Presentation on theme: "Anomalistic Psychology"— Presentation transcript:
1Anomalistic Psychology Extrasensory Perception, psychokinesis,haunted houses.YouTube - Only Fools And HorsesSickness And Wealth Part 3
2AO1: PseudosciencePseudoscience: It has been argued that parapsychology is a pseudoscience. That is it does not follow as rigorous research methods as some of the other psychologists.
3AO1: PseudoscienceLacks Falsifiability: Paranormal psychologists claim the phenomenon does not happen around sceptics therefore when people try and disprove the existence of unusual activity paranormal psychologist say just because it didn’t happen this time does not mean it doesn’t existAbsence of self-correction:Ignoring empirical scientificevidence against their beliefsBurden of proof:Lies with the sceptics.Just because someonedoesn’t see it doesn’tmean it does not exist.
4AO1: Pseudoscience Reliance on anecdotal evidence: Individual case studies.Lack of peer review:Pseudoscience avoids, whenit can, peer reviews.Lack of controlled replicable research:Studies conducted by non-believersHave not been able to replicateParapsychologist’s work.Richard Wiseman InterviewPsychExchange.co.uk - Resources,Ideas, Inspiration - Free PsychologyTeaching Resources & Videos
5AO1: Theory Construct Lacks explanation of theory: Most scientific research looksat the how and why of research;paranormal psychology lacks anexplanation of how phenomenonworks.Ability to change: InPsychology if you have to acceptthe Null Hypothesis you readapt yourtheory in parapsychology therehas been no change over the centuries.
6AO2: AccreditationThe American Association for the Advancement of Science allowed the Parapsychological Association to join as fully affiliated member giving parapsychology accreditation
7AO2: Scientific StatusIt is difficult to evaluate a whole genre of a philosophy on the terms of scientific content.Therefore the Journal of Parapsychology and the Parapsychological Association were researched to see if they weremore of a pseudoscience.Evaluation: In some casesthey were more of a sciencethan regular psychology
8AO2: Respectable Research Mousseau found that articles that were peer reviewed were better than mainstream science as they reported all results including negative results and not just positive results.Although she also found; only 43% of research used empirical data and24% used experimental methods which was a lot lower than mainstream research.
9AO2: Three important issues 1: People change a lot of money for psychic activities2: As a society we shouldalways question what3: Finding creditableresearch will help to improvethe value of parapsychology.i.e acupuncture is now accredited
10AQA Questions1 (a) What are the main characteristics of pseudoscience? (5 marks) 1 (b) Evaluate the scientific status of parapsychology (10 marks)1 (c) Discuss issues of reliability and validity of research into parapsychology (4+6marks)1 (d) Discuss issues of pseudoscience in the study of anomalous experience. (5+10marks)
112 (a) A researcher wanted to test the ability of a known ‘psychic healer’. Ten volunteers suffering from chronic back pain were selected through newspaper adverts. The volunteers were all given a questionnaire which rated their belief in psychic healing and another questionnaire which rated their levels of pain. They were then randomly assigned to either a treatment group or a control group. Afterwards, all the volunteers filled in the pain questionnaire again. The researcher found that there was no significant effect on pain relief as a result of psychic healing. Answer the following questions, using your knowledge about research into psychic healing.(i) The researcher wanted to know whether there was a correlation between belief in psychic healing and improvement in pain ratings. What statistical test could the researcher use? Justify your answer. (2 marks)(ii) Outline one ethical issue in this study and suggest how the researcher could havedealt with it. (3 marks)3 Explain what is meant by pseudoscience. (5 marks)
12Learning ObjectivesDescribe the Ganzfeld Technique for researching ESPConstruct criticism using the sheep-goat effectEvaluate the methodology used in the Ganzfeld technique
13Ganzfeld Studies of ESP Do we as human possess any abilities beyond that of our5 senses.
14The Ganzfeld Method Two participants in two different Parapsychologist use the Ganzfeld method to prove the existence of ESP.Two participants in two differentrooms. One has a picture theother lies on a couch and talksinto a machine. Impartial judgesthen analyse the tape and thepicture to see if there is any linkbetween the two.
15Criticisms The Problems: The Results: there are as many anti as there are pro results = Low reliability. Investigators who believed ask more question giving participants a greater chance of getting it correct.Methodological problems:Security, poor soundproofingstatistical analysis: subjectivetherefore Investigator biasRandom presentationOf pictures to be communicated
16Sheep-Goat effect: Schmeidler split participants into believers and non-believers, showing that non believers did a lot worse than believers.Sargent (1979): It has been argued that Sargent made errors in his methodology. He is unwilling to show his data to his critics and therefore his results have been discredited.
17Psychokinesis: Macro PK- Micro PK- large items are bent/levitated Works by moving anobject from the outsideMicro PK-When the inside ofan item is effected,stronger methodology
18Macro PKMost research looks at individual case studies of people who demonstrate Psychokinesis however very few have been able to demonstrate their talents under controlled conditionsUri Geller: Is generally well respected. However, Randi demanded he demonstrate his talents on a TV program and Uri was unable to perform.uri geller - Google Videos
19Micro PK The electronic coin flipper: Schmidt (1969) discovered a good methodological way to gain positive results when influencing dice throws.He created a random event generator (REG) and asked people to influence the flip of a coin so that more heads than tails were seen.
20Meta Analysis StudiesNelson and Radin looked at 832 experiments by 68 investigators and found a small but significant effect.Stevens asked participant to control the path of a laser beam through a computer and found support for the existence of PK.
21Lack of ControlWell Controlled studies used at least two researchers, true randomisation of targets and independent recordings of targets.Hansel found that positive results came from research that lacked control, and used small sample sizesWhile research that had negative results applied high control over variables in the study and had lots of participants.
22A02: EvaluationParapsychologists complain the controls expected of them are higher than those for main stream psychology.Abelson claims thatextraordinaryphenomenon requiresextra evidence as it isso far removed frommainstream thought.
23AQA questions4: A class of psychology students plan to study ESP. Outline methodological issues that they need to be aware of and suggest how they might deal with these (8 marks)5: During a public demonstration of ‘psychic powers’, a psychologist witnessed what appeared to be the ability of one person to read the thoughts of another. Explain how the psychologist could use the Ganzfeld procedure to investigate this apparent ability. (6 marks)
24AQA Questions6: The ganzfeld is a technique used to investigate extra-sensory perception (ESP). Outline and critically evaluate findings from ganzfeld studies. (6 marks + 10 marks).7: Discuss methodological issues in the study of psychokinesis. (4 marks + 6 marks)8: Outline and evaluate the Ganzfeld technique as a way of investigating ESP. (4 marks + 4 marks)
26Psychic Healing and Mediumship Lesson Objective:By the end of the lesson you will be able to:Outline one piece of research supporting psychic mediumship.Outline one piece of research criticising psychic mediumship.Outline evaluation points for these research studies.
27Back ground to Illness1: There is always fluctuation in the healing process.2: Our bodies heal on their own3: The Placebo effect
28Support for Psychic Healing Wirth (1990) conducted acontrolled lab study on participantwith wounds. Half got healing theother half were placebo. No oneknew which group they were in.The Miracle Study: Wirth also was involved in a field experiment. Women who were prayed for increased fertility over those that weren’t.
29Research Against Psychic Healing Lyvers (2006): looked at a Australian TV show were he discovered Healing made no significant impact in reducing pain. However he found a correlation between believers and pain reduction.Rosa discovered that Healerswere unable to feel the energyin their hands, when they wererestricted from seeing where her hand was.
30Evaluation for Healing Determinism: True science is carried out by scientist not mediums, 1/ no connection with reputable institutions and 2/ no peer reviews.Wirth’s work was scientific however he was unable to replicate his results. A colleague withdrew his support in the study. Wirth was convicted and sentenced to 5 years in prison for fraud and the author Cha was accused of plagiarism. (flamm 2005)The Placebo affect: Success is due to a belief in psychic healing instead of an actual ability to heal.
32Support for Psychic Mediumship The Psychic Twins Terry and Linda JamisonThe scole report(Keen et al 1999)Captured on film over 500experiments showing flying object & voices.Schwartz et al (2001) tested 5 mediums and found they made accurate statements 80% of the time.
33Criticism of Psychic Mediumship Wiseman (2003)Found even though people knew it was fake they were still take in by mediumshipWiseman and O’KEEFFE (2005)5 mediums gave reading for5 sitters, Sitters found thatreading for other people weremore appropriate than theones for themselves.
34Evaluation Cold reading: A medium first makes general statement and then used thesitters replies later in the reading toconvince them of authenticity.Derren Brown Interview (1/6) - Richard DawkinsSchwartz used students in his study and found because they did not have as many deaths in their lives the mediums questions were not relevant to them.Hines (2003) believes that many mediums to make money will stalk their sitters to find evidence to show their powers of awareness.
35AQA questions9: Discuss what research into exceptional experience has shown us about psychic mediumship. (4 marks + 6 marks)10: There has not been a question directly in psychic healing in past exams.
37Out of body experiences and Near-death experiences. Lesson objective:By the end of the lesson you will be able to;Outline two different types of OBEs & NDEsDescribe a physiological study of OBEs.Describe psychological and paranormal explanations for OBEs & NDEs.The Science of Out of Body ExperiencesYouTube - Broadcast Yourself.#v=B-mrL7fhWi0&feature=related
38Out of Body Experience Natural occurring OBE Artifically induced OBE Green (1968) Case studiesPara somatic = see another bodyAsomatic: No sense of other bodyArtifically induced OBEAlvarado (1982) conducted lab research using relaxation and hypnosisParticipant had to say what was in the other room.Evidence was week.YouTube - Virtual out-of-body experience
39Physiological studies Early studies by Blakemore showed that during OBEs subjects were definitely awake and not dreaming.Stimulation of the temporal-parietal junction using transcranial magnetic stimulation can create OBEs where as stimulation of other areas of the brain does not (Blanke 2005)
40Evaluation Case studies, very subjective. No sceintific evidence Reported by people who are already paranormal believersPeople who have OBE also score high on the prone to fantasy scale and hypnotisability.Ehrssen demonstrated that you can create the illusion of having an OBE
41Natural Occuring NDEs 60% reported a sense of peace. 20% of heart attack patients report having had NDEs (fox 2006)Ring interviewed 100 people who has had NDEs60% reported a sense of peace.33% reported leavingtheir bodies.25% reported entering a tunnelNelson (2006) studied 55 NDEs and 55 controls. Of those who had NDEs, many experienced a sensation of falling and had REM intrusions – the brain is awake but has signs of dreaming.
42Artificially induced states Both Ketamine and hypoxia (lack of oxygen) cause NDE states.They cause a flood of the neurotransmitter glutamate which causes neuronal death so the brain creates a protective blockage.
43Neurological explanations It is argued that endorphin released at the time of pain or stress cause euphoria and detachmentIt has also been shown that although some areas of the brain have shut down the brain stem which stimulates REM sleep is activated
44EvaluationOBEDifficult to test natural occurring + low validity for artificially inducedOut Of Body Experience VideoOur sensery perception is effected and we compensate by using our memories of ourselves. We then project those images on our perceptionNDEParanormal state NDE support the existence of an afterlife. This is a non scientific statement as it is non falsifyable.Neuroscientific theory: They argue that “the dying brain hypothesis”
45Activity:Discuss the following questions in small groups then present your arguments back to the class.Could OBEs and NDEs just be dreams while awake?Is the research methodology used valid or reliable?What adaptive function could NDEs have for the individual?If we can induce NDEs does this dismiss the possibility of them being really psychic in nature?Are NDEs and OBEs biological or psychological phenomena?
46AQA questions11: Outline and evaluate psychological research into belief in out-of-body experiences and/or near-death experiences. (4 marks + 6 marks)12 Discuss what research into exceptional experience has shown us about out-of-body experience. (4 marks + 6 marks)
48Lesson ObjectivesIdentify the questions from the paranormal belief scaleDescribe internal and external locus of controlExplain the link between at least two personality types and paranormal beliefs.
49Personality FactorsNeuroticism: look at life negatively: People use fantasies to escape negative thoughts and distance oneself from negative reality. ( Eysenck)Williams looked at 300 Welsh school children and found a positive correlation between neuroticism and paranormal beliefs
50AO2When looking at the paranormal belief scale a lot of the superstition questions are negative “Black cats bring bad luck”It may be a correlation between negative occurences in the PBS.Wiseman and Watt found a positive correlation between negative superstition and neuroticism but not positive superstition and neuroticism.
51Personality Factors Extraversion: Has a need for extra stimulation, and is also able to adapt to knew situations.Honorton et al; did a meta analysis and found a strong positive correlation between the two variables.
52Locus of control: Relationship between external locus of control and paranormal belief. Schizotypy: Tendency to have hallucinations and disordered thinking. Link found by Irwin and Green (1999)
53Personality Factors Fantasy Proneness Fake Séance, believers stated that a table was moving even when they knew the whole séance was fake, more likely to get carried awaySuggestibility: More easily deceived Hergovich found correlation between hypnotise and paranormal belief scale
54Evaluation of Personality Neuoticism and schizotype:Auton argues that is a mistake to portrayparanormal belief with abnormality.Definition of schizophrenia is belief ofmagic and superstitions. Also correlationbetween self actualisation and paranormalbeliefs.Locus of control:Evidence showing link between externaland believers. Low in reliability.
55AQA questions1 3: Harry had a dream last night about his aunt Susan. She emigrated to Canada years ago and he has not heard from her for three years. This morning, he received a letter from his aunt saying that she was going to visit. He thinks that he might have psychic powers.1 4 Discuss how Harry’s anomalous experience can be explained by personality factors. (6 marks)
56AQA questions13 What has research shown about personality factors underlying anomalous experience? (5 marks)Leon wore a green T-shirt when he sat a mock GCSE exam and got an unexpectedly good result. Since then he has always worn the same T-shirt when he has had to sit an exam. This morning he is feeling distressed because he cannot find his T-shirt and he has an A-level psychology exam today. Abbie, Leon’s friend, cannot understand why he is so upset. She has worked hard and revised thoroughly and does not feel that she needs a T-shirt or anything else to get her through the exam.14: Suggest how personality factors might explain why Abbie does not have anomalous beliefs. (5 marks)
58SuperstitionSuperstitions are beliefsthat are not based on reasonor knowledge. OCDBehavioural – operant conditioning Skinner looked at pigeons who displayed strange behaviour before being fed.Evolutionary- type one and type two errors.Cognitive – Lack of control
59Behavioural – operant conditioning Skinner looked at pigeons who displayed strange behaviour before being fed.The pigeonsdeveloped randombehaviour i.e. onestarted repeatedlyturned anti-clockwiseas a ritual in thethat the behaviour would proceed food.
60Evaluation for behaviourist Staddon and SimmelhagStudied birds and found that ritualistic behaviour happened before they were reinforced with food.Matute found that participant developed a ritual behaviour in the hope they could stop a loud nose as a form of superstition. They assumed there was cause and effect when non existed
61type one and type two errors Type one error is when we think there is a link between events however the evidence is not strong enough = a superstition is created.
63Evolutionary approach Paranormal believes seem to be innate as they are reported all over the world in a wide variety of cultures.Adaptive: Lessquestions, reduced worryover the meaning of life.This then means moretime to focus on productivelife and maximisingreproductive ness.
64Evaluation of Adaption It is the believe that is adaptiveand not paranormal abilities.If it was the abilities then thosewith them would have reportedpositive experiences.These abilities would have beenselected and be more prevalent.McClenon (2002) discovered thatstudents reported more negativethan positive experiences
65Psychodynamic approach Defence Mechanism: Help us feel that we have some sort of control over our anxietiesSense of control: Watt et al (2007)found a link between negativechildhood experiences andparanormal beliefs.Abuse and fantasy proneness:Childhood trauma leads tofantasies of escape = paranornal belief.
66Evaluation of Psychodynamic There is support for our need for control.During the gulf war belief in superstitionrose as Iraqi missiles increased.Wiseman and Watt argue thatparanormal beliefs are a positive wayof adapting to difficult situations.Most people find childhood traumadifficult to accept, those whoexperience it might open the doorto other possibilities.
67AQA questions(iii) ‘It is interesting why, even today in the modern age of science and technology, some people still believe in psychic healing.’Discuss factors underlying belief superstitious behaviour and magical thinking healing. (5 marks + 5 marks)
69Coincidence 1: Think of three situations which appear linked but which could just be coincidence.2: Is there a link between those who make probability misjudgement and coincidence?
70Probability misjudgement: Believers know less about the significance of probability. ilIusion of causality: A Co-incident is when two things happen at the same time.People who believe in the paranormal see more links even when they are not there.
71Biological Evidence High levels of Dopamine have been found to correlatewith linking eventsand believers inparanormal activity.When non believers were given the drug L-dopa (which increases dopamine) they say more faces/words, when there was nothing there.
72General cognitive ability Intelligence: It hasbeen argued thatBelievers are lessintelligent thannon-believers.Gray found that nonbelievers scored less ona reasoning test than believers
73Evaluation of Intelligence General cognitive ability: It was found that intellectual people reading New Scientists were open to the phenomenon of ESPLinking distantly related materials: Believers are creative and this is not negative.Probability misjudgement: Musch and Ehrenberg (2002) linked probability knowledge with intelligence. May not be a separate categories
74AO2: An adaptive significance Evolutionary theory: We seea link between 2 thinks whichmay help us survive. Weavoid accepting the NullhypothesisThere is no correlationbetween 2 things as a typetwo error might be fatal.i.e. Eating wild mushrooms will be linked with death.
75Homework “Even if paranormal phenomena do not exist, paranormal experiences do, as surveys haveshown a considerable number ofpeople report experiences which they interpret as paranormal “Discuss the cognitive factors underlying paranormal beliefs (10 Marks)
771: State the point 2: Provide evidence for the claim 1: State the point 2: Provide evidence for the claim. 3: Explain its significanceThe Synoptic Toolkit
78DebateFree will and Determinism: People are either free to structure their behaviour or it is determined by external/internal forces. Deterministic people are not responsible for their behaviour. i.e biologicalapproachesReductionism: Complex phenomena are reduced to simple explanations. They miss out a lot of important information.The Nature/Nurture debate: The result of genetics vs the result of experiences during life. There is however often a combination ofboth
79IssuesGender bias: Men and women are very different and behaviour for one group might not be the same for the otherCulture Bias:Psychology more often that not represents the culture of the west.Ethical issues: Socially sensitive issues. Is it ethical to produce results that are undesirable from the point of view of one group of people.
80Approaches The biological approach: Looks at the physical body. The evolutionary approach: We have adapted behaviour to enhance survival.S = it is able to explain behaviour that might not work for us today W = It fails to acknowledge cultural influences.The biological approach: Looks at the physical body.S = easy to test scientifically.W= reduces complex behaviour to a simple functionThe cognitive approach: Looks at our thought processes.S = Easy to test scientifically.W = lacking social motivational and emotional factors
81Approaches The behavioural approach: All behaviour is learned S = They provide clear predictions which are easy to test.W = Does notinclude thehigherthoughtprocesses,emotions or expectationsThe psychodynamic approach: Our behaviour is a combination of our drive/desire and our morals.S = It incorporated the unconscious mind.W = It is notTruly scientificAs it is difficult toFalsify.