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Chapter 6: States of Consciousness

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1 Chapter 6: States of Consciousness

2 Some Early Definitions
Consciousness: All the sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings you are aware of in any instant Waking Consciousness: Normal, clear, organized, alertness Altered State of Consciousness (ASC): Changes that occur in quality and pattern of mental activity

3 Sleep Innate, biological rhythm Microsleep: Brief shift in brain-wave patterns similar to those during sleep

4 Figure 6. 4 Development of sleep patterns
Figure 6.4 Development of sleep patterns. Short cycles of sleep and waking gradually become the night-day cycle of an adult. While most adults don’t take naps, midafternoon sleepiness is a natural part of the sleep cycle. (After Williams et al., 1964.) Figure 6.4

5 Sleep Problems Sleep Deprivation: Sleep loss; being deprived of needed amounts of sleep Sleep-Deprivation Psychosis: Confusion, disorientation, delusions, and hallucinations that occur because of sleep loss Sleep Patterns: Daily rhythms of sleep and waking

6 Rhythms Circadian Rhythms: Bodily changes that occur every 24 hours Biological Rhythm: Any repeating cycle of biological activity

7 Jet Lag Disturbed body rhythms caused by rapid travel east or west Major time shifts (5 hours or more) can cause very slow adaptation Direction of travel affects adaptation, and thus, severity of jet lag MUCH easier to go from east to west, than west to east Preadaptation: Gradual matching of sleep-waking cycles to a new time schedule

8 Measuring Sleep Changes
Electroencephalograph (EEG): Brain-wave machine; amplifies and records electrical activity in the brain Beta Waves: Small fast waves associated with being alert and awake Alpha Waves: Large, slow brainwaves associated with relaxation and falling asleep

9 Stage 1 Sleep Small, irregular waves produced in light sleep (people may or may not say they were asleep) Hypnic Jerk: Reflex muscle contraction

10 Stages of Sleep, Part 1

11 Stage 2 Sleep Deeper sleep; sleep spindles (bursts of distinctive brain-wave activity) appear

12 Stages of Sleep, Part 2

13 Stage 3 Sleep Deeper sleep; Delta waves appear; very large and slow

14 Stages of Sleep, Part 3

15 Stage 4 Sleep Deepest level of normal sleep; almost purely Delta waves

16 Stages of Sleep, Part 4

17 Figure 6.3 Sleep rhythms. Bars show periods of sleep during the fourth, fifth, and sixth weeks of an experiment with a human subject. During unscheduled periods, the subject was allowed to select times of sleep and lighting. The result was a sleep rhythm of about 25 hours. Notice how this free-running rhythm began to advance around the clock as the person fell asleep later each day. When periods of darkness (shaded area) were imposed during the fifth week, the rhythm quickly resynchronized with 24-hour days. (Adapted from Czeisler, 1981.) Figure 6.3

18 Two Basic Kinds of Sleep
Rapid Eye Movements (REM): Associated with dreaming; sleep is very light Body is very still during REM sleep Lack of muscle paralysis during REM sleep is called REM Behavioral Disorder

19 Stages of Sleep, Part 5

20 Non-REM (NREM) Sleep Occurs during stages 1, 2, 3, and 4; no rapid eye movement occurs Seems to help us recover from daily fatigue EEG patterns return to Stage 1

21 Stages of Sleep, Part 6

22 Figure 6.8 (a) Average proportion of time adults spend daily in REM sleep and NREM sleep. REM periods add up to about 20 percent of total sleep time. (b) Typical changes in stages of sleep during the night. Notice that dreams mostly coincide with REM periods. Figure 6.8

23 Some Sleep Disturbances
Insomnia: Difficulty in getting to sleep or staying asleep Sleeping pills exacerbate insomnia; cause decrease in REM and Stage 4 sleep and may cause dependency Drug-Dependency Insomnia: Sleeplessness that follows withdrawal from sleeping pills

24 Types and Causes of Insomnia
Temporary Insomnia: Brief period of sleeplessness caused by worry, stress, and excitement Avoid fighting it and read a book, for example, until you’re struggling to stay awake

25 Some More Sleep Concerns
Chronic Insomnia: Exists if sleeping troubles last for more than three weeks Adopt regular schedule; go to bed at the same time each night, for example Tryptophan: Amino acid (chemical) that produces sleep

26 Sleep Disturbances Sleepwalking (Somnambulism): Occurs in NREM sleep during Stages 3 and 4 Sleeptalking: Speaking while asleep; occurs in NREM sleep

27 Some Other Sleep Disturbances
Nightmares: Bad dreams that occur during REM sleep May occur once or twice a month; brief and easily remembered Imagery Rehearsal: Mentally rehearse the changed dream before you go to sleep again; may help to eliminate nightmares

28 Night Terrors Night Terrors: Total panic and often hallucinations of frightening dream images may occur Occurs during Stage 4 sleep Most common in childhood; may occur in adults Not remembered

29 Physiological Sleep Problems
Sleep Apnea: Repeated interrupted breathing during sleep; cause of very loud snoring Hypersomnia: Extreme daytime sleepiness Apnea can be treated by Surgery Weight loss Breathing mask

30 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
Sudden, unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant (infants should sleep on back or on side to try to prevent) Also known as Crib Death

31 Dreams Psychodynamic (Freudian) Theory: Emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces Wish Fulfillment: Freudian belief that many dreams are expressions of unconscious desires Much evidence to refute this Dream Symbols: Images that have a deeper symbolic meaning

32 Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis
Dream content may be affected by motor commands in the brain during sleep that are not carried out

33 Hypnosis Altered state of consciousness characterized by intensely narrowed attention and increased openness to suggestion Mesmer: Believed he could cure diseases by passing magnets over body; true “animal magnetism” (“mesmerize” means to hypnotize) Must cooperate to become hypnotized

34 Hypnotic Susceptibility
How easily a person can be hypnotized Basic Suggestion Effect: Tendency of hypnotized people to carry out suggested actions as though they were involuntary

35 Table 6.2 Table 6.2

36 Hypnosis Can Help people relax Reduce pain Get people to make better progress in therapy

37 Hypnosis Cannot Produce acts of superhuman strength Produce age regression Force you to do things against your will

38 Stage Hypnosis Simulation of hypnotic effects, done to entertain

39 Tricks of the Hypnosis Trade
Waking Suggestibility: People on stage do not want to spoil the act, so they will follow any instruction Selection of Responsive Subjects: Any “volunteer” who does not get hypnotized in the stage group and does not follow instructions is removed The Hypnosis Label Disinhibits: On stage, once you are “in a hypnotic trance,” your responsibility for actions is removed; you can do whatever you want!

40 More Stage Hypnosis “Tricks of the Trade”
Hypnotist as Director: Once they are in a trance, the “volunteers” are suddenly the show’s stars, and they will act like it; the hypnotist only needs to direct them Stage Hypnotists Use Tricks: Stage hypnosis is 50% deception and 50% taking advantage of the situation Conclusion: Stage hypnotists entertain; they rarely hypnotize

41 Meditation Mental exercise designed to focus attention and interrupt flow of thoughts, worries, and analyses Concentrative Meditation: Attention is paid to a single focal point (i.e., object, thought, etc.) Produces relaxation response and thus works to reduce stress Receptive Meditation: Based on widening attention span to become aware of everything experienced at a given moment

42 More on Meditation Mantra: Word(s) or sound(s) repeated silently during concentrative meditation Relaxation Response: Occurs at time of relaxation; innate physiological pattern that opposes body’s fight or flight responses

43 Sensory Deprivation (SD)
Any major reduction in amount or variety of sensory stimulation Benefits Sensory enhancement Relaxation Changing habits Benefits called REST: Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy

44 Figure 6. 12 A sensory isolation chamber
Figure 6.12 A sensory isolation chamber. Small flotation tanks like the one pictured have been used by psychologists to study the effects of mild sensory deprivation. Subjects float in darkness and silence. The shallow body-temperature water contains hundreds of pounds of Epsom salts, so that people float near the surface. Mild sensory deprivation produces deep relaxation. Figure 6.12

45 Mindfulness Open, nonjudgmental awareness of current experience

46 Drugs and Altered States of Consciousness
Psychoactive Drug: Substance capable of altering attention, judgment, memory, time sense, self-control, emotion, or perception Stimulant: Substance that increases activity in body and nervous system Depressant: Substance that decreases activity in body and nervous system

47 Dependence Physical Dependence: Addiction based on drug tolerance and withdrawal symptoms Drug Tolerance: Reduction in body’s response to a drug Withdrawal Symptoms: Physical illness following withdrawal of the drug Psychological Dependence: Drug dependence based on psychological or emotional needs

48 Figure 6. 13 Spectrum and continuum of drug action
Figure 6.13 Spectrum and continuum of drug action. Many drugs can be rated on a stimulation-depression scale according to their effects on the central nervous system. Although LSD, mescaline, and marijuana are listed here, the stimulation-depression scale is less relevant to these drugs. The principal characteristic of such hallucinogens is their mind-altering quality. Figure 6.13

49 Stimulants Amphetamine: Synthetic stimulants that excite nervous system Dexedrine and Methamphetamine are two types of stimulants Amphetamine Psychosis: Loss of contact with reality because of amphetamine use; user tends to have paranoid delusions

50 Interaction of Dopamine and Amphetamines

51 Cocaine Central Nervous System stimulant derived from leaves of coca plant; also used as local anesthetic From , Coca-Cola did indeed have cocaine in it! Highly addictive drug Anhedonia (Inability to Feel Pleasure): Common after cocaine withdrawal

52 Interaction of Dopamine and Cocaine

53 MDMA (Ecstasy) Chemically similar to amphetamine; created by small variations in a drug’s structure May cause severe liver damage and fatal heat exhaustion Repeated use damages serotonergic brain cells

54 Caffeine Most frequently used psychoactive drug in North America; present in colas, chocolate, coffee, tea Causes tremors, sweating, talkativeness, tinnitus, suppresses fatigue or sleepiness, increases alertness May be hazardous to pregnant women if used excessively; may cause birth defects

55 Caffeinism Physiological dependence on caffeine Symptoms include: Insomnia, irritability, loss of appetite, chills, racing heart, elevated body temperature

56 Nicotine Natural stimulant found mainly in tobacco; known carcinogen In large doses it causes stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea, confusion, tremors Addictive Smoking responsible for 97% of lung cancer deaths in men, 74% in women Sum: DON’T SMOKE; SMOKING KILLS (SO DOES CHEWING TOBACCO)

57 Understanding Addiction

58 Sedatives Barbiturates: Sedative drugs that depress brain activity Seconal and Amytal are two types

59 Interaction of GABA and Barbiturates

60 GHB GHB (Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate): Central Nervous System (CNS) depressant that relaxes and sedates; combination of degreasing solvent and drain cleaner Sedative effects may result in nausea, loss of muscle control, and either sleep or a loss of consciousness Inhibits gag reflex, so some choke to death on their own vomit Addictive and deadly

61 Tranquilizers Tranquilizers: Lower anxiety and reduce tension Valium, Xanax, Halcion, and Librium are four types Rohypnol: Related to Valium; lowers inhibitions and produces relaxation or intoxication; larger doses can induce short-term amnesia and sleep Date rape drug because it’s odorless and tasteless (“Roofies”)

62 Drug Interaction One drug increases the effect of another

63 Alcohol Ethyl Alcohol: Intoxicating element in fermented and distilled liquors NOT a stimulant but DOES lower inhibitions Depressant

64 Binge Drinking Consuming five or more drinks in a short time, or four or more for women Serious sign of alcohol abuse May lead to up to 10 percent loss of brain power, especially memory

65 How a Drinking Problem may Develop (Jellinek, 1960)
Initial Phase: Social drinker turns to alcohol to relieve tension or feel good Crucial Phase: Person begins to lose control over drinking Chronic Phase: Person is now alcohol dependent

66 Treatment for Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
Detoxification: Withdrawal of the person from alcohol; occurs in a medical setting and is tightly controlled; oftentimes necessary before long-term treatment begins

67 Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
Worldwide self-help organization composed of recovering alcoholics; emphasizes admitting powerlessness over alcohol usage and wanting to recover Spiritual component Free; around for over 70 years! Rational Recovery, and Secular Organizations for Sobriety (SOS): Non-spiritual AA Alternatives

68 Table 6.3a Table 6.3a

69 Table 6.3b Table 6.3b

70 Some Hallucinogens Hallucinogen: Substance that alters or distorts sensory impressions Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD): Hallucinogen that can produce hallucinations and psychotic disturbances in thinking and perception

71 Some More Hallucinogens
Mescaline (Peyote) and Psilocybin (Magic Mushrooms) PCP (Angel Dust): Initially can have hallucinogenic effects; also an anesthetic and has stimulant and depressant effects

72 Marijuana (Pot) Cannabis Sativa (Marijuana; Pot): Leaves and flowers of the hemp plant Active chemical: THC Effects: Relaxation, time distortion, perceptual distortions Psychologically, NOT physiologically, addictive

73 Some Health Risks of Using Marijuana
Can cause precancerous changes in lung cells Can suppress immune system, increasing risk of disease Activity levels in the cerebellum are lower than normal in pot users Pot may damage some of the brain’s memory centers

74 Dream Interpretation Freud: Four dream processes (mental filters) that hide true meanings of dreams

75 Condensation Combining several people, objects, or events into a single dream image

76 Displacement Directing emotions or actions toward safe or unimportant dream images

77 Symbolization Non-literal expression of dream content

78 Secondary Elaboration
Making a dream more logical and adding details while remembering it

79 Perls’ Views on Dreams Most dreams are a special message about what is missing in our lives, what we avoid doing when awake, or feelings that we need to re-own Dreams fill in gaps in our personal experience

80 Lucid Dreaming Person feels fully awake within the dream and feels capable of normal thought and action

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