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Exceptionally Plane People. Noel Pemberton Billing Hubert Scott-Paine Commander James Bird.

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Presentation on theme: "Exceptionally Plane People. Noel Pemberton Billing Hubert Scott-Paine Commander James Bird."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exceptionally Plane People

2 Noel Pemberton Billing Hubert Scott-Paine Commander James Bird

3 Supermarine Woolston

4 Main Supermarine factories at Woolston and Itchen Satellite airfield at Eastleigh


6 191319161922 USA wins 1923 & 1925 Schneider Trophy races Supermarine formed Scott-Paine takes over R.J. Mitchell joins company 192719291931 Supermarine wins its first Schneider Trophy race Britain wins Schneider Trophy outright AM spec F.7/30 released 1928 Vickers - Supermarine formed The Early Days



9 Napier Lion Engine – RAF Museum Hendon

10 Baby N.1B - 1918Southampton - 1925 Walrus - 1933Stranraer - 1937

11 Henri Biard – 1922 Schneider Trophy winner

12 Curtiss CR-3 Lt. Rittenhouse USN Schneider Trophy winner 1923

13 Supermarine S.4 – Napier Lion engine rated at 450HP Unbraced cantilevered wing – 1924 Scheider Trophy race Biard crashed before the race (Biard survived – airplane didnt!)

14 1925 Schneider Trophy winner Lt Jimmy Doolittle

15 Supermarine S.5 1927 Schneider Trophy Napier Lion engine – wire braced wing

16 Rolls-Royce R engine 2350 hp in 1931 versus 875 hp for Lion engine in 1927

17 S.4 S.5 S.6 S.6B

18 Air Ministry Specification F.7/30 A fig hter capable of at least 250 mph and armed with four machine guns Supermarine Type 224 The winning Gloster Gladiator

19 R.J. Mitchells original conception and introduction of the Spitfire 1934193519361937 AM Spec F.37/34 released Killer fighter decision RJ dead at 42 S224 first flight 1938 Spitfire first flight Design refined AM Spec 10/35 eight guns First production order 310 August 1938 first delivery 19 Sqn

20 ….. The (Vickers-Supermarine) design team would do better by devoting their time not to the official experimental fighter (i.e.F.7/30) but to a real killer fighter……my opposite number in Rolls-Royce…A.F Sidgreaves and I decided that our two companies should … finance … such an aircraft …… …. that in no circumstances would any technical member of the Air Ministry be consulted or allowed to interfere with the designer Sir Robert McLean – Chairman Vickers Aviation Ltd.

21 Sir Robert McLean A.F.Sidgreaves Ernest Hives R.J. Mitchell Supermarine Type 300

22 F7/30 refined – Supermarine Drawing 30000 sheet 11 Dated September 1934 from Smith

23 Beverley Shenstone Canadian aerodynamicist Joined Vickers-Supermarine in 1932 Used Ludwig Prandtls theories of elliptic wing planforms in the Spitfire design Spitfire wings (NACA 2200 series) were VERY thin by comparison with conventional wisdom - 13% root T/C tapering to 6% T/C at tip

24 Alexander Lippisch

25 Ludwig Prandtl

26 Alan Clifton Structures

27 Joseph Smith (1897- 1956) Succeeded RJ as Chief Designer Maintained the same basic shape to the Spitfire while doubling the weight and power output from the engine. Took Supermarine technical community right through to the jet age

28 Joseph Smiths Spitfire main spar construction

29 First Flight Day March 5, 1936

30 L-R Mutt Summers, Agony Payn, RJM, S. Scott-hall, Jeffrey Quill

31 Supermarine Woolston Rolls-Royce Derby

32 Philip Cunliffe-Lister 1936 Sir Kingsley Wood -1938 The Shadow Factory idea Castle Bromwich factory

33 Rolls-Royce Derby Supermarine Woolston Castle Bromwich shadow factory, Spitfires Hillington shadow factory, Merlins Crewe shadow factory, Merlins Manchester, shadow factory, (Ford), Merlins South Marston shadow factory, Spitfires

34 Shadow Factories – what were they? Shadow factory at Castle Bromwich


36 Hursley Park

37 Rolls-Royce engine Propeller - DeHavilland, Jabro, Rotol Malcolm Hood Dunlop tires Browning M/Gs Hispano cannon 250 sub contractors were involved in the Spitfire by 1942. By end of 1944, Supermarine had 63 units, staffed by almost 10,000, half of them women, compared to 2500 at the beginning of the war.

38 Rotol Formed 1937 by Rolls- Royce and Bristol Aeroplane Co. Produced over 100,000 three, four and five bladed props Became Dowty-Rotol in 1959

39 SOUTHAMPTON/DISPERSED SPITFIRE PRODUCTION Sewards Garage (Fuselage & Jig production), Polygon Hotel (Design office), Hants & Dorset Bus Station (assembly), Henlys Garage (Fuselage assembly), Sunlight Laundry (Detail fitting etc), Lothers Garage (Toolroom), Shorts Garage (Machine Shop), Weston Rolling Mills (Coppersmiths), Chisnells Garage (Press Shop/Sheet metal), Lingwood Precision- (Landing gear)

40 George Pickering Jeffrey Quill Alex Henshaw Mutt Summers Frank Furlong Spitfire Test Pilots

41 Vickers-Supermarine – the war years Mk.1 Spitfire Mk. V Spitfire Mk. IX Spitfire

42 Supermarine Spitfire Production Mk.1 – 1550 – Merlin III rated at 1030 HP Mk.II – 921 - Merlin III rated at 1030 HP Mk.V – 6476 – Merlin 45 rated at 1470 HP Mk. IX – 5653 – Merlin 66 rated at 1575 HP Mk. XIV/Mk. XVI – 2010 – Griffon 65 rated at 2050 HP Total production 22,799 (includes derivative models up to Spiteful)

43 What made the Spitfire design so good? Basic semi-elliptic wing planform Low wing loading - 21-25 lb/sq. in. Knife edge elliptic wing tips Wing twist +2 deg to – 0.5 deg Thin wing Gentle pressure gradients – more stable boundary layer Wing/body fairing Small tail unit Meredith effect on lower wing surface components Minimal frontal area cowling Ultra slim fuselage

44 Charles Davis – shop foreman Spitfire fuselage manufacture Castle Bromwich

45 Castle Bromwich, workforce numbered 15,854 by 1943 – produced almost half total production of Spitfires

46 Janet May Edna Pugh Lily Holden

47 Spitfire maintenance in Malta

48 Walrus Air-Sea Rescue 746 built Production shared with Saunders-Roe

49 Spiteful April 1945 Seafang F.32 with contra- rotating prop

50 Attacker – FF July 1946 Swift- FF December 1948 Scimitar FF – January 1956

51 Supermarines demise Hursley Park taken over in 1958 by IBM Supermarine aircraft design staff moved to Vickers at Weybridge for work on supersonic projects (including TSR.2) Became part of British Aircraft Corporation 1960

52 Bibliography for Exceptional Plane people – Supermarine Supermarine Aircraft since 1914 by C.F. Andrews & E.B. Morgan.1981 Naval Institute Press Spitfire by Jeffrey Quill. 1985 Arrow Books R.J. Mitchell. Schooldays to Spitfire by Gordon Mitchell (RJs son). 1986 Tempus Publishing. Charleston SC. Sigh for a Merlin by Alex Henshaw 1979 Crecy Publishing Ltd UK. The Spitfire – 50 years on by Michael J.F. Bowyer.1986 Patrick Stephens, Wellingborough The Schneider Trophy Story by Edward Eves 2001 MBI Publishing st. Paul MN Spitfire – Story of a famous fighter by Bruce Robertson. 1661 Garden Press Ltd. Letchworth UK. The Magic of a Name – the Rolls-Royce Story Vol. One by Peter Pugh.2000 Icon Booksltd. Duxford UK Supermarine Spitfire – Owners Workshop Manual2007 Haynes Publishing (Haynes North America)

53 Go Hawks


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