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(un)Divided Cyprus By David McDonogh.

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1 (un)Divided Cyprus By David McDonogh

2 Summary Basics Recent tries for Reunification Points of Contention
Geography, History, Conflict, Sides Recent tries for Reunification Points of Contention UN involvement My Proposal

3 The Island Island South of Turkey in Mediterranean Size: 9,251 sq km
Temperate Mediterranean Climate Two major mountain ranges, the Troodos Range and the Keryneia Range separated by the Messaoria Plain Population: 796,740 Ethnic breakdown: % Greek 18% Turkish 5% Other

4 History of Conquest and Division
Many kingdoms have ruled Cyprus Egypt, Persia, Assyria, Greece, Rome, Byzantium, The Templars, The Ottomans Britain annexed Cyprus in 1914 Cyprus became a crown colony in 1925 1960 Cyprus becomes an independent nation. The new constitution eliminates both the possibility of union with Greece and a partition, however it turns out to be unworkable. 1963 Plans introduced by the President to reform the state met by rebellion by Turkish communities 1964 The UN sends a peacekeeping force 1974 President Makarios ousted in a coup by sponsored by the Junta in Athens This action is met with an invasion by Turkey 1975 UN partitions Cyprus 1983 Turkish Cypriots declare northern Cyprus and independent state The “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” is condemned by the UN, and only recognized by Turkey 2002 New UN sponsored negotiations continue 2003 the EU invites Cyprus to join Only Greek Cyprus will join unless a UN reunification plan is accepted before the EU deadline in 2004 2004 Greek Cyprus joins the EU 2008 Ledra Street checkpoint is torn down in Nicosia

5 Conflict Overview The conflict is between the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities as well as the Republic of Cyprus and Turkey over the ownership of Cyprus Each side claims the island due to ethnic reasons The different goals and fears of each side have caused negotiations to be fruitless

6 Cyprus Today Greek Cyprus The Republic of Cyprus (ROC)
Controls the southern part of the island prosperous economy EU member Turkish Cyprus The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) Controls the northern third of the island poorer population Not an EU member Only recognized by Turkey

7 Political Situation

8 Cause of The Partition Greek Cypriot extremists supported by the military junta in Athens ousted president Makarios in 1974 The extremists supported enosis, or union with Greece Turkey responded with military action citing the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee and the need to protect Turkish Cypriots The treaty prohibited the union of Cyprus with another power or the partition of the island Turkey has maintained it’s position keeping 37% of the island under it’s control since 1974

9 Turkey’s Positions Turkey had to intervene to protect the rights of the Turkish Cypriots who would have been oppressed by the majority Greek Cypriot population They needed to fix the problems in the broken Cypriot government They support Taxim, or the partition to protect the Turkish Cypriots

10 Republic of Cyprus’s Position
Turkey is illegally occupying the north They seek reunification with the north and an end to Turkish involvement and occupation of the Island Want refugees to be able to return to their properties Seek the repatriation of the 100,000 settlers sent by Turkey Seek to create a strong central government over the entire island

11 Cypriot’s Views Cypriots generally support reunification
Greek Cypriots Seek departure of Turkish army and settlers Want refugees to be able to return home Have lived peacefully together with Turkish Cypriots for centuries Turkish Cypriots Do not want Turkish army as protector Have stronger cultural connection to the Greek Cypriots then the Turkish Settlers Seek to enjoy same standard of living as southern Cyprus

12 The EU and Cyprus December 2002 the EU invited Cyprus to join on May 1, 2004 If a reunification plan is accepted before the deadline, then all of Cyprus joins, if not only southern Cyprus The northern government is pushed by Turkey to agree to reunification Turkey benefits from the proposed reunification plan Turkey will have a better chance of entering the EU if they are not occupying an EU member Most of the EU aid will benefit the north

13 The Annan Plan February 2003 Annan proposed a Referendum
In January 2002, direct talks supervised by Annan began between the Republic of Cyprus President Glafcos Clerides and Turkish Cypriot Leader Rauf Denktash Kofi Annan introduced his reunification plan in November 2002 In early December, the plan was revised and and effort was made to gain both side’s signatures before the EU’s Copenhagen Summit later that month prior to the EU’s invitation for Cyprus to join The UN continued negotiations trying to reunify the island before Cyprus signed the accession to the EU treaty on April 16, 2003. February 2003 Annan proposed a Referendum

14 The Referendum Negotiations broke down when northern leader Rauf Denktash refused the referendum Mass demonstrations were held on the Turkish in favor of reunification If both sides accepted the proposed plan, all of Cyprus would join the EU in May of 2004 The referendum was held April 24, 2004 Results: Greeks 76% NO Turkish 56% YES Only Greek Cyprus entered the EU since the reunification was dependent on both parties

15 Reasons the Greeks Declined
The plan gave to much power and not enough blame to Turkey The political power was divided unequally Key issues were not addressed in the plan BSBA’s Turkish settlers Turkish demilitarization Compensation for displacement The plan had many legal issues

16 Reason the Turkish Population Accepted
Most of the EU’s financial aid would benefit the northern part of the island Turkish Cypriots no longer see the Greek Cypriots as a threat Turkish Cypriots would gain much power in the government Turkish Cypriots had unrestricted allowance to return to their previous homes Turkey would remain as a power to intervene in the interests of the Turkish Cypriots

17 Tense Areas

18 Ledra Street Crossing Located in the middle of Nicosia, the capitol of Cyprus Ledra Street Crossing was opened on April 3, 2008 This was a major symbolic move towards reunifications since the crossing has divided the island for decades Blockaded 1963 at the outbreak of hostilities between Greek and Turkish Cypriots The “green line” is a 70m wide divided between the sides patrolled by the UN Earlier attempts to open the Crossing were made in 2005 The Turkish side tried to build a foot bridge over the Green Zone

19 "We are proof for the whole country that we can live together without any problems"
Pyla: town in the United Nations buffer zone Population: 1337 (850 Greek Cypriots, 487 Turkish Cypriots) Significance: the only place where Greek and Turkish Cypriots live side by side on the island

20 Recent Negotiations Talks resumed September 2008 after a 4 year lull
ROC President Mr. Christofias and TRNC President Mr. Talat are optimistic that reunification is possible Analysts see both leaders as liberal and more willing to negotiate difficult subjects such as compensation for property loss The leaders face large mistrust on either side when a proposal is announced The talks have been fruitless so far

21 UN Involvement The UN has played a major role in peacekeeping and negotiations since the creation of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) in 1964 (resolution 186) The Security Council has renewed the mandate every 6 months since the creation of UNFICYP The Security Council expanded the responsibilities of the force Maintains the de facto ceasefire of 1974 and controls the 180 Km long Green Zone between northern and southern Cyprus Provides humanitarian aid to Greek Cypriot communities in the north and vice versa Promote normal civilian activities in the buffer zone and clear minefields

22 UNFICYP Is the longest operational peacekeeping force
Created 1964 Security Council Resolution 186 Consists of 3 main parts The Military 858 troops Maintains observation posts in the buffer zone and prevents clashes between the Cyprus National Guard and the Turkish Army Civil Affairs Created 1998 Assists communities in the buffer zone and to minorities on either side in issues relation to the conflict Operates permit schedule for farming in the buffer zone Distributes government aid/services and escorts pilgrims UNPOL (Police force) 68 officers Investigate alleged offences in the buffer zone Prevent illegal bird trapping, immigration, waste dumping and other offences Facilitate investigations by other police forces in the zone Resolve civil disputes in the buffer zone

23 Military Deployment

24 Civil Affairs Deployment

25 UNPOL Deployment

26 UN Solutions The Un has focused it’s energy on preventing further violence and negotiations The UN sponsored referendum was the most significant push for reunification Talks have continued between the two sides, however, the different desires of the sides has led to a stalemate

27 A Continued Divide? Pros
The sides don’t have to deal with difficult issues such as compensation for property No reoccurrence of violence UN can focus on other issues Gives sides time to work out differences and pursue reunification in the future Requires least amount of effort by UN Cons Does not solve the problem but prolongs it Requires indefinite UN troop presence Is against the will of the Cypriot people Does not address the Turkish Troop presence, settlers and atrocities Intensifies the division and mistrust between the sides Keeps the minorities on either side of the divide isolated Communities in the bufferzone stay suspended in a military zone Cyprus will remain an area of conflict

28 My Solution Cyprus should become unified
Turkey should withdraw its troops and repatriate its settlers The UN should help the sides find a government acceptable to both sides without overrepresentation

29 My Proposal Expand UNFICYP to include a Reunification Branch
The branch would determine the interests of the Cypriot people Discretion between Cypriots and Turks necessary Compiling the Cypriot’s interests propose a peace plan, accounting for the majority of Greek and Turkish Cypriot needs Hold a referendum on the plan Considering the results, propose amendments in similar fashion Hold elections for interim presidents for the existing states, and a president for the reunified island Transition power from the interim presidents to the Cyprus government Withdraw United Nations involvement once power is fully transitioned

30 If Settled Serves as precedent for other conflicts created by ethnic disputes Israel, Darfur Allows the UN to focus recourses elsewhere

31 Bibliography “Contributing to a political settlement in Cyprus.” UN United Nations. Dec. 19, “UNFICYP Background.” UN United Nations. Dec , “UNFICYP Mandate.” UN United Nations. Dec. 21, “UNFICYP Leadership.” UN United Nations. Dec. 21, “UNFICYP Facts and Figures.” UN United Nations. Dec. 21, “About UNFICYP.” UNFICYP United Nations. Dec. 22, “Civil Affairs.” UNFICYP United Nations. Dec. 23, “Military.” UNFICYP United Nations. Dec. 24, “UNPOL.” UNFICYP United Nations. Dec. 26, “History.” UNFICYP United Nations. Dec 29, “Cyprus.” Infoplease Pearson Education. Dec. 27, Neophytou, Christos A. “Analysis of the UN Annan Plan Proposal For the settlement of the Cyprus question.” Barrister-at-Law. March 26, Barrister-at-Law. Dec “The future of Cyprus in the event of a yes or a no vote for the Annan Plan.” Lobby for Cyprus. Apr. 20, Lobby for Cyprus. Dec. 28, “The Annan Plan: Is it a just and viable settlement?” Lobby for Cyprus. Mar. 23, Lobby for Cyprus. Jan 31,

32 Bibliography cont. Zacharia, Giorgios. “Brief Overview of the Cyprus Problem.” Dec 4 20:44:45 EST Dec. 29, “Cyprus: Referendum on the Annan Plan.” Apr. 24, Dec. 29, “Annan Plan for Cyprus.” All Experts. Dec. 30, “Cyprus Reunification Referendum, 2004.” Absolute Astronomy. Dec. 30, Van Coufoudakis. “A Year After the Referendum.” HNA. April 13, HNA. Dec. 31, “Ledra Street.” Absolute Astronomy. Dec. 30, “Cyprus Talks Resume Amid Mistrust.” BBC News. Nov. 3, BBC World Service. Dec. 31, 2009.” “1960 Treaty of Guarantee.” All Experts. Dec. 31, “Cyprus Topography/Geology.” Cyprus Net Jan. 1, “Cyprus.” World Fact Book CIA. Jan. 15, “Mixed Village Bets on United Future.” BBC News. April 25, BBC World Service. Jan. 15,

33 Image Citations Cyprus. Digital Image. Jan. 16, Map of Cyprus. Digital Image. Jan 16, Dhekelia Enterance. Digital Image. Jan. 16, Nicosia. Digital Image. Jan. 16, stm Pyla Map. Digital Image. Jan. 16, UNFICYP Deployment. Digital Image. Jan. 17, Civil Affairs Deployment. Digital Image. Jan. 17, UNPOL Deployment. Digital Image. Jan. 17, Annan, Denktash and Clerides. Digital Image. Jan. 17, stm Christofias and Talat. Digital Image. Jan. 27,

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