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Cells The picture shows a contractile vacuole of a unicellular freshwater organism. The contractile vacuole regulates the flow of water into and out of.

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Presentation on theme: "Cells The picture shows a contractile vacuole of a unicellular freshwater organism. The contractile vacuole regulates the flow of water into and out of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells The picture shows a contractile vacuole of a unicellular freshwater organism. The contractile vacuole regulates the flow of water into and out of the cell in an aquatic environment. What conditions cause the contractile vacuole to fill with water? F The concentration of water is greater outside the cell than inside the cell. G The temperature of water in the vacuole is higher than the temperature of its environment. H The concentration of water inside the cell is the same as the concentration outside the cell. J The temperature of water in the vacuole is lower than the temperature of its environment.

2 Cell organization Recent studies in bone research indicate that using ultrasound on a broken bone can decrease the healing time by 25%. Which of these are the most basic levels of organization involved when a bone heals? A Cells and tissue B Cells and organ system C Organ system and organism D Tissue and organ system

3 Cell Theory F The theory that all living organisms are made of cells
The diagram represents a theory about cells. Which theory is represented in this diagram? F The theory that all living organisms are made of cells G The theory that all living organisms share the same basic genetic components H The theory that organisms function best when their internal conditions are maintained within narrow limits J The theory that complex cells evolved after primitive cells engulfed bacterial cells that continued functioning

4 Organic compounds Proteins and carbohydrates have many functions in the body of an organism. Specific proteins and carbohydrates perform specific tasks. Information about a protein and a carbohydrate is given below. How are ferritin and glycogen similar in their primary functions for an organism? A Both store materials needed by the organism. B Both store energy used by the organism. C Both support the structure of the organism. D Both store information for the organism.

5 Enzymes The diagram represents one way an enzyme can be inhibited.
Which statement explains the effect of an inhibitor on an enzyme? A A substrate will be able to bond with the enzyme. B The enzyme will likely be attacked by immune cells. C The enzyme will be unable to produce more enzymes. D A substrate will be unable to attach to the enzyme.

6 Organic compounds Four different nucleotides are used as building blocks of DNA. Which of the following can be used to distinguish one nucleotide from another? F The nitrogenous base G The shape of the deoxyribose sugar H The length of the phosphate group J The type of fatty acid

7 Energy Which statement best describes the relationship between the products of photosynthesis and the reactants in cellular respiration? A The products of photosynthesis serve as the reactants in cellular respiration to provide chemical energy. B The products of photosynthesis combine with the reactants in cellular respiration to remove ATP from cells. C The products of photosynthesis inhibit the reactants in cellular respiration in the presence of light. D The products of photosynthesis change the structure of the reactants in cellular respiration in the presence of light.

8 Cell cycle Part of the cell cycle is shown in this simplified model.
This part of the cell cycle is best described as the process that — A duplicates the DNA B completes cell division C maintains genetic homeostasis D synthesizes new molecules

9 Cells A single-celled organism can be classified as a prokaryote based on the absence of — a cell membrane ribosomes chromosomes a nucleus

10 Meiosis Which diagram demonstrates how crossing-over contributes to genetic variety during meiosis?

11 Protein synthesis What is the purpose of this process?
A model of a biological process is shown. What is the purpose of this process? F To replicate the DNA of an organism before cell division G To assemble nucleotides in an mRNA chain along a DNA template H To synthesize amino acids used to unzip strands of DNA and copy the genetic code J To translate the genetic code into a specific sequence of amino acids

12 Cell cycle From a single fertilized ovum undergoing a series of rapid cell divisions, a human infant develops. The embryonic cells become specialized for a variety of functions. Which of these statements best describes how different cell types develop? A Each cell type contains only the active parts of the DNA needed for that cell type. B Each cell type has only one chromosome containing the DNA needed for that cell type. C Each cell has an identical copy of DNA with enzymes controlling the expression of specific genes, leading to a variety of cells. D Each cell has multiple copies of DNA that are affected in different ways by the environment to change the function of the cell at regular intervals.

13 A segment of DNA produces methionine, threonine, histidine, aspartate, and glycine when translated. A substitution mutation occurs and causes the synthesis of the segment as shown. Which is the new peptide chain when the new DNA segment is translated? A Methionine, leucine, histidine, aspartate, glycine B Methionine, phenylalanine, histidine, aspartate, glycine C Methionine, proline, histidine, aspartate, glycine D Methionine, serine, histidine, aspartate, glycine

14 DNA What is the purpose of this cellular process?
Part of an important cellular process involving a DNA strand is modeled below. What is the purpose of this cellular process? F Preserving genetic information for future generations G Deleting the information in the sequence produced from the DNA template H Transcribing information in the DNA sequence for use by the cell J Producing more nucleotides for the DNA sequence

15 Energy Photosynthesis and cellular respiration both involve the use and release of gases. Which statement correctly identifies the role of gases in the two processes? F Photosynthesis and cellular respiration both use carbon dioxide and release oxygen. G Photosynthesis and cellular respiration both use oxygen and release carbon dioxide. H Cellular respiration uses oxygen and releases carbon dioxide, while photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and releases oxygen. J Cellular respiration uses carbon dioxide and releases oxygen, while photosynthesis uses oxygen and releases carbon dioxide.

16 DNA Organisms can be classified based on homology, which is shared characteristics inherited from a common ancestor. In the past, homologies were based on studies of anatomical structures and patterns of embryonic development. In more recent years, the use of molecular biology techniques has allowed homologies to be compared at the level of nucleotide sequences. Nucleotide sequence comparisons are possible because all organisms share which of the following? F DNA bases G Cellular organelles H Division of the nuclear chromosomes J Types of proteins needed for cellular functions

17 Cell transport Some students used vinegar to dissolve away the shells of three eggs and used these eggs as models of human red blood cells. The students observed the changes in the eggs when they were placed in different solutions. Which statement best describes the role of the cell membrane in this model? A The cell membrane is an impermeable barrier that prevents water from entering the cell. B The cell membrane allows solutes to enter the cell, which causes the cell to shrink. C The cell membrane allows water to enter and leave the cell. D The cell membrane removes solutes from the environment.

18 Genetics A All the offspring will have ebony bodies.
Normal fruit flies have brownish-yellow bodies, and this body color is dominant. A mutation in the gene for body color can produce flies with an ebony body color. A homozygous normal fruit fly (e+e+) is crossed with a homozygous ebony fruit fly (ee). What is the predicted outcome of this genetic cross? A All the offspring will have ebony bodies. B Of the offspring, 75% will have brownish-yellow bodies, and 25% will have ebony bodies. C All the offspring will have brownish-yellow bodies. D Of the offspring, 75% will have ebony bodies, and 25% will have brownish-yellow bodies.

19 Energy Cells can generate as many as 36 to 38 molecules of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the metabolism of one molecule of glucose. Which cellular process results in this amount of ATP production? F Anaerobic cellular respiration G Protein synthesis H Aerobic cellular respiration J Photosynthesis

20 Mutations A student used poster board to construct this model of a section of DNA. Which statement describes this model of DNA? A The model is inaccurate because the base pairs are incorrect. B The model is accurate because it contains correctly paired bases. C The model is accurate because it shows each base splitting to form a double helix. D The model is inaccurate because some typical bases in DNA are missing.

21 Biotech The donor of which sample is most
In gel electrophoresis a DNA sample from an unknown donor is placed in a small well at one end of a special gel-coated plate. Samples from known donors are placed in other wells on the plate. An electric current is passed through the plate, causing the DNA fragments to separate. The size and location of the separated fragments can be compared for similarities. The more similar the locations and sizes of the fragments, the more closely the donors of the samples are related. The diagram shows four samples being compared with an unknown sample. The donor of which sample is most closely related to the donor of the unknown sample? F Sample 1 G Sample 2 H Sample 3 J Sample 4

22 Genetics In Holstein cattle the allele for black hair color (B) is dominant over the allele for red hair color (b), and the allele for polled (P), or lacking horns, is dominant over the allele for having horns (p). What is the expected phenotypic ratio of the offspring of a BbPp × BbPp cross if these alleles sort independently? A 16 black/polled : 0 black/horned : 0 red/polled : 0 red/horned B 12 black/polled : 0 black/horned : 0 red/polled : 4 red/horned C 4 black/polled : 4 black/horned : 4 red/polled : 4 red/horned D 9 black/polled : 3 black/horned : 3 red/polled : 1 red/horned

23 Biotech The photograph shows a laboratory investigator examining samples of DNA in a procedure called PCR, or polymerase chain reaction. Using PCR, the investigator can create thousands or even millions of copies of a fragment of DNA for closer investigation. In which of these situations would PCR be most useful? F When only a small amount of DNA is available, such as at a crime scene G When the DNA of identical twins is being mapped H When the genome of a population is being analyzed for preventable diseases J When the blood type of a DNA donor is known

24 Viruses The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
often infects and destroys CD4 T cells. These CD4 T cells are one of many kinds of white blood cells that are an important part of the immune system. The most common danger related to the destruction of CD4 T cells is — A an increase in the risk of high blood pressure B an increase in the threat of diseases caused by microorganisms and viruses C a decrease in the flow of blood to vital organs D a decrease in the amount of oxygen being transported to tissues

25 Taxonomy Scientists around the world use a standardized taxonomic system. Why would scientists want to use a taxonomic system that is standardized? A In order to avoid confusion with the identification of organisms B Because Linnaeus established the system C So that Latin names can be applied for a practical purpose D In order to place organisms in different groups

26 Cell transport This diagram shows cellular activity across a cell membrane. Which two processes does this diagram most directly model? F Energy conversions and synthesis of new molecules G Synthesis of new molecules and homeostasis H Transport of molecules and energy conversions J Homeostasis and transport of molecules

27 Genetics Chickens can have different types of feathers. Frizzled feathers curl toward a chicken’s head. Assume that feather type is determined by a single gene and that the allele for frizzled feathers is dominant over the allele for straight feathers. In a cross between two chickens with straight feathers, what percentage of the offspring can be expected to have frizzled feathers? F 0% G 25% H 50% J 100%

28 Claims A student researching bacteria concluded a report with the claim below: All bacteria disrupt the health of organisms they inhabit, including humans. Which statement correctly addresses the validity of the claim? F The claim is valid because many studies and experiments have shown that bacteria disrupt homeostasis. G The claim is invalid because there are many types of bacteria that help organisms maintain homeostasis. H The claim is invalid because only microorganisms such as viruses disrupt the health of organisms. J The claim is valid because bacteria cause disease.

29 DNA Nitrogenous bases are located on both strands of the DNA double helix. What is the significance of the nitrogenous bases? A The number of adenines and cytosines determines the type of RNA that will be produced. B The order of nitrogenous bases determines the order of amino acids in the proteins synthesized. C The amount of thymine and guanine in the DNA molecules determines the length of the genes. D The type of hydrogen bonding between the nitrogenous bases determines which amino acid will be added to the peptide chain.

30 Symbiosis Some relationships between different organisms are shown in the table.

31 Evolution. genetics Common baboons live on the savanna in breeding groups called troops. While females tend to stay with the troop, younger or less dominant males may leave to join a neighboring troop. Which of these is a likely outcome of movement by young males? F Gene flow occurs between populations. G Allele frequencies suddenly change. H Relative genotypic frequencies reach a constant state. J Intermediate phenotypes increase in the species.

32 Cladogram A cladogram is shown below.
All the animals to the right of the hagfish would have the common characteristic of F fur G claws or nails H lungs J jaws

33 Viruses The picture shows a 3-D model of a virus called a bacteriophage. Bacteriophages can infect bacteria such as E. coli. In what way are the bacteriophage and E. coli alike? F They contain antibodies. G They reproduce by mitosis. H They have identical genomes. J They lack membrane-bound organelles.

34 Classification Organisms are classified today using the Linnaean system, and the following table shows the taxonomic classification of two marine organisms living along the Pacific Coast. Taxonomic classification is important to marine biologists because it provides a way to F prove that marine evolution occurs G discover and name every marine organism on Earth H designate Latin as the universal language of marine biology J identify marine organisms and find evolutionary relationships between them

35 Body systems Animal body systems often coordinate their actions to carry out specific functions for the whole animal. Which of these correctly describes the interaction of two biological systems for a specific purpose in the human body?

36 Dichotomous Key Based on the key, which of these best describes the leaves and cones of the longleaf pine? A Needle-like straight leaves that are mostly over 25 cm long and found in clusters of three; no thorns on cones B Flattened and scale-like leaves that are mostly over 25 cm long; soft and leathery cones C Needle-like straight leaves with a length of 25 cm that are mostly found in clusters of five; thorny cones D Leaves with a length of 25 cm that are found in clusters of more than five; no thorns on cones

37 Kingdoms Five general characteristics of organisms in kingdoms Plantae or Fungi are listed in the box. Which table correctly lists the characteristics of the organisms in the two kingdoms?

38 DNA The initial steps in gene expression are modeled below. Double-stranded DNA first unwinds into two strands. Which process and product are represented in Diagram 2? A Process: transcription; product: mRNA B Process: translation; product: protein C Process: replication; product: tRNA D Process: recombination; product: polymerase

39 Symbiosis Parrotfish are herbivores that are found in coral reefs. To escape predation, a parrotfish will graze with a rabbitfish, which has venomous spines at the end of its pelvic fins. The rabbitfish does not benefit from this relationship. Which type of relationship do the parrotfish and the rabbitfish have in the coral-reef environment? F Commensal G Mutualistic H Predator–prey J Parasitic

40 Ecological Hierarchy A science class is planning a field trip to a local farm that has a large pond. Which of the following lists the order of biological organization from smallest to largest that the students can expect to find at the pond? F Organism, community, population, ecosystem G Organism, population, community, ecosystem H Population, organism, community, ecosystem J Population, organism, ecosystem, community

41 Claims Which of the following represents
evidence that could be used to support the claims about this product? F Complex carbohydrates are found in vegetables and grains, which are good sources of fiber, vitamins, antioxidants, and minerals. Vegetables and grains are known to reduce the risk of heart disease. G Some nutritional supplements provide vitamins and minerals that are missing from a person’s diet. These types of nutritional supplements contain important nutrients that reduce the risk of malnutrition. H Consuming enzymes specific for carbohydrate digestion helps the body digest complex carbohydrates more quickly in the stomach and small intestine. J Some nutritional supplements add beneficial bacteria to a person’s diet. These bacteria populate the stomach and prevent carbohydrate digestion.

42 Energy pyramid The energy pyramid below shows the energy made available by producers. Based on the energy flow between trophic levels in an energy pyramid, how much energy would be expected to be found at the secondary consumer level in this pyramid? F joules G 500 joules H 1,000 joules J joules

43 Plants Invasive plant species affect the interactions of living and nonliving components of an ecosystem, so the removal of invasive plants is often necessary. The goal of most plant-control methods is to disrupt or inhibit the function of different plant systems. For example, insects can be used to chew through roots in order to reduce a plant’s ability to absorb water. Which of these functions would be most immediately affected by a reduction in water uptake by roots? F Disease resistance G Seed dispersal H Sunlight absorption J Photosynthesis

44 Biomolecules Students were given a list of seven elements and asked to identify the four elements that are most abundant in biomolecules. Which table correctly identifies the four most-abundant elements in biomolecules?

45 DNA mutations Which statement describes the mutation in the diagram?
The diagram represents a type of mutation. Which statement describes the mutation in the diagram? F A silent mutation results in the insertion of a different amino acid. G A substitution occurs with the adenine base. H A deletion of a cytosine base occurs. J A base is inserted into one strand of the DNA.

46 Biotech The results provide evidence that —
Researchers combined sequences of fruit-fly DNA from a gene for a particular trait with frog DNA. The mixture was heated to separate the DNA strands. Cooling allowed the single strands to form pairs. The researchers observed that some of the fruit-fly DNA paired with frog DNA. The results provide evidence that — F similar nucleotides are present in both fruit-fly and frog DNA G fruit flies and frogs can be made to develop some of the same physical traits H heat can cause mutations in the DNA sequences of organisms J the replication of genetic material can occur at any temperature

47 Taxonomy Adult mountain lions (Puma concolor) are almost 2 meters long. They have a black spot over each eye. The common names used throughout the United States for this species are listed below. Why is it best for scientists to use the name from the standardized taxonomic system? A The standardized name differentiates mountain lions and pumas. B The standardized name is less descriptive of the animal that has been observed. C Communication with other scientists about mountain lions will be reduced. D All scientists will be using one name for mountain lions.

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