2Methods Of Cooking- Roasting DefinitionRoasting is the cooking in dry heat with the aid of fat or oil in an oven or on a spit.Radiant heat is the means of cooking when using a spit; oven roasting is a combination of convection and radiation.
3Methods Of Cooking- Roasting PurposeThe purpose of roasting is to cook food so that it is tender , easy to digest , safe to eat and palatable.It also gives variety to the menu and the diet.
4Methods Of Cooking- Roasting Placing prepared foods (meat, poultry) on a rotating spit over or in front of fierce radiated heat.Placing prepared foods in an oven with either:Applied dry heatForced air-convected heatConvected heat combined with microwave energy.
5Methods Of Cooking- Roasting Effects of RoastingThe surface protein of the food is sealed by the initial heat of the oven , thus preventing the escape of too many natural juices.When the food is lightly browned , the oven temperature is reduced to cook the inside of the food without hardening the surface.
6Methods Of Cooking- Roasting Advantages of RoastingGood quality meat and poultry is tender and succelent when roasted.Meat juices issuing from the joint are used for gravy and enhance flavour.Both energy and oven temperature can be controlled.
7Methods Of Cooking- Roasting Advantages of RoastingOvens with transparent doors enable cooking to be observed.Access , adjustment and removal of items is straightforward.Minimal fire risk.
8Methods Of Cooking- Roasting Spit RoastingSkills and techniques can be displayed to the customer.Continual basting with the meat juice over carcass or joint on the revolting spit gives a distinctive flavour , depending on the fuel used ( Wood , Charcoal ).
9Methods Of Cooking- Roasting Time and temperature controlOvens must be preheated.Oven temperature and shelf settings in recipes must be followed.Shape , size , type , bone proportion and quality of food will affect the cooking time.
10Methods Of Cooking- Roasting Time and temperature controlMeat thermometers or probes can be inserted to determine the exact temperature in the centre of the joint.The following table gives approximate cooking times.
11TypeApproximate cooking timesDegree of cookingBeef15 minutes per ½ kg and 15 minutes overUnderdoneLamb20 minutes per ½ kg and 20 minutes overCooked throughCooked pinkMutton20 minutes per ½ kg and 20 minutes overVeal20 minutes per ½ kg and 25 minutes overPork25 minutes per ½ kg and 25 minutes overThoroughly cooked
12Methods Of Cooking- Roasting Using a temperature ProbeWhen using a temperature probe , insert it into the thickest part of the joint before placing the food in the oven.The internal temperature reached should be:Rare meat 55-60°C ( °F)
13Methods Of Cooking- Roasting Using a temperature ProbeWhen using a temperature probe , insert it into the thickest part of the joint before placing the food in the oven. The internal temperature reached should be:Medium done 66-71°C ( °F )
14Methods Of Cooking- Roasting Using a temperature ProbeWhen using a temperature probe , insert it into the thickest part of the joint before placing the food in the oven.The internal temperature reached should be:Just done 78-80°C ( °F )
15Methods Of Cooking- Roasting Without using a temperature ProbeRemove the joint from the oven and place onto a plate or dish.Firmly press the surface of the meat so that some juices issues.Check the colour of the juice;
16Methods Of Cooking- Roasting Red indicates the meat is underdone.Pink indicates the meat is medium done.Clear indicates the meat is cooked through.
17Methods Of Cooking- Roasting SafetyRoasting trays should be of a suitable size: if too small , basting becomes difficult and dangerous ; if too large , fat in the tray will burn , spoiling the flavour of the meat and gravy.Handle hot roasting trays carefully at all times , using a thick , dry cloth.
18Methods Of Cooking- Roasting SafetyEnsure food is securely held before removing from roasting tray.
19Methods Of Cooking- Baking DefinitionBaking is the cooking of food by dry heat in an oven in which the action of dry convection heat is modified by steam.
20Methods Of Cooking- Baking PurposeThe purpose of baking is:To make food digestible , palatable and safe to eat.To create an eye appealing through colour and texture and produce an enjoyable eating quality.To lend variety to the menu.
21Methods Of Cooking- Baking Note : ovens must be preheated prior to bakingDry bakingWhen baking ,steam arises from the water content of the food ; this steam combines with the dry heat of the oven to cook the food( cakes , pastry , baked jacket potatoes)
22Methods Of Cooking- Baking Baking with increased humidityWhen baking certain foods , such as bread , the oven humidity is increased by placing a bowl of water or injecting steam into the oven , thus increasing the water content of the food and so improving eating quality.
23Methods Of Cooking- Baking Baking with heat modificationPlacing food in a container of water ( bain-marie), such as baked egg custard , modifies the heat so that the food cooks more slowly , does not overheat and lessons the possibility of the egg mixture overcooking ( Curdling ).
24Methods Of Cooking- Baking Effects of BakingChemical action caused by the effect of heat on certain ingredients , such as yeast and baking powder , changes the raw structure of many foods to an edible texture ( pastry , cakes ).However , different ingredients , methods of mixing and types of product required will cause many variations.
25Methods Of Cooking- Baking Advantages of BakingA wide variety of sweet and savoury foods can be produced.Bakery products yield appetising goods with eye appeal and mouth watering aromas.Bulk cooking can be achieved with uniformity of colour and degree of cooking
26Methods Of Cooking- Baking Advantages of BakingBaking ovens have effective manual or automatic temperature controls.There is a straightforward access for loading and removal of items.
27Methods Of Cooking- Baking Time and temperature controlOvens must always be heated to the required temperature before food is added.In general – purpose ovens shelves must be placed according to the food being cooked , because the hotter part of the oven is at the top.With convection ovens the heat is evenly distributed.
28Methods Of Cooking- Baking Time and temperature controlAccurate timing and temperature control are essential to baking.The required oven temperature must be reached before each additional batch of goods is placed in the oven.This is known as Recovery Time.
29Methods Of Cooking- Baking General RulesAlways preheat ovens so that the required cooking temperature is immediately applied to the product , otherwise the product will be spoiled.Accuracy is essential in weighing , measuring and controlling temperature.Trays and moulds must be correctly prepared.
30Methods Of Cooking- Baking General RulesMinimise the opening of oven doors as draughts may affect the quality of the product , and the oven temperature is reduced.Utilise oven space effecientlyAvoid jarring of products ( fruit cake , sponges , souffles) before and during baking as the quality may be affected.
31Methods Of Cooking- Baking SafetyUse thick , dry , sound oven cloths for handling hot trays , etc.Jacket sleeves should be rolled down to prevent burns from hot trays and ovens.Trays and ovens should not be overloaded.
32Methods Of Cooking- Baking SafetyExtra care is needed to balance and handle loaded trays in and out of the oven.
33Methods Of Cooking- Grilling DefinitionThis is a fast method of cooking by radiant heat sometimes known as broiling.
34Methods Of Cooking- Grilling PurposeThe purpose of grilling is:To make foods digestible , palatable and safe to eat.To utilise the speed of the cooking process to produce a distinctive flavour , colour , texture and eating quality.
35Methods Of Cooking- Grilling PurposeTo bring variety to the menu and to introduce into the diet simple , uncomplicated dishes.
36Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Methods of GrillingGrilled foods can be cooked:Over heat ( charcoal , barbecues , gas or electric heated grills / griddles)
37Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Methods of GrillingGrilled foods can be cooked:Under heat ( gas or electric salamanders)
38Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Methods of GrillingGrilled foods can be cooked:Between heat (electrically heated grills bars or plates )
39Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Over heatGrill bars must be preheated and brushed with oil prior to use, otherwise food will stick.The bars should char the food on both sides to give distinctive appearance and flavour of grilling.
40Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Over heatMost foods are started on the hottest part of the grill and moved to a cooler part to complete the cooking.The thickness of the food and the heat of the grill determine the cooking time , which is learned by experience.Hottest
41Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Under heat ( salamander)The salamander should be preheated and the bars greased.Steaks , chops and items that are likely to slip between grill bars may be cooked under the salamander.
42Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Under heat ( salamander)Food items that are difficult to handle because they may easily break up may be placed in between a well-greased , centre-hinged , double wire grid with a handle , making it easy and swift to cook food such as whole sole, whole plaice.
43Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Under heat ( salamander)Tomatoes , mushrooms , bacon , sausages and kidneys may be grilled under a salamander on a flat tray.A rim is required on the tray to prevent spillage of fat and articles of food sliding from the tray.
44Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Under heat ( salamander)The salamander can also be used for browning gratinating and glazing certain dishes such as duchess potato border , macaroni au gratin , fillets of sole bonne femme , and for toasting bread such as melba toast.
45Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Between heatThis is grilling between electrically heated grill bars or plates and is applied to small cuts of meat.
46Methods Of Cooking- Grilling BarbecuingThis is grilling on preheated , greased bars over a fierce heat ( gas , charcoal ,wood ). When using solid fuel , the flames and smoke must be allowed to die down before placing food on the bars , otherwise the food will be tainted and spoiled.
47Methods Of Cooking- Grilling BarbecuingCertain foods such as brochettes or chicken , may be marinated before cooking.Other foods like pork spare ribs are brushed liberally with a barbecue sauce on both sides during cooking.
48Degrees Of Cooking Grilled Meats. RareAu blueCooked over fierce heat for a few seconds on each side.Under DoneSagniantThe cooked meat has a reddish tingeJust doneA pointThe cooked meat is slightly pinkWell doneBein CuitThoroughly cooked with no sign of pinkness
49Degrees Of Cooking Grilled Meats. RareAu blueWhen pressed the juice should be red and bloodyUnder DoneSagniantWhen pressed the juice should be reddish pinkJust doneA pointWhen pressed the juice should be pinkWell doneBein CuitWhen pressed the juice should be clear
50Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Using a temperature probeRare45-50°C ( °F)Medium55-60°C ( °F )Well Done75-77°C ( °F )
51Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Without a temperature probe.Test with finger pressure , and the springiness or resilience of the meat together with the amount of blood issuing from the meat indicates the degree to which the steak is cooked.This calls for experience , but if the meat is placed on a plate and tested , then the more underdone the steak the greater the springiness and the more blood will be shown on the plate.
52Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Effects of grillingBecause of the speed of cooking there is maximum retention of nutrients and flavour.Grilling is only suitable for certain cuts of best quality meats.Inferior meat would be tough and inedible .
53Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Effects of grillingThe effect of fierce heat on the surface of the meat rapidly coagulates and seals the surface protein , thus helping to retain the meat juices.Grilled meats lose less of their juices than meat cooked by other method provided they are not pierced with a fork while cooking.
54Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Advantages of grillingSpeed of grilling enables food to be quickly cooked to order.Charring food gives a distinctive appearance and improves flavour.Control of cooking is aided because food is visible whilst being grilled.
55Methods Of Cooking- Grilling Advantages of grillingVariety is given to the menu and diet.Grills may be situated in view of the customer.
56Methods Of Cooking- Grilling General rules for efficient grillingSmaller , thinner items require cooking quickly.Seal and colour food on the hot part of the grill then move to a cooler part to complete cooking.Slow cooking results in the food drying out.Basting of food and oiling of bars prevents prevents dryness.
57Methods Of Cooking- Grilling General rules for efficient grillingTongs are used for turning and lifting cutlets and steaks .Palette knives and slices are used for turning and lifting tomatoes , mushrooms , whole or cuts fish , from trays.
58Methods Of Cooking- Grilling SafetyTake extra care when moving hot salamander and grill bars.Trays used for grilling must have raised edges and not be overloaded.Take care when removing foods from grills and salamanders.