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FILM TECHNIQUES. The essence of visual literacy is the awareness of the power of pictures to position and persuade us. Visually literate people respond.

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Presentation on theme: "FILM TECHNIQUES. The essence of visual literacy is the awareness of the power of pictures to position and persuade us. Visually literate people respond."— Presentation transcript:

1 FILM TECHNIQUES

2 The essence of visual literacy is the awareness of the power of pictures to position and persuade us. Visually literate people respond actively: they participate in making meaning, as opposed to passively receiving the world with which they are presented.

3 WHY DO WE STUDY FILM? It is a language. (angles, shot types, sound, colour, editing) It complements other literature studies. (character, theme, genre, setting, style, etc.) It encourages critical language awareness. (bias, positioning and persuading) It is art.

4 Roll tape… Image: Film Reels and Clapper board - video icon (ref: 144227392, shutterstock) ©Sashkin

5 COMPOSITION To compose a shot, the cinematographer makes several choices regarding: perspective (high angle, low angle, over-the-shoulder, etc.) the amount of subject relative to background (close-up, medium-shot, long-shot) framing focus.

6 The subject (the car) is the focus while also being placed in context, i.e. the car is speeding along a remote tar road. CAMERA SHOTS – LONG SHOT from: Forgiveness (2004), directed by Ian Gabriel, a Giant Films-dv8 co production.

7 The camera zooms right into the subjects face to extract the maximum emotion or tension from the scene. CAMERA SHOTS – CLOSE-UP from: Forgiveness (2004), directed by Ian Gabriel, a Giant Films-dv8 co production.

8 The extreme close-up focused on the smoking gun, emphasises the cycle of violence the revenge-seeking friends are continuing. CAMERA SHOTS – EXTREME CLOSE-UP from: Forgiveness (2004), directed by Ian Gabriel, a Giant Films-dv8 co production.

9 This over-the-shoulder shot allows the director to focus on one characters reactions, while keeping another character in shot. This increases tension as it cramps the frame. CAMERA SHOTS – OVER-THE-SHOULDER SHOT from: Forgiveness

10 CAMERA SHOTS – ESTABLISHING SHOT and HIGH ANGLE from: Tsotsi (www.tsotsi.com) This shot establishes the policemens problem – theyve found the car but the baby has been taken into the big and densely populated township. The high angle emphasises their smallness relative to the size of the township.

11 Eye-level shots promote a sense of calm and equality between characters in conversation. CAMERA ANGLES – EYE-LEVEL from: Tsotsi (www.tsotsi.com)

12 The low angle is highly effective in making a subject appear threatening or imposing. CAMERA ANGLES – LOW ANGLE from: Forgiveness

13 This frame within the frame created by the pillar and Sannies shoulder focuses our attention on Tertius Coetzees anxiety. The high angle also emphasises his fragile state. FRAMING from: Forgiveness (2004), directed by Ian Gabriel, a Giant Films-dv8 co production.

14 The frame-within-the frame caused by Sannies shoulder and her brother Ernests body focuses our attention on Tertius. In addition, the lines of Sannies shoulder and jaw draw our attention to Ernests clenched fist. FRAMING from: Forgiveness (2004), directed by Ian Gabriel, a Giant Films-dv8 co production.

15 In both of these shots the figure in the background is in focus, but both characters are relevant. The figure on the left reacts to the actions of the figure on the right, who then attempts to explain himself. BACKGROUND FOCUS from: Forgiveness

16 LIGHTING Lighting is important not only in order to make important subjects visible, but to establish mood and develop character. Types of lighting include: full light (lit from the front), side lighting, spotlighting, over- and under-exposure, high-key and low-key lighting.

17 The light source is in front of the subject, allowing us to see his entire face. This suggests openness and serenity. LIGHTING – FULL OR FRONT LIGHTING from: Tsotsi (www.tsotsi.com)

18 The light source is from the left, leaving the right side of the subjects face in the dark. This suggests that the character has something to hide or is experiencing inner conflict. LIGHTING – SIDE-LIGHTING from: Tsotsi (www.tsotsi.com)

19 Shadows are used to frame Miriam (with the baby on her back), who is being observed from Tsotsis perspective. This creates a spotlight on her as Tsotsi sees her as the solution to his problems. LIGHTING – SPOTLIGHTING from: Tsotsi (www.tsotsi.com)

20 This shot of Father Dalton and Tertius Coetzee uses over-exposure and high contrast to convey the harsh intrusion Coetzee is making into the Grootboom home. LIGHTING – OVER-EXPOSURE from: Forgiveness (2004), directed by Ian Gabriel, a Giant Films-dv8 co production.

21 The only light in this shot comes from the streetlamps. This creates a feeling of suspense. We are not sure what Tsotsi will do, but are certain that his intentions are not good. LIGHTING – LOW-KEY: SUSPENSE from: Tsotsi (www.tsotsi.com)

22 The sepia tones that wash through many of the daylight scenes in Tsotsi suggest the smoky-dustiness of township living, both literally and figuratively. COLOUR SCHEME from: Tsotsi (www.tsotsi.com)

23 The desaturation of colour in Forgiveness conveys how the suppression of the truth has drained the characters emotionally, and robbed them of a full life. COLOUR SCHEME from: Forgiveness

24 The focus of this shot is achieved by following the gaze of the family members: Coetzee is relating how he tortured the Grootbooms eldest son. The circular arrangement with both Hendrik and Tertius partially cut off emphasises the discomfort in the scene. The scene is shot at eye-level to emphasise the harsh honesty of the situation – neither party has power. COMPOSITION - PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER from: Forgiveness (2004), directed by Ian Gabriel, a Giant Films-dv8 co production.

25 The ordering of the shots below conveys the fragility of the peace Coetzee has achieved with the Grootboom family: While the family prays (frame 1), the friends are on the way (frame 2). Sannie (frame 3) is the one who called them but is no longer sure of her decision. The final shot indicates that the friends have arrived at the graveyard (frame 4). The viewers hold their breath to see what will happen. EDITING from: Forgiveness (2004), directed by Ian Gabriel, a Giant Films-dv8 co production.

26 Cut! Image: Film Reels and Clapper board - video icon (ref: 144227392, shutterstock) ©Sashkin


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