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Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic

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1 Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic
Used to be classified in the plant kingdom, but because they lack chlorophyll (don’t photosynthesize), lack roots, stems, or leaves -they are now in their own kingdom “myc” – word part refers to a fungus Fungi are adapted to absorb their food from the environment, reproduce using spores Over 70,000 fungal species have been identified 1.5 million fungal species are estimated to exist on earth Kingdom Fungi is very diverse – 4 phyla

2 Primitive Fungi (Phylum Chytridiomycota)
Chytrid fungi Mostly aquatic Spores are flagellated Some are decomposers, some are parasitic (some scientists suspect frog populations are dropping worldwide because of chytrid fungi) Sac Fungi (Phylum Ascomycota) yeasts, certain molds (Penicillium), morels and truffles, mildews, ergots yeast used in baking, alcohol production Penicillin – antibiotic produced by Penicillium Dutch Elm Disease – kills elm trees Ergot – produces LSD (nickname – “acid”)

3 Bread Molds (Phylum Zygomycota)
Rhizopus – common bread mold Most species are decomposers Symbiotic species – mycorrhizae form mutualistic partnerships with plant roots, help plants fix nitrogen Club Fungi (Phylum Basidiomycota) Club-shaped fruiting bodies Include mushrooms, puffballs, bracket (shelf) fungi, rusts, smuts

4 Questions 1-2, p599 How do fungi contribute to balance of an ecosystem? Fungi contribute to the balance of an ecosystem by decomposing organic matter and recycling nutrients. What are three reasons lichens are useful to humans? Lichens produce oxygen They also grow in unfavorable environments, which then allow other organisms to grow. They are also indicators of air quality are important decomposers that return nutrient into the soil. They are used to produce antibiotic compounds Their pigments are used as dyes.

5 Draw a Venn Diagram comparing lichens and mycorrhizae
Draw a Venn Diagram comparing lichens and mycorrhizae. Include terms such as roots, photosynthesis, and mutualism. lichens: algae, photosynthesis mycorrhizae: roots, surface area Common to both: mutualism, fungus Some antifungal medications can damage the patient’s tissues. Why doesn’t this occur with antibiotics? Antibiotics affect prokaryotes whereas fungi and humans are eukaryotic

6 A peach farmer is faced every year with a outbreak of peach scab, a fungal disease of peaches. Every year he sprays his crop carefully with fungicide, but each time these seem less effective than the year before. Why might this be? Fungi that survived the initial spraying may have conferred resistance to later generations. Over time, the population of fungicide-resistant fungi could increase.

7 Kingdom Plantae Multicellular, eukaryotic, autotrophic (make their own food through photosynthesis) Plants contain chlorophyll – light absorbing pigment that give them their green colour Plants evolved from green algae (earliest plant fossils date back more than 450 million years ago). Plants are the start of many terrestrial (land) food chains Plants supply the earth with much needed oxygen and pump carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere (reduces global warming).

8 # of plant species – low estimate at 300,000!
The world’s rainforests – are being destroyed at a rapid rate – many plants species are becoming extinct even before we know they exist! Majority of the medicine’s pharmaceutical drugs and anti-cancer drugs come from plant species Without plants, we wouldn’t be here! Land plants have adaptations : Retain moisture – cuticle (waxy covering) on leaves, stomata – holes on underside of leaves control water loss.

9 Vascular system: possess by vascular plants – help transport materials within plant – allow plant to grow upright towards the light Ability to grow upright because of lignin – hardens cells walls to give the plant strength and rigidity (so the plant can grow upright towards the sun) Reproduction – some plants produce spores, others produce pollen and seeds. Seeds and spores are a storage mechanisms that protects plant embryo

10 Kingdom Plantae Multicellular, eukaryotic, and autotrophic
2 major categories: Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Non-Vascular plants: liverworts, hornworts and mosses Short structure because of a lack of a vascular system (can’t carry material very far) Reproduce using water (swimming sperm! … in a plant? Yes!)

11 Vascular plants: Posses a vascular system that transports materials (series of tubes or plumbing) Also live in moist areas because reproduce with swimming sperm 2 main types: Spore producers (seedless) Seed producers Spore Producers: Using spores for reproduction Club mosses Whisk Ferns Horsetails Ferns

12 Seed Plants Reproduce by seeds
Can live in dryer environments (don’t need water to reproduce) 2 groups: Gymnosperms “naked seed” – seeds not enclosed in a fruit Conifers – spruce, pine, fir, cedar, etc. Cycads Ginkgos – Ginkgo biloba – health supplement Angiosperms Flowering plants Commonly what we think of “a plant” 2 types: Monocots – grasses, corn, cereal crops etc… Dicots – common tree species, vegetables, etc…

13 Questions 1-3, page 622 What are the habitat requirements for seedless nonvascular plants? Environment where water and nutrients can be absorbed directly into the plant body Must have free-standing water for reproduction What are the evolutionary advantages of a vascular system? - Allows plants to grows higher off the ground, which can mean better access to sunlight

14 3-4, page 622 What are the evolutionary advantages of seeds?
Seeds allow an embryo to remain dormant until the environmental conditions are right for growth In what type of environment might you find nonvascular plants, seedless vascular plants, and seed plants growing together? Explain. - Moist environments, because all seedless plants require free-standing water for reproduction

15 5-6, p622 Consider the characteristics of pollen grains. Why do people with pollen allergies find it difficult to avoid exposure to pollen? - Pollen grains are tiny (only two cells) and they are blown around by the wind. When pollen counts are too high outdoors, it is difficult to avoid exposure unless you stay inside. According to the fossil record, seed plants date back to 360 million years ago, when the Earth’s climate was becoming hotter and drier. What role did this global climate change likely play in the evolution of seed plants? As the climate became drier, there was less standing water in which seedless plants could reproduce. Plants that could reproduce without free-standing water had an adaptive advantage in this situation, and they became more and more common.

16 Questions 1-3, p627 What adaptations give flowering plants a reproductive advantage over gymnosperms? Animal pollination is more efficient than wind pollination, flower ovaries protect gametes and seeds, and fruit protects seeds and helps disperse them. What are the primary difference between monocots and dicots? monocots: one cotyledon per seed Dicots: two cotyledons per seed Name three ways in which flowering plants can be categorized. By number of cotyledons – monocot or dicot By stem type – woody or herbaceous By lifespan – annual, biennial or perennial

17 Q 4-5, p627 In what ways does pollination in gymnosperms differ from pollination in angiosperms? How would you take plant lifespan type into account when planting a garden? Annuals will need to be replanted every year. Biennial plants will not flower the first year if planted from seed, and they will need to be replanted after the second year of growth. Perennial plants will grow back every spring.

18 Question 6, p627 The fossil record reveals amass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous Period. Discuss why mass extinctions are commonly followed by periods of adaptive radiation, in this case of flowering plants. A mass extinction leaves open niches and unused abiotic resources. Surviving organisms may be able to adapt to these niche, expanding their range and possibly radiating into new species over many generations.

19 Kingdom Animalia Heterotrophic (ingest their food) Eukaryotic
Multicellular, cells lack a cell wall More than 1 million species have been described so far 2 major groupings: Invertebrates: lack a backbone More than 95% of animal species are invertebrates Vertebrates possess a backbone Less than 5% are vertebrate species

20 9 Animal Kingdom Phyla 8 Invertebrate Phyla: 1 Vertebrate Phylum:
Sponges (Phylum Porifera) Cnidarians (Phylum Coelenterata) Flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes) Roundworms (Phylum Nematoda) Segmented Worms (Phylum Annelida) Mollusks (Phylum Mollusca) Echinoderms (Phylum Echinodermata) Arthropods (Phylum Arthropoda) 1 Vertebrate Phylum: Chordates (Phylum Chordata)

21 Sponges (Phylum Porifera)
Lack tissues Lack symmetry Marine (live in salt water), freshwater species too! Sessile (don’t move around – stay in one place) Water pulled in through pores – bring in oxygen and food and as water is removed takes carbon dioxide and wastes with it.

22 Cnidarians (Phylum Coelenterata)
Corals, jellyfish (sea jellies), sea anemones, hydras Radially symmetrical (no front or back) Marine species Some are sessile – corals, sea anemones and hydras Some are motile (move around) – sea jellies One opening for food and wastes Sea jellies can be very poisonous!

23 Flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes)
Tapeworms, flukes and planarians Motile Flat body plan Have a mouth and an anus (two openings) Most are parasites!

24 Roundworms (Phylum Nematoda)
Terrestrial species Mostly parasitic but have numerous free living species Commonly found in soil, make up an important part of soils Guinea worm, hookworm and pinworm – are parasites

25 Mollusks (Phylum Mollusca)
Aquatic species, both marine and freshwater Shellfish (clams, oysters, etc), octopus, squid, snails Octopus – considered the smartest invertebrate

26 Segmented Worms (Phylum Annelida)
Earthworms, leeches Terrestrial and aquatic species Segmented body plan Leeches – parasites Earthworm – free-living decomposer, hermaphroditic

27 Arthropods (Phylum Arthropoda)
Most numerous phylum! Have an exoskeleton Jointed legs Crustaceans – crabs, lobsters, shrimp, crayfish Insects – bees, ants, grasshopper, etc. Arachnids – spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions

28 Echinoderms (Phylum Echinodermata)
“Spiny skin” Radial symmetry Marine species Sea stars, sea urchins, feather stars, sea lilies, sand dollars, brittle stars, sea cucumbers, etc. Predatory species commonly found Can regenerate lost body parts!

29 Chordates (Phylum Chordata)
Main group – sub-phylum Vertebrata Possess a notochord, gill slits, and a hollow nerve cord Seven classes of vertebrates: Bony fish – trout, goldfish, etc. Jawless fish – lampreys, hagfish etc. Cartilaginous Fish – sharks, rays, etc. Amphibians – frogs, toads, salamanders Reptiles – snakes, lizards, turles, crocodiles, etc. Birds – sparrow, crow, hawk, etc. Mammals – whales, bats, humans

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