2 In This Session … In this session, we take a look at the major new features of SAP BW 7.3. We also examine the new upgrade tools and take a step-by- step look at what is required to upgrade a SAP BW system to version 7.3 Finally, we look at an example on how to minimize upgrade risks while also changing the hardware during the upgrade. Worth Pondering: System complexity is increasing, while attention spans are decreasing Worth Pondering: System complexity is increasing, while attention spans are decreasing
3 What Well Cover … SAP BW 7.3 Overview New Administrative Cockpit Capabilities The new Semantic partition (SPO) Options The HybridProvider and Real-Time Data Faster Data Load and New Design Options Front-end and Security Benefits New in-Memory Possibilities with BW 7.3 and BWA 7.2 Planning and Executing the Upgrade Wrap-up
SAP BW 7.3 was released on May 30, 2011 and has been extensively tested. Beta Shipment started in July 2010; Ramp Up started on the 29th of November The Reason for Upgrading BW has now been around for over 12 years!! BW VersionRelease DateEnd of mainstream maintenance 1.0EDec-98Jan AFeb-99Jun BJun-99Jun AFeb-00Feb BAug-00Dec CDec-00Dec ANov-01Dec BMay-02Dec CNov-02Dec Mar-03Dec Aug-03Dec Mar-04Mar/Dec SJun-07Dec (~"7.1")Dec-08Dec May-11May-16 #1 reason for upgrade: Because I had to!
Seven customers and nine service partners participated on the beta testing. The beta testing ended in November, 2010 with the following scores: 5 BW 7.3 Release History and Testing BW 7.3 was tested extensively in a beta program and in ramp-up for almost one year! Very GoodLow Value Very SatisfiedHad Major Issues Assistance and Support BW 7.3 Quality & Reliability BW 7.3 Functional Completeness BW 7.3 Ease of Installation and Configuration
A major new feature of SAP BW is the ability to use a Wizard to install the system. This include the following Wizard templates: ABAP Stack initial setup. Connectivity initial setup Templates for automated configuration Business Suite-7 integration Technical content reports for Initial Setup Upgrade step-by-step (note: ) 6 Ease of Installation & Upgrade- Wizards and the ASU toolbox You can choose to use both an Java and/or a ABAP stack when installing 7.3
IBM DB2: 7.3 supports specific database features: DB2 v9.5 supports PSA, DSO and fact table compressions for reduced disk volume (integrates with DB2 storage management) Support for MDC clustering in the DB Cockpit. This is available in v or higher and default for all DSO tables and PSA in version 9.7 Much faster request deletion if MDC clustering is used DB2 v9.7 supports Index compressions for reduced disk volume Support for IBM DB2s DPF (Database Partitioning Feature) 7 NEW: Specific Database Support –IBM DB2 In the past, BW has been unable to take advantage of vendor specific database features. This is changed & workarounds are less needed.
8 What Well Cover … SAP BW 7.3 Overview New Administrative Cockpit Capabilities The new Semantic partition (SPO) Options The HybridProvider and Real-Time Data Faster Data Load and New Design Options Front-end and Security Benefits New in-Memory Possibilities with BW 7.3 and BWA 7.2 Planning and Executing the Upgrade Wrap-up
New monitors include: Monitor of database usage and object sizes (i.e. InfoCubes, DSOs) Query usage statistics are more visible (similar to RSRT, RSRV, RSTT) We can see more of the use of BWA and sizes Monitor for the actual use of OLAP/MDX Cache and hit ratios You can now selectively delete internal statistics in RSDDSTATWHM by date through the updated RSDDSTAT_DATA_DELETE ABAP program. There is also a new MDX Editor for coding and syntax assistance 9 New 7.3 Performance and Admin Monitoring Capabilities Solution Manager has also been updated to take advantage of these new monitors.
Other New monitors include: DEAMON update information (i.e. RDA capacity status, usage) A performance monitoring workbench for performance trends Process chain monitoring (new transaction: RSPCM) with error and active chain monitoring, user specific displays, and performance threshold monitoring (i.e. for SLAs) 10 New 7.3 Performance and Admin Monitoring Capabilities NLS: In BW 7.3 the Near Line Storage has also be enhanced to include archiving, support for write optimized DSOs and database support for tools such as DB2 Viper (v9.5) and much more
11 What Well Cover … SAP BW 7.3 Overview New Administrative Cockpit Capabilities The new Semantic partition (SPO) Options The HybridProvider and Real-Time Data Faster Data Load and New Design Options Front-end and Security Benefits New in-Memory Possibilities with BW 7.3 and BWA 7.2 Planning and Executing the Upgrade Wrap-up
When data stores and InfoCubes are allowed to grow over time the data load and query performance suffers. Normally objects should be physically partitioned when the numbers of records exceed 100 million. However, this may be different depending on the size of your hardware and the type of database you use. In BW 7.3 we get an option to create a Semantic Partitioned Object (SPO) through wizards. You can partition based on fields such as calendar year, region, country etc. 12 Semantic Partitioned Objects (SPO)
When a SPO is created, a reference structure keeps track of the partitions. The structure is placed in the MultiProvider for querying. 13 Semantic Partitioned Objects (SPO) SPO Wizards create all Data Transfer Processes (DTP), transformations, filters for each data store and a process chain automatically. Source: SAP AG, 2011
14 What Well Cover … SAP BW 7.3 Overview New Administrative Cockpit Capabilities The new Semantic partition (SPO) Options The HybridProvider and Real-Time Data Faster Data Load and New Design Options Front-end and Security Benefits New in-Memory Possibilities with BW 7.3 and BWA 7.2 Planning and Executing the Upgrade Wrap-up
The New Hybrid Provider and Real Time Data The "HybridProvider" (HP) is new in BW v7.3. The core idea is to link the historical data inside BW with real-time data. There are two ways of implementing a HP: HP based on a DSO HP based on a Virtual InfoCube
Option 1: The DSO Based HybridProvider Core Features: Real-time data is in the DSO and historical data in the BWA based InfoCube The DSO use real-time data acquisition (RDA) to load data BW automatically creates a process chain for the HybridProvder's data flow The process chain is executed for every closed request This solution provides for really fast queries, but delta logic has to be custom designed
Option 1: The DSO Based HybridProvider This solution provides for really fast queries, but delta logic has to be custom designed and may be complex. However, the solution allows for high-frequency updates and very rapid query response. This is a good option if you have a low volume of new records and a high number of queries or operational dashboards
Option 2: The Virtual Cube Based HybridProvider Core Features: Data is read in real-time from ECC, while historical data is read from BWA The difference depends on how often BWA is loaded Non-complex data logic can be applied DTP is permitted if you do not filter the data set NOTE: Virtual cubes with many users may place high-stress on the ERP system
19 What Well Cover … SAP BW 7.3 Overview New Administrative Cockpit Capabilities The new Semantic partition (SPO) Options The HybridProvider and Real-Time Data Faster Data Load and New Design Options Front-end and Security Benefits New in-Memory Possibilities with BW 7.3 and BWA 7.2 Planning and Executing the Upgrade Wrap-up Hint for Experts: The search feature in the BW 7.3 Admin Workbench has been improved so that it is easier to search more items such as process chains.
During activation, BW 7.0 has to lookup in the NIRV table to see if the object already exist. This can be a slow process. In BW 7.0 we may buffer the number ranges to compare the data load with records in-memory. This speeds up data activation. However, in BW 7.3 the data activation is changed from single lookups to package fetch of the active table, resulting in faster activation and less locks on the lookup tables. The new method may result in 15-30% faster data activation (20-40% in-lab tests). For data transformations the option Read from DataStore for a faster data look-up is also available. In addition, the use of navigational attributes as sources in Masterdata transformations reduce overhead for lookups. Combined, this may lead to an additional 10-20% improvement. 20 Faster Data Load and New Design Options - Activation The 7.3 initial load runtime option Insert only and the Unique data records only prevents all look-ups during activation
In NW 7.3 you can create generic delta extraction for the Universal Data (UD) & Database Connect (DB) options, as well as for flat files. In addition you can the new DataSource adapter Web Service Pull to load data from 21 New Data Design Options – Delta, Init and WebServices When you use delta loads, the first time BW 7.3 automatically defines it an init load after that it automatically switches todelta as the InfoPackage mode (no need to define it anymore!) external web services. You can even create generic WebServices delta loads, and load the new data straight into the staging area of BW 7.3. While web services does not support hierarchies yet, there is now integration of hierarchies into the standard process flow such as transformation and DTPs, as well as being able to load hierarchies from flat file using a new DataSource.
SAP BW 7.3 has a new interface to create and manage data flows graphically in a 'drag-and-drop' manner, including: Data Flow Copy to copy data flows and process chains. Data Flow Migration to migrate, or reverse migrate, data flows with automatic adoption of InfoPackages and process chains Data Flow Wizard to automatically create complete data flows from a DataSource 22 New Options - ETL Interface and Shut-Downs NEW: use RS_SYSTEM_SHUTDOWN to restart an application server and suspend RDA and process chains and re-start them in a controlled manner. Data loads are not in flux and you do not have to clean up partial loads. Source: SAP AG, 2011
23 What Well Cover … SAP BW 7.3 Overview New Administrative Cockpit Capabilities The new Semantic partition (SPO) Options The HybridProvider and Real-Time Data Faster Data Load and New Design Options Front-end and Security Benefits New in-Memory Possibilities with BW 7.3 and BWA 7.2 Planning and Executing the Upgrade Wrap-up
24 Security Changes and New Mass Change Feature When companies upgraded from BW version 3.5 to 7.0, security migration was optional and many did only a technical upgrade and kept the 'obsolete authorization' concept. A security migration is now required. SAP recommends to migrate to the new concept before upgrading a 7.0 system. (Notes: ; ; , ; ) Great BW 7.3 Security Admin Feature: you can make mass changes to authorizations instead of one-by-one. This can be done by cut-and-paste in a worklist, hierarchy nodes, and you can also add users to multiple analysis authorizations
25 Security features in BW 7.0 and 7.3 Some companies did not do a security conversion in BW 7.0 since items such as 0TCTAUTHH did not migrate (manually reassigned for the hierarchies) and passwords became case sensitive. Now it is required. SAP still have the ABAP migration tool in BW 7.0. It can be used in SA38 (RSEC_MIGRATION) and migration can occur before the upgrade. Authorizations are building blocks of the 7.0/7.3 reporting concept and security contains both the data value and hierarchy restrictions. Security can be built using RSECADMIN transaction Authorizations are building blocks of the 7.0/7.3 reporting concept and security contains both the data value and hierarchy restrictions. Security can be built using RSECADMIN transaction
26 BW 7.0 and 7.3 Authorization Objects After the required security conversion you have access to lower security granularity for developers and users. Authorization objects for the Data Warehousing Workbench: S_RS_DS: For the DataSource or its sub objects (BI 7.x) S_RS_ISNEW: For new InfoSources or their sub objects (NW BI 7.x) S_RS_DTP: For the data transfer process and its sub objects S_RS_TR: For transformation rules and their sub objects S_RS_CTT: For currency translation types S_RS_UOM: For quantity conversion types S_RS_THJT: For key date derivation types S_RS_PLENQ: Authorizations for maintaining or displaying the lock settings S_RS_RST: Authorization object for the RS trace tool S_RS_PC: For process chains S_RS_OHDEST: Open Hub Destination Authorization objects for the Business Explorer: S_RS_DAS: For Data Access Services S_RS_BTMP: For BEx Web templates S_RS_BEXTX: Authorizations for the maintenance of BEx texts Authorization objects for the Admin of analysis authorizations S_RSEC: Authorization for assignment and administration of analysis authorizations S_RS_AUTH: Authorization object to include analysis authorizations in roles Changed Authorization Objects: S_RS_ADMWB (Data Warehousing Workbench: Objects): New sub objects: CONT_ACT – Installing Business Content; USE_DND - Drag & Drop to InfoAreas and application components; CNG_RUN - Attribute change run
27 What Well Cover … SAP BW 7.3 Overview New Administrative Cockpit Capabilities The new Semantic partition (SPO) Options The HybridProvider and Real-Time Data Faster Data Load and New Design Options Front-end and Security Benefits New in-Memory Possibilities with BW 7.3 and BWA 7.2 Planning and Executing the Upgrade Wrap-up
With 7.3 you get a tool to create a new CompositeProvider to join indices inside the BWA system. This works similar to MultiProviders, but can be modeled ad-hoc and the joins are executed inside BWA and not inside the BW Analytical Engine (this is much faster) 28 CompositeProviders: Unions of indexes in BWA All BW 7.3 CompositeProviders, DSOs, MultiProviders & InfoCubes are available as InfoProviders for querying. Even queries can be defined as InfoProviders. Source: SAP AG, 2011
29 In Memory Processing - BWA 7.2 and BW 7.3 BIG DEAL! - In BW 7.3 you can also build analytical indexes. These are simply 'data containers' from APD that is stored in BWA. You can build queries on them Using the Index Designer in BOBJ Data Services, you can also index data from external data files and data bases and query it in SAP Business Warehouse 7.3. It is important to note that currently, the BO indexes are on dedicated HW blades.
The New SAP BW 7.3 Features – Modeling in BWA 7.2 With BW 7.3 and BWA 7.2 you can complete many of the joins and the aggregation that previously was conducted in the BI Analytical engine, and was therefore hard to performance tune. It also reduces the data being transferred to the app-server and therefore are much faster as well.
The New SAP BWA 7.2 / BW 7.3 – Faster Performance The major benefit of the BWA 7.2 on BW 7.3 is that you can move more of the calculation over to the accelerator and materialize the result in-memory. This improves the reads and calculations in the OLAP/ BI analytical engine on the BW side is substantially reduced. Source: SAP AG, 2011 The following calculations is included in BW 7.3 / BWA 7.2 SUM MINMAXCNT (count all detailed values) CN0 (Count all values not zero or null) AVG (average) AV0 (Average for all values not zero or null) The following calculations is included in BW 7.3 / BWA 7.2 SUM MINMAXCNT (count all detailed values) CN0 (Count all values not zero or null) AVG (average) AV0 (Average for all values not zero or null)
The SAP BW 7.3/BWA 7.2 Limitations and Query Settings There are still some limitations. For example you cannot use the exception aggregation for single key figures in BWA if it uses: 1) Virtual key figures 2) Conversion before aggregation 3) Formula calculation before aggregation 4) Non-cumulative key figures 5) Key figures with elimination of internal business volume You also get more detailed control on each query as to how it reads the BWA. Think of it as similar to Query read modes (more details at SDN : 3-f7ef-2d10-b1bc-ee483800b25c?QuickLink=index&overridelayout=true
33 What Well Cover … SAP BW 7.3 Overview New Administrative Cockpit Capabilities The new Semantic partition (SPO) Options The HybridProvider and Real-Time Data Faster Data Load and New Design Options Front-end and Security Benefits New in-Memory Possibilities with BW 7.3 and BWA 7.2 Planning and Executing the Upgrade Wrap-up
Option 2 Option 3 Option 1 Some Upgrade Options and Java Stack Recommendations Recommended NW Java 7.3 is now included, and it is suggested that ABAP and Java Stack is split if not already done so. A tool to split the stack is available in EhP2 (in SAPInst) and in SAPInst in ABAP This gives better scalability (multiple hardware servers). Double stack upgrade is still possible. The java server is not used for IP after BW 7.30 (re-developed in ABAP HTTP) You can automatically create connections between Java-ABAP for EP/IP or front-end Java using CTC (notes: , )
A major decision is: Are you going to minimize the system down-time, or doing a low resource upgrade. The trade-off is between using more system resources, or downtime. 35 Upgrade Decision: Low, Standard and High Resources Most companies should use the standard upgrade method, unless their system is very small or have limited resources. For those, the shadow system is created during the downtime. In the 'standard' upgrade, we create a shadow system, while the BW system is still operating. We turn off any archiving to make sure we do not miss any data, and do our system backup right before the downtime starts. Therefore we can do much of the upgrade before the downtime (shorten the outage). In a very high system resource upgrade, we also use a shadow system, but imports are much faster and we can keep archiving on (may create large logs), but downtime starts earlier.
36 System Switch Upgrade and Shadow Systems BW 7.0 EhP1 Shadow System Application Data SPDD Application Data BW 7.0 Shadow System Installation Application Data Target Release SAP BW 7.3 Import & Data Conversion XPRA - High system resource - locks system in the REPACHK2 phase - Standard system resource - locks system in the REPACHK2 phase - Low system resource - locks system in the LOCKEU_PRE phase (note: ) - High system resource - locks system in the REPACHK2 phase - Standard system resource - locks system in the REPACHK2 phase - Low system resource - locks system in the LOCKEU_PRE phase (note: ) You can use a shadow system to reduce the system outage. Also, by doing a hardware switch/ upgrade, we can minimize any impact to the production system (reduced upgrade risk). Source Release Target Release Target Release System Source Release System Target Release System Target Release
37 Upgrade Resources A Dedicated team with a technical team lead (100%), a Basis resource (100%) and a technical reviewer/tester (100% is required). In addition, a dedicated go-to resource for technical issues is recommended. This should be an individual that have solid knowledge about the upgrade and have done his before. Regression testing is required on behalf or the user community. This should be coordinated with the Power Users or existing developers. Team Lead Basis resource Technical reviewerUpgrade Support External Regression Testers Team Lead BasisTechnical reviewer BW Developer Upgrade Support External Regression Testers
38 The Upgrade Execution and Clean-up To reduce the overall size: clean the PSA, delete log-files and objects not needed (i.e. DSOs and InfoCubes), empty aggregates etc. You are now ready to launch the upgrade front-end that will take you through all the steps of the NW 7.3 upgrade. Remember to also select the new BI content package as part of your upgrade.
39 The Upgrade Interface SAP has a great step-by-step 'wizard' tool to help with the 7.3 upgrade. While the upgrade interface is simplified, there is still a need to thoroughly understand how to setup connectivity, hardware and shadow systems. This not a place to "experiment" and "explore" options..
Planning the Upgrade is a significant task and it is important to start in an organized manner. ALWAYS; read the SAP notes for your database, OS and NW release prior to starting these activities. 40 Step-1 - Planning the Upgrade and getting started 1. Stop all Deamon Process - RSRDA 2. Remove all temporary database objects - SAP_DROP_TMPTABLES 3. Run the upgrade check - RSUPGRCHECK 4. If you copied your system from Prod, check the storage - SECSTORE 5. Make sure all objects and programs has a library entry - TLIBG 6. Create an XML file for the new stack in Sol. Mgr
41 ASU Provide a list of pre- and post upgrade tasks Some of the manual preparation steps Some of the manual follow-up steps There is also support for documentation of each task. Team members can consolidate their comments, test results and outcomes. This reduce the number of s and everyone can see what has been done and see results in one place.
42 Step -2: Getting the Files Key you need 1. Select the update option for your system 2. Select the stack you want to update (make sure you are connected) 3. Select the target system you want to upgrade to (NW 7.3) 4. Select all files for the operating system and database you have 5. Select the files for the stack (all) There are some different files required for each type of database, operating system and stacks. Make sure you collect the right versions.
43 Step -3: Downloading the files This may sound like a simple step, but some organizations may experience slow networks, internal network timeouts or long waits depending on peak loads on their network. You may consider doing this in the evening after everyone has gone home.
44 Step -5: The Lock down and Preprocessing While, technically you have not yet locked the system, configuration changes to process chains, info packages & queries are no longer possible after this step There are many steps between these options. The best timing may be to complete all tasks from step 1 through 5 before Friday's 5pm when you may be able to bring the system down. Make sure you do a system backup before you proceed to step 6! The real lock-down of the BW system takes place when the pre-processing step is complete. After this the system is unavailable for users.
45 Step -1: Hardware Install, Dev Copy & Sandbox upgrade 1 In this example, we are installing new Hardware. This creates a lot of flexibility and less project risk! First, we copy the BW 7.0 development box to the new hardware. Second, we upgrade the new sandbox in a controlled manner and document all activities 45 BW 7.0 Sandbox BW 7.3 Sandbox BW 7.0 Dev. Box BW 7.0 QA Box BW 7.0 Prod Box We want to create a repeatable process, so no ad-hoc activities are allowed. Remember, extra time has to be set aside for notes research and unforeseen issues. BENEFITS: this is also a test run for upgrading the development box (!), thereby reducing the upgrade risk. After the upgrade we also get a refreshed sandbox environment. An Example
46 Step -2: Development box copy and upgrade 2 1 Now we have to freeze all development activities. Normally the work in the 7.0 dev box ids transported to QA for testing and the dev box is locked. 46 BW 7.0 Sandbox BW 7.3 Sandbox BW 7.0 Dev. Box BW 7.3 Dev. Box BW 7.0 QA Box BW 7.0 Prod Box Using the upgrade script and all steps collected and written during the sandbox upgrade, we are upgrading the new development box. This is intended to be a structured approach that is repeatable. The developers participate in in-depth testing of the new 7.3 dev. box. BENEFITS: the outage of the development box occurred after the sandbox upgrade and the development outage is minimized. This is also the second time we have upgraded the development box, so any issues should be well known. An Example
47 Step -3: Production box copy and QA upgrade We copy production environment to the development box after all testing in the QA has been completed and all the object has been transported to the production system. Notice that no copies of Sandbox, nor 47 BW 7.0 Sandbox BW 7.3 Sandbox BW 7.0 Dev. Box BW 7.3 Dev. Box BW 7.0 QA Box BW 7.3 QA Box BW 7.0 Prod Box QA is made. Instead we get to upgrade the development box and the production box 'twice'. This is a significant risk mitigation strategy, but it does require that transports and client dependent objects are switched back on the new Sandbox and QA systems. BENEFITS: This approach turns the QA upgrade into a real 'dress rehearsal' for the production box upgrade. Also, since we are switching the hardware, the risk to the upgrade in minimal (BW 7.0 prod is not taken off-line until after the upgrade). An Example
48 Step -4: Production box copy and QA upgrade You now are ready for the cutover weekend. The best timing is to start the production box on Thursday evening after the BW system has completed data loads. A full backup is taken. The system is unavailable on Friday and is completely upgraded by Saturday 6am. A major consideration is the time it takes for Unicode conversion, unless already done. 48 BW 7.0 Sandbox BW 7.3 Sandbox BW 7.0 Dev. Box BW 7.3 Dev. Box BW 7.0 QA Box BW 7.3 QA Box BW 7.0 Prod Box BW 7.3 Prod Box Plan for having basis and technical people working the night from Thursday to Friday and possibly to Saturday, depending how long the upgrade takes. An Example
49 Cut-Over to Production - Testing and Verification The system verification takes place by testers on Saturday between 6 am and noon. A complete data load is executed by manually running the process chains and data is also validated. The RESTORE decision A restore decision is made at 3 pm on Saturday: - If the system does not pass the validation, the system is restored from backup and will be ready by Monday 8am. - If the system passes validation, the process chains are scheduled and run at normal scheduled times and data is validated once more before declaring success.
50 Some Useful Hints and Programs for older systems If some of the InfoSets becomes inactive, you can still use the program RSQ_ISET_MASS_OPERATIONS to activate all InfoSets. If you are still on 3.5 queries, or older versions (i.e. 3.1c, 3.0B), consider running the program RSR_GEN_DIRECT_ALL_QUERIES to regenerate all queries in the system into the 7.0 release. NW BI 7.0 had a new transformation concept that replaced transfer and update rules, but not all companies has migrated. To do so, convert the DataSources and the Persistent Staging Area to the new DTP process, (SAP Note ). To test the conversion of the DataSources can also run: RSSM_CREATE_REQDONE_FROM_SEL; RSSM_HASH_ENTRIES_CREATE for all requests; RSSTATMAN_CHECK_CONVERT_DTA; RSSTATMAN_CHECK_CONVERT_PSA. If you are upgrading from an old BW system and is going through BW 7.0 to upgrade to 7.3, redefine the BI Statistics, (notes & ). Also, use SM37 in production to find any other jobs that are scheduled, and make sure they are also tested
51 Resources SAP NW 7.3 on Sap Developer Network Unveiling SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse 7.3 by Lothar Henkes, SAP, SAPinsider (Volume 11), October (Issue 4) Features list for the SAP NetWeaver BW 7.3 e02d-2d10-9c97-d5e3ecf09882 SAP NW 7.3 Business Content 6dbd2de b38f889/frameset.htm Roadmap - SAP NetWEaver BW ?rid=/library/uuid/300347b5-9bcf-2d10-efa9-8cc8d89ee72c
52 7 Key Points to Take Home BW is a good version to upgrade on. It has been extensively tested and is ready for 'prime time'. The upgrade is technical and strong skills are required Plan for how much of the new functionality you will deploy You will need to spend time on security conversion if you have not already done so. The upgrade is unique, so don't rely of past experiences. Complete an technical review before you start the upgrade. Plan for hardware upgrade, database upgrade and server upgrades as part of the BW upgrade. Make sure you have access to experts and decide early how much risk you can live with
53 Your Turn! How to contact me: Dr. Berg
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