Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic"— Presentation transcript:
1 Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic Used to be classified in the plant kingdom, but because they lack chlorophyll (don’t photosynthesize), lack roots, stems, or leaves -they are now in their own kingdom“myc” – word part refers to a fungusFungi are adapted to absorb their food from the environment, reproduce using sporesOver 70,000 fungal species have been identified1.5 million fungal species are estimated to exist on earthKingdom Fungi is very diverse – 4 phyla
2 Primitive Fungi (Phylum Chytridiomycota) Chytrid fungiMostly aquaticSpores are flagellatedSome are decomposers, some are parasitic (some scientists suspect frog populations are dropping worldwide because of chytrid fungi)Sac Fungi (Phylum Ascomycota)yeasts, certain molds (Penicillium), morels and truffles, mildews, ergotsyeast used in baking, alcohol productionPenicillin – antibiotic produced by PenicilliumDutch Elm Disease – kills elm treesErgot – produces LSD (nickname – “acid”)
3 Bread Molds (Phylum Zygomycota) Rhizopus – common bread moldMost species are decomposersSymbiotic species – mycorrhizae form mutualistic partnerships with plant roots, help plants fix nitrogenClub Fungi (Phylum Basidiomycota)Club-shaped fruiting bodiesInclude mushrooms, puffballs, bracket (shelf) fungi, rusts, smuts
4 Questions 1-2, p599How do fungi contribute to balance of an ecosystem?Fungi contribute to the balance of an ecosystem by decomposing organic matter and recycling nutrients.What are three reasons lichens are useful to humans?Lichens produce oxygenThey also grow in unfavorable environments, which then allow other organisms to grow.They are also indicators of air qualityare important decomposers that return nutrient into the soil.They are used to produce antibiotic compoundsTheir pigments are used as dyes.
5 Draw a Venn Diagram comparing lichens and mycorrhizae Draw a Venn Diagram comparing lichens and mycorrhizae. Include terms such as roots, photosynthesis, and mutualism.lichens: algae, photosynthesismycorrhizae: roots, surface areaCommon to both: mutualism, fungusSome antifungal medications can damage the patient’s tissues. Why doesn’t this occur with antibiotics?Antibiotics affect prokaryotes whereas fungi and humans are eukaryotic
6 A peach farmer is faced every year with a outbreak of peach scab, a fungal disease of peaches. Every year he sprays his crop carefully with fungicide, but each time these seem less effective than the year before. Why might this be?Fungi that survived the initial spraying may have conferred resistance to later generations. Over time, the population of fungicide-resistant fungi could increase.
7 Kingdom PlantaeMulticellular, eukaryotic, autotrophic (make their own food through photosynthesis)Plants contain chlorophyll – light absorbing pigment that give them their green colourPlants evolved from green algae (earliest plant fossils date back more than 450 million years ago).Plants are the start of many terrestrial (land) food chainsPlants supply the earth with much needed oxygen and pump carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere (reduces global warming).
8 # of plant species – low estimate at 300,000! The world’s rainforests – are being destroyed at a rapid rate – many plants species are becoming extinct even before we know they exist!Majority of the medicine’s pharmaceutical drugs and anti-cancer drugs come from plant speciesWithout plants, we wouldn’t be here!Land plants have adaptations :Retain moisture – cuticle (waxy covering) on leaves, stomata – holes on underside of leaves control water loss.
9 Vascular system: possess by vascular plants – help transport materials within plant – allow plant to grow upright towards the lightAbility to grow upright because of lignin – hardens cells walls to give the plant strength and rigidity (so the plant can grow upright towards the sun)Reproduction – some plants produce spores, others produce pollen and seeds. Seeds and spores are a storage mechanisms that protects plant embryo
10 Kingdom Plantae Multicellular, eukaryotic, and autotrophic 2 major categories:Non-vascular plantsVascular plantsNon-Vascular plants:liverworts, hornworts and mossesShort structure because of a lack of a vascular system (can’t carry material very far)Reproduce using water (swimming sperm! … in a plant? Yes!)
11 Vascular plants:Posses a vascular system that transports materials (series of tubes or plumbing)Also live in moist areas because reproduce with swimming sperm2 main types:Spore producers (seedless)Seed producersSpore Producers:Using spores for reproductionClub mossesWhisk FernsHorsetailsFerns
12 Seed Plants Reproduce by seeds Can live in dryer environments (don’t need water to reproduce)2 groups:Gymnosperms“naked seed” – seeds not enclosed in a fruitConifers – spruce, pine, fir, cedar, etc.CycadsGinkgos – Ginkgo biloba – health supplementAngiospermsFlowering plantsCommonly what we think of “a plant”2 types:Monocots – grasses, corn, cereal crops etc…Dicots – common tree species, vegetables, etc…
13 Questions 1-3, page 622What are the habitat requirements for seedless nonvascular plants?Environment where water and nutrients can be absorbed directly into the plant bodyMust have free-standing water for reproductionWhat are the evolutionary advantages of a vascular system?- Allows plants to grows higher off the ground, which can mean better access to sunlight
14 3-4, page 622 What are the evolutionary advantages of seeds? Seeds allow an embryo to remain dormant until the environmental conditions are right for growthIn what type of environment might you find nonvascular plants, seedless vascular plants, and seed plants growing together? Explain.- Moist environments, because all seedless plants require free-standing water for reproduction
15 5-6, p622Consider the characteristics of pollen grains. Why do people with pollen allergies find it difficult to avoid exposure to pollen?- Pollen grains are tiny (only two cells) and they are blown around by the wind. When pollen counts are too high outdoors, it is difficult to avoid exposure unless you stay inside.According to the fossil record, seed plants date back to 360 million years ago, when the Earth’s climate was becoming hotter and drier. What role did this global climate change likely play in the evolution of seed plants?As the climate became drier, there was less standing water in which seedless plants could reproduce. Plants that could reproduce without free-standing water had an adaptive advantage in this situation, and they became more and more common.
16 Questions 1-3, p627What adaptations give flowering plants a reproductive advantage over gymnosperms?Animal pollination is more efficient than wind pollination, flower ovaries protect gametes and seeds, and fruit protects seeds and helps disperse them.What are the primary difference between monocots and dicots?monocots: one cotyledon per seedDicots: two cotyledons per seedName three ways in which flowering plants can be categorized.By number of cotyledons – monocot or dicotBy stem type – woody or herbaceousBy lifespan – annual, biennial or perennial
17 Q 4-5, p627In what ways does pollination in gymnosperms differ from pollination in angiosperms?How would you take plant lifespan type into account when planting a garden?Annuals will need to be replanted every year.Biennial plants will not flower the first year if planted from seed, and they will need to be replanted after the second year of growth.Perennial plants will grow back every spring.
18 Question 6, p627The fossil record reveals amass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous Period. Discuss why mass extinctions are commonly followed by periods of adaptive radiation, in this case of flowering plants.A mass extinction leaves open niches and unused abiotic resources. Surviving organisms may be able to adapt to these niche, expanding their range and possibly radiating into new species over many generations.
19 Kingdom Animalia Heterotrophic (ingest their food) Eukaryotic Multicellular, cells lack a cell wallMore than 1 million species have been described so far2 major groupings:Invertebrates:lack a backboneMore than 95% of animal species are invertebratesVertebratespossess a backboneLess than 5% are vertebrate species
21 Sponges (Phylum Porifera) Lack tissuesLack symmetryMarine (live in salt water), freshwater species too!Sessile (don’t move around – stay in one place)Water pulled in through pores – bring in oxygen and food and as water is removed takes carbon dioxide and wastes with it.
22 Cnidarians (Phylum Coelenterata) Corals, jellyfish (sea jellies), sea anemones, hydrasRadially symmetrical (no front or back)Marine speciesSome are sessile – corals, sea anemones and hydrasSome are motile (move around) – sea jelliesOne opening for food and wastesSea jellies can be very poisonous!
23 Flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes) Tapeworms, flukes and planariansMotileFlat body planHave a mouth and an anus (two openings)Most are parasites!
24 Roundworms (Phylum Nematoda) Terrestrial speciesMostly parasitic but have numerous free living speciesCommonly found in soil, make up an important part of soilsGuinea worm, hookworm and pinworm – are parasites
25 Mollusks (Phylum Mollusca) Aquatic species, both marine and freshwaterShellfish (clams, oysters, etc), octopus, squid, snailsOctopus – considered the smartest invertebrate
26 Segmented Worms (Phylum Annelida) Earthworms, leechesTerrestrial and aquatic speciesSegmented body planLeeches – parasitesEarthworm – free-living decomposer, hermaphroditic