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Wednesday, January 22 nd Finish up your Service Project ideas. Finish up your Service Project ideas. Youll have to clear them with your TA in this weeks.

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Presentation on theme: "Wednesday, January 22 nd Finish up your Service Project ideas. Finish up your Service Project ideas. Youll have to clear them with your TA in this weeks."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wednesday, January 22 nd Finish up your Service Project ideas. Finish up your Service Project ideas. Youll have to clear them with your TA in this weeks labs. Youll have to clear them with your TA in this weeks labs.

2 Day 4: The English Legacy

3 The British Invasion: Influence of events and ideas

4

5 Influence of events and ideas Important to realize how much our perceptions are predisposed by contemporaneous events and ideas. Important to realize how much our perceptions are predisposed by contemporaneous events and ideas. How do 1960s fashions appear to us in 2014? How do 1960s fashions appear to us in 2014? How will our fashions in 2014 appear to your grandchildren? How will our fashions in 2014 appear to your grandchildren?

6 Influence of events and ideas How has 9/11 affected us as a nation and as individuals? How has 9/11 affected us as a nation and as individuals?

7 Ideology An ideology is a set of ideas that constitutes one's goals, expectations, and actions. An ideology can be thought of as a comprehensive vision, as a way of looking at things (like a worldview), … or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to all members of this society. Purpose: To cause change or conformity to a set of ideals. Ideologies are systems of abstract thought applied to public matters and thus make the concept central to politics. Implicitly every political or economic tendency entails an ideology.

8 Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Sources of the Ideas and Ideals) Classical Antiquity Classical Antiquity Enlightenment Rationalism Enlightenment Rationalism English Common Law English Common Law Puritan Covenant Theology Puritan Covenant Theology English Commonwealth English Commonwealth

9 The English Legacy 9 Outline – English Legacy Importance of events and ideas Importance of events and ideas Events: English political experience Events: English political experience Conflict between monarch and subjects (Parliament) Conflict between monarch and subjects (Parliament) Glorious Revolution of 1688 Glorious Revolution of 1688 English Bill of Rights (1689) English Bill of Rights (1689) Ideas: Ideas: Puritan Covenant Theology (John Winthrop) Puritan Covenant Theology (John Winthrop) Common Law (Edward Coke) Common Law (Edward Coke) Commonwealth or Country Party (Whigs, Locke) Commonwealth or Country Party (Whigs, Locke) Rule of law Rule of law

10 Influence of events and ideas

11 Historical Background

12 The English Legacy 12 Events: Magna Carta Magna Carta (1215): the beginning of constitutional law in England Agreement between King John and barons; constrained power of the King Agreement between King John and barons; constrained power of the King Specified that the King was bound by law Specified that the King was bound by law Principles refined and extended over the years Principles refined and extended over the years

13 Englands Time of Trouble The Tudors The Tudors The Stuarts The Stuarts

14 The Tudors Henry VII Henry VII Henry VIII Henry VIII Edward VI Edward VI Mary I Mary I Elizabeth I Elizabeth I

15 The Stuarts James I James I Charles I Charles I (Interregnum) (Interregnum) Charles II Charles II James II James II William and Mary William and Mary Anne Anne

16 Charles I

17 High Church vs. Low Church

18 Execution of Charles I

19 The Puritan Founding and Democracy Its virtues made liberal democracy possible and its vices made liberal democracy necessary. Its virtues made liberal democracy possible and its vices made liberal democracy necessary. What are the virtues? What are the virtues? Increased emphasis on individuality. Increased emphasis on individuality. Cherish liberty from corrupt institutions. Cherish liberty from corrupt institutions. Devote labors to building a heavenly kingdom on earth. Devote labors to building a heavenly kingdom on earth.

20 The Puritan Founding and Democracy What are the vices? What are the vices? Communities could generate a spirit of intolerance. Communities could generate a spirit of intolerance. No systematic way to separate church obligations from civil obligations. No systematic way to separate church obligations from civil obligations. Let us thank God for having given us such ancestors; and let each successive generation thank him, not less fervently, for being one step further from them in the march of ages. Nathaniel Hawthorne (Mainstreet)Let us thank God for having given us such ancestors; and let each successive generation thank him, not less fervently, for being one step further from them in the march of ages. Nathaniel Hawthorne (Mainstreet)

21 The Interregnum: Oliver Cromwell

22 Puritan Legacy Religious sensibility Religious sensibility Distrust of secular power Distrust of secular power Chosenness – American exceptionalism Chosenness – American exceptionalism City upon a hill City upon a hill

23 Charles II The Restoration The Restoration King is more careful King is more careful

24 James II and William and Mary The Whigs The Whigs The Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution John Locke John Locke English Bill of Rights English Bill of Rights

25 Glorious Revolution 1603-89 1603-89 Number of divine right rulers Number of divine right rulers Threat of returning to Catholicism Threat of returning to Catholicism Early Whig or republican opposition grows Early Whig or republican opposition grows Inspired by liberalism Inspired by liberalism 1689: William and Mary 1689: William and Mary Parliament Parliament freely elected body freely elected body free debate free debate Declaration of Rights Declaration of Rights 1690: Lockes Two Treatises of Government 1690: Lockes Two Treatises of Government

26 Lockean Liberty

27 I give to my son, when he shall arrive to the age of fifteen years, Algernon Sidneys works, --John Lockes works,-- Lord Bacons works,--Gordons Tacitus,--and Catos Letters. May the spirit of Liberty rest upon him! -- Last Will and Testament of Josiah Quincy, Jr., 1774

28 The Second Treatise State of Nature State of Nature Social Contract Social Contract Natural Rights Natural Rights Consent Consent Revolution Revolution

29 Lockean Liberty Lockes Argument (Second Treatise) Lockes Argument (Second Treatise) Natural rights: life, liberty, property. Natural rights: life, liberty, property. State of nature may not preserve rights. State of nature may not preserve rights. Social compact leads to government. Social compact leads to government. Governments only purpose: protect peoples natural rights. Governments only purpose: protect peoples natural rights. Government based on consent. Government based on consent. People can revolt if rights not preserved. People can revolt if rights not preserved.

30 iClicker Question What would not be a feature of a Lockean world that American colonists would begin to create? What would not be a feature of a Lockean world that American colonists would begin to create? A. Bills of Rights. A. Bills of Rights. B. Government by consent. B. Government by consent. C. Popular participation in politics. C. Popular participation in politics. D. None of the above: All would be features of a Lockean world. D. None of the above: All would be features of a Lockean world.

31 Review English legacy to American institutions can hardly be overstated (note English v. British) English legacy to American institutions can hardly be overstated (note English v. British) BUT…ironically the threat that put constitutional principles at the core of modern American culture also came from Britain BUT…ironically the threat that put constitutional principles at the core of modern American culture also came from Britain Turning points: Turning points: Henry VIII and the Church of England Henry VIII and the Church of England Religious rivalries of 16 th and 17 th centuries Religious rivalries of 16 th and 17 th centuries Trial and execution of Charles I Trial and execution of Charles I The Glorious Revolution and English Bill of Rights The Glorious Revolution and English Bill of Rights

32 The English Legacy The American Revolution was a revolt against tyranny, but one that tried to reclaim what the colonists saw as their true English heritage: The American Revolution was a revolt against tyranny, but one that tried to reclaim what the colonists saw as their true English heritage: The rights of self-government. The rights of self-government.

33 Summary Shift from one definition where freedom is found in the community to another definition where freedom is defined by the individual. Shift from one definition where freedom is found in the community to another definition where freedom is defined by the individual. Effort to ground rights and liberty in Nature and Reason. Effort to ground rights and liberty in Nature and Reason. Enlightenment legacy: TAs will address Enlightenment legacy: TAs will address Provides the means to construct a government controlled by the people and where rights are protected by government according to the rule of law. Provides the means to construct a government controlled by the people and where rights are protected by government according to the rule of law.

34 Letter Concerning Toleration (1689)

35 Key because religion permeated British and American culture Key because religion permeated British and American culture Much of the wrestle about liberty came as a result of the religion question Much of the wrestle about liberty came as a result of the religion question

36 Religion and State Should we give a church power over an individuals life, liberty or property? Should we give the state power to dictate religious orthodoxy? Religious Freedom = The First Freedom Why?

37 Letter Concerning Toleration (1689) Magistrates (civil authorities) should have no power over a persons beliefs and religious practices Magistrates (civil authorities) should have no power over a persons beliefs and religious practices Cannot force a person to believe Cannot force a person to believe Harmful religious practices (e.g., human sacrifice) are punishable as other crimes Harmful religious practices (e.g., human sacrifice) are punishable as other crimes Churches should have no power over a persons natural rights to life, liberty or property. Churches should have no power over a persons natural rights to life, liberty or property. Exclusion is maximum penalty Exclusion is maximum penalty But believing magistrates have right to express beliefs But believing magistrates have right to express beliefs

38 Religious Freedom Give me the liberty to know, to utter, and to argue freely according to conscience, above all liberties. John Milton, Areopagitica, 1644


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