPlay pivotal role in ensuring the food security at all levelsPlay important role in meeting the water requirements of agriculture, industrial and domestic sectors in India
3Consumption of ground water resources in India In India ground water meets>85 percent of India’s rural domestic water requirements50 percent of its urban water requirements>50 percent of its irrigation requirementsAs per the United Nations World Water Development Report (2012) brought out by UNESCO, India is the largest user of ground water in the world.
4Availability and withdrawal of ground water resources in India Ground water resources reassessed as on 2009Total annually replenishable resource : 431 bcmNet annual ground water availability: 396 bcmAnnual ground water withdrawal : 243 bcmStage of ground water development : 61%Categorization of assessment unitsTotal No. of assessed units : 5842No. of over-exploited units: 802No. of critical units: 169No. of semi-critical assessment units: 523
5Rajasthan state – An overview State: Largest state , >128 CountriesArea: 3,42,239 sq km. , 10.4% of countryPopulation: 5,64,73122 , 5.5% of countryMost arid and drought prone stateLimited water resources 1.15% of the countrySurface water resources very meagerGround water resources highly depleted> 50% of fluoride affected villages of the countryG.W. saline to highly saline in most western districtsRapid Industrial growth - Urbanization
6Rainfall Ranges from < 150 to > 1500 mm Annual average: about 1100 mmGradually decreases from SE towards NWHighly variable, irregular and erraticFrequent droughtsConsecutive drought spells of 2 to 3 years common
14Rajasthan – Quality of ground water Saline in major part of western Rajasthan -- Potable ground water is found in areas covered by sandstone and limestone of Marwar Super group, Lathi formations in Jaisalmer and Fresh in the eastern part except in a few pockets of Bharatpur district where the ground water is brackish to saline. It is saline in Barmer district, in Tertiaries in parts of Bikaner, Nagaur, Churu, Barmer and Jaisalmer districts and localized pockets in QuaternariesHigh fluoride in pockets in almost all the districts with varying intensityHigh nitrate and other constituents beyond permissible limits of drinking and irrigation also exists in some districtsIncreased use of fertilizers, poor sewerage system in urban agglomerates and industrial pollution have further caused deterioration in the quality of ground water
16Rajasthan- Ground water availability vis-à-vis withdrawal As per ground water resource assessment carried out jointly by CGWB and State GWD as on 2009Annually replenishable resource: bcmNet annual availability : bcmAnnual ground water withdrawal: bcmStage of ground water withdrawal: 135%
20Rajasthan- Ground water management challenges Declining water level - Depleting ground water resourcesDeteriorating ground water qualityIncreasing demands of ground water to meet increased water demands for various purposesGrowing urbanization leading to growing water demands as well as reduction in natural rechargeWater logging in canal command areasIndustrial and Mining pollution
21Regulation of ground water development Central Ground Water AuthorityConstituted under Section 3(3) of Environment (Protection) Act of 1986 vide Ministry of Environment & Forests’ notification dated and reconstituted under MOEF notification datedCirculated list of Over-exploited, critical and semi-critical assessment units to the State Pollution Control Boards, BIS and Ministry of Environment & Forests - evaluates proposals for new industries/ projects falling in these areas based on site specific technical studies and issues NOC for withdrawal of ground water.Notified 82 areas in the country for regulation of ground water development and management wherein installation of new ground water abstraction structures is not permitted without prior specific approval of the Authority/ Authorized officer.Issued directions to all the Residential Group Housing Societies/ Institutions/Schools/ Hotels/ Industrial Establishments falling in over-exploited and critical areas (except in the water logged areas) in the country to adopt Roof Top Rain Water harvesting systems in their premises.
22Regulation of ground water development …. Contd. Central Ground Water AuthorityIssued to all concerned for implementation of ground water recharge measures along all National Highways, State Highways and other major roads, along rail tracks by Indian Railways, in the Stadia and in Airports for Promoting Rain Water Harvesting/ adoption of artificial Recharge to Ground Water in the country (except in water logged areas)Issued directions to Chief Secretaries in 12 States and Administrations in 2 Union Territories having Over-exploited blocks to take necessary measures to promote/adopt artificial recharge to ground water/ rain water harvestingDirected large and medium Industries using ground water in the over exploited and critical areas in the country (except in the water logged areas) to take up water conservation measures including recharge of ground water/rain water harvesting and adopt practices of treatment, recycle and reuse of waste water in their premisesIssued directions to Chief Secretaries/ Administrators of all the States/ Union Territories and Ministry of Urban Development to take necessary action to adopt rain water harvesting/ artificial recharge on all the Government buildings
23Regulation of ground water development …. Contd. 2323Regulation of ground water development …. Contd.Model Bill to regulate and control development of ground water – Salient featuresSetting up of Ground Water AuthorityAuthority vested with powers toNotify areas for regulation and control of ground water development and managementIdentify areas worthy of artificial recharge, issue necessary guidelines for rain water harvesting and artificial recharge and give appropriate directions to concerned departmentsMay issue directives in urban areas falling in notified areas for construction of appropriate rain water harvesting structures in all residential, industrial and other premises having an area of 100 sq.m. or more
24Regulation of ground water development …. Contd. Model Bill to regulate and control development of ground water – Status of enactmentEnacted: Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Puducherry, Tamilnadu and West BengalInitiated action: Maharashtra, Gujarat, Haryana, Mizoram, Orissa, Rajasthan, Delhi, Jharkhand, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chhattisgarh and PunjabFeel it not necessary: Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Manipur, Arunachal PradeshRajasthan – When??
25Regulation of ground water development …. Contd. Areas notified by Central Ground Water Authority in RajasthanS.No District No of BlocksNotified1. Ajmer 12. Alwar 13. Barmer 14. Churu 15. Jalore 56. Jaipur 77. Jhunjhunu 68. Jodhpur 49. Karauli 110. Nagaur 211. Sikar 2Total 31
26National Water Policy – Provisions with regard to ground water Existing Policy (2002)Periodical reassessment of ground water potential on a scientific basis taking into consideration the quality of water available and economic viability of its extractionRegulation of exploitation of ground water resources so as to retain it within recharging possibilities and also to ensure social equityEffective prevention of over-exploitation by central and state governmentsDevelopment and implementation of ground water recharge projectsConjunctive use of surface and ground water should form an integral part of project implementationOver-exploitation of ground water should be avoided especially near the coast to prevent ingress of sea water into sweet water aquifers
27National Water Policy – Provisions with regard to ground water Draft Revised Policy (2012)Objective : To take cognizance of the existing situation, to propose framework for the system of laws and institutions and for a plan of action with a unified national perspectiveConcerns expressed in the present scenario :Large parts of the country are water stressedMismanagement of water resources has led to a critical situation in many parts of the countryWide temporal and spatial variation in availability of waterClimate change may also lead to sea level riseAccess to safe water for drinking and other domestic needs still a problem in many areasEncroachment of natural water bodies
28National Water Policy – Provisions with regard to ground water ….Contd. Draft Revised Policy (2012) – concerns expressed in the present scenarioInadequate trained personnel for scientific planningWidening gap between irrigation potential created and utilizedGround water though part of hydrological cycle and a community resource, is still perceived as an individual property and is exploited inequitably and without any consideration to its sustainability leading to its over-exploitation in several areasGrowing pollution of water sourcesLow public consciousness about the overall scarcity and economic value of waterLack of adequate trained personnel for scientific planningAbsence of holistic and interdisciplinary approach at water related problemsNo consultation with stakeholders by public agencies involved in water related decisionsLand use and land cover changes affecting availability and quality of water resources
29National Water Policy – Provisions with regard to ground water ….Contd. Draft Revised Policy (2012)Strengthening of infrastructure in the water rich eastern and north-eastern statesInstitutionalization and strengthening of community based water managementEnhancing capabilities of communities to adopt climate resilient technological optionsAdaptation strategies including increasing water storage in various forms and better water management through adoption of compatible agricultural strategies, cropping patterns and improved water application methods and more water efficient industrial processesPromoting stakeholder participation in land-soil-water management with scientific inputs from local scientific and academic institutionsPeriodic assessment of availability of water resourcesAugmenting utilizable water resources through direct use of rain water and avoidance of inadvertent evapotranspiration
30National Water Policy – Provisions with regard to ground water ….Contd. Draft Revised Policy (2012)Participatory approach in aquifer mappingArresting declining ground water levels in OE areas through economizing water use, incentivizing efficient water use and encouraging community based management of aquifersIntegrated watershed management activities with ground water perspectivesStrict regulation of urban settlements, encroachments and any development activities in the protected upstream areas of reservoirs/ water bodies, key aquifer recharge areas etc.Need to ensure that industrial effluents, local cess pools, residual fertilizers and chemicals etc. don’t reach the ground water
31National Project on Aquifer Mapping and Management CGWB has prepared hydrogeological maps on 1: 250,000 scaleNational Programme for Preparation of Aquifer Maps being envisaged.In first phase (12th & 13th Five Year Plan) it is proposed to cover priority areas (OE, Critical, Coastal, pollution prone areas) on 1:50,000 scale and selected high priority area on 1:10,000 scaleIt is proposed to take up this activity with participation of State Governments , NGOs and local communityThese maps would lead to Aquifer Management programme with participation of local community (NGOs, PRIs, Water User groups, etc).The information generated would also be available to the administrators, planners and members of public