1. Introduction 2. Water contamination 3. Air pollution 4. Soil 5. Noise 6. Dusts 7. The ozone hole 8. Climates changes 9. Lubelskie 10. Azoty plant
1. INTRODUCTION Humans activity and natural processes cause moving to air substances like: carbon monoxide nitrogen monoxides sulphur dioxide ammonia hydrocarbons dusts from fuel combustion and fertilizer production aerozols
Many rivers and lakes in Poland are polluted. Water quality in Poland fundamentally depends on the method of management of the catchment. For example, lakes used for recreational purposes may enter the sewage from resorts, cottages, campgrounds and other facilities located on the edge of the lake, where the waste water management is not properly resolved. In water there are lots of chemical substances from the nearest fields, industrial wastes from factories and sewage from houses. On the other hand there are many organizations in our country which take care of water e.g. Polish foundation of the protection the water resources.
MAZURY Mazury is a beautiful place in Poland with many lakes. Unfortunately some people who are there on vacation throw away their rubbish into water, so this area looks worse and worse, in many lakes water isnt clean enough to swim. The exploitation of lakes by holiday makers and industries is often accompanied by a process of destroying the banks. As a result many animals and plants become extinct.
BALTIC SEA The Baltic Sea is almost completely closed. Very long period of complete water exchange at the sea causes that Baltic is one of the most polluted seas in the world. The issue of the Baltic Sea pollution by hazardous substances is primarily the problem of a huge number of substances flowing into it. Although monitoring indicates that the loads of some substances flowing into the Baltic Sea have been significantly reduced over the last 20-30 years, the problem still exists, and the concentrations of certain new substances to the marine environment even increased.
3. AIR POLLUTION Excessive air pollution is more than 20% of Polish territory. The factors causing this condition are: energy based on coal and lignite, shortage of plant waste gas cleaning, rapidly growing road transport (vehicles and roads), delay in development of economic law
THE FOLLOWING GROUPS OF POLLUTANTS: primary pollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and dust, resulting mainly from the combustion of fuels specific pollutants from various processes used in industrial plants pollutants emitted from mobile sources, mainly from cars secondary pollutants, formed often at great distances from sources of emissions as a result of the reaction and changes occurring in the polluted atmosphere.
All these substances cause acid rains, greenhouse efect, smog and global warming. To clear the air the following things must be made: technological change mounting an effective control system for emission sources (cyclones, bag filters, dust collectors) determining the proper criteria for assessing the pollution. Since the early 90s we can see a decrease of air pollution.
4. SOIL Test results reveal that soils in Poland are only slightly contaminated with heavy metals which allows them to qualify for the soils of high agricultural value. Industrially degraded areas are mainly in the south of Poland. In the areas of industrial degradation are all or most of the factors worsening the ecological and functional properties of the soil. Gradual reduction in recent years of industrial emissions, cleaning up waste management, rehabilitation of degraded land improve the general cultural environment.
5. NOISE Trends in environmental noise in Poland indicate on the one hand, there is the increase in noise pollution from traffic and on the other - the reduction the occurrence of growth and the declining trend in the field of industrial noise. Upward trends in traffic noise relate primarily to road noise and airport noise. In the case of airport noise is observed trends of increasing noise level as a result of the acquisition of the local airport extensively expanded the volume of traffic, even international.
6. DUSTS Noteworthy is the fact that GDP growth at constant amount of waste produced is maintained at a similar level, which may indicate a positive trend in waste management. Some people remember about recycling but sometimes its difficult to reduce a quantity of rubbish because we dont have many containers for glass, paper etc. Its quite popular in big cities to recycle rubbish but not in towns.
7. THE OZONE HOLE Measurements of ozone-depleting substances, particularly halons, indicate that concentrations of these substances in the Earth's surface are systematically reducing. This demonstrates the effectiveness of international efforts to protect the ozone layer. Over the past few years more attention was paid to the issue of connections between the decline in ozone levels and climate change. In 2002 satellite of the European Space Agency above Central Europe also registered the slump of the amount of ozone above Poland, including the appearance of the little ozone holes into it!
8. CLIMATE CHANGES In Poland is also a noticeable increase in temperature - especially frequent high temperature was observed in the last decade of the twentieth century, but the upward trend in average annual temperature is visible on both the meteorological stations located on the outskirts of cities, as well as those situated in areas of limited anthropogenic impacts, such as the Śnieżka, the mountain peak.
9. LUBELSKIE Lubelskie voivodship lies in the central- eastern part of Polish. This is one of the cleanest areas of Poland. The main source of air pollution is anthropogenic emissions originating from industrial activities, with the existential and communications sector. The main sources of noise are road and rail transport. Lubelskie Region is characterized by very favorable conditions for crop production.
10. AZOTY PLANT A polish chemical company in Puławy which produces nitrogen and fertilizers. Its one of the biggest producers of melamine and the biggest polish company in Big Chemical Synthesis industry. They research measurements of pollutions diffused into air, ground, sewage and wood area. Tho company also takes part in program named Responsible Care. Responsible Care is a global, voluntary initiative developed by the chemical industry for the chemical industry - it is run in 52 countries whose combined chemical industries account for nearly 90% of global chemicals production. It stands for the chemical industry's desire to improve health, safety, and environmental performance.chemical industry