Presentation on theme: "Warm Up With your partner, write a sentence (20 words or less) using two of the following terms to show your knowledge of genetic engineering: * Transgenic."— Presentation transcript:
1Warm UpWith your partner, write a sentence (20 words or less) using two of the following terms to show your knowledge of genetic engineering: * Transgenic Organisms, Recombinant DNA, Recombinant Bacteria, Selective Breeding, PCR, Gel Electrophoresis, Genetically Modified
3Standard BIO 8 a-e The student will investigate and understand how populations change through time. Key concepts include:a) evidence found in fossil records;b) how genetic variation, reproductive strategies, and environmental pressures impact the survival of populations;c) how natural selection leads to adaptations;d) emergence of new species; ande) scientific explanations for biological evolution.
4Theory of EvolutionScience is made up of many ideas, theories, and laws. Many of these ideas have gone through many changes throughout the years.Our job as life-long learners is to examine all the evidence concerning a particular topic.Evolution is part of the Core Knowledge curriculum for Biology.The origin of life is a sensitive subject for many people. There are many theories concerning the change in things over time.You may hold a different view than what will be presented as part of the Core Knowledge curriculum.Out goal is to explore the theory of evolution from a scientific standpoint, not to discount any other theories on the origin of life.
5The Father of Evolution Charles DarwinThe Father of Evolution
6History Darwin’s World (1809 - 1875) Height of the British colonial period.Beginning of the Industrial Revolution.New Ideas:Taxonomy of Carolus LinnaeusLyell’s “Principles of Geology”
7Binomial System of Nomenclature Carolus Linnaeus (1707 – 1778)Believed in the “Fixity of Species”
9Charles Lyell’s view of the process of formation of sedimentary rock
10Suggests that sedimentary rock is very old – therefore the species that are represented in this rock must also be old.Most fossils are found in sedimentary rock.Older fossils will be found below younger fossils.
11Knowledge CheckWho was Linnaeus? Who was Lyell? If Lyell looked at fossils is a cross section of sediment, would the fossils more towards the surface be older or younger than those below? Why?
12Charles DarwinAt the age of 22, he joined a 5 year expedition aboard the HMS Beagle to map the coast of South America
26Natural selection is governed by the principles of genetics. The change in the frequency of a gene in a given population leads to a change in a population and may result in the emergence of a new species.Natural selection operates on populations over many generations.
27Knowledge CheckWhat was the name of Darwin’s book? On what island did Darwin make observations that lead him to develop his ideas about natural selection? Explain how natural selection can be observed in a population. (Think Hardy Weinberg)
28EvolutionA change in successive generations of organisms, due to random mutation and changes in the organisms’ surroundings
29Evolution takes place through a set of processes that include: mutation,adaptation,natural selection,extinction.
30MutationGenetic mutations and variety produced by sexual reproduction allow for diversity within a given population.Many factors can cause a change in a gene over time.
31MutationMutations are important in how populations change over time because they result in genetic changes to the gene pool.
32Mutations are inheritable changes because a mutation is a change in the DNA code
33Mutation- a change in the DNA A mutation may result in a:1. favorable change or adaptation in genetic information that improves a species’ ability to exist in its environment
34Mutation- a change in the DNA 2. an unfavorable change that does not improve a species’ ability to exist in its environment.
35Mutation- a change in the DNA 3. in a change in the genetic information that neither harms nor helps the species.
36AdaptationAdaptations are structures, functions, or behaviors that enable a species to survive.
37AdaptationDepending on the rate of adaptation, the rate of reproduction, and the environmental factors present, structural adaptations may take millions of years to develop.
38Natural Selectionthe survival and reproduction of the individuals in a population that exhibit the traits that best enable them to survive in their environment.The Survival of the Fittest
39Natural SelectionPopulations produce more offspring than the environment can support.
40Natural SelectionThe unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce leads to the gradual change in a population, generation after generation over many generations.
41Natural SelectionOrganisms with certain genetic variations will be favored to survive and pass their variations on to the next generation.
42Thousands to millions of years of natural selection These five canine species evolved from a common ancestor through natural selectionJackalAfrican wild dogWolfCoyoteFoxThousands to millions of years of natural selectionAncestral canine
43This is called “artificial selection” When humans choose organisms with specific characteristics as breeding stock, they are performing the role of the environmentThis is called “artificial selection”Example of artificial selection in plants: five vegetables derived from wild mustard
44Artificial Selection in Animals: Dog Breeding German shepherdYorkshire terrierEnglish springer spanielMini-dachshundGolden retrieverHundreds to thousands of years of breeding (artificial selection)Ancestral dog
45Insecticide application The evolution of insecticide resistance is an example of natural selection in actionChromosome with gene conferring resistance to insecticideAdditional applications of the same insecticide will be less effective, and the frequency of resistant insects in the population will growInsecticide applicationSurvivor
46Knowledge CheckWhat is evolution? Identify the four processes of evolution. Explain how each process can lead to evolutionary change.
47Extinctionno longer in existence; "the extinction of a species"
48If a species does not include traits that enable it to survive in its environment or to survive changes in the environment, then the species may become extinct.
52The evidence for evolution is drawn from a variety of sources of data, including: the fossil record,radiometric dating,genetic information,the distribution of organisms,anatomical and developmental similarities across species.
53Fossil RecordAlthough there is not a complete record of ancient life for the past 3.5 billion years, a great deal of modern knowledge about the history of life comes from the fossil record.
54The study of fossils provides strong evidence for evolution. Petrified TreesHominid skulls
55Fossilized organic matter in a leaf Ammonite casts
60SpeciesOrganisms that can breed and produce FERTILE offspring.
61Adaptive Radiationwhere species all deriving from a common ancestor have over time successfully adapted to their environment via natural selection
62Homologous Structures Body parts in different organisms that have similar bones and similar arrangements of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves and undergo similar embryological development, but do not necessarily serve the same function; e.g., the flipper of a whale and the forelimb of a horse.
65Vestigial StructuresFeatures that apparently serve no function in an organism and are allegedly holdovers from an evolutionary past. Such features, though no longer useful, are presumed to have been useful in ancestral species.
70Stephen Jay Gould’s idea of punctuated equilibrium proposes that organisms may undergo rapid (in geologic time) bursts of speciation followed by long periods of time unchanged.This view is in contrast to the traditional evolutionary view of gradual and continuous change