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Propagation of Waves Ham Radio Class Week 5 1Wave propagation.

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Presentation on theme: "Propagation of Waves Ham Radio Class Week 5 1Wave propagation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Propagation of Waves Ham Radio Class Week 5 1Wave propagation

2 Propagation of waves Radio waves spread out from the antenna in straight lines (like light) 2Wave propagation

3 The farther it travels the weaker it becomes, eventually becoming too weak to be received. The distance over which a transmission can be received is called range. 3Wave propagation

4 Possible routes of wave propagation

5 The distance over which a transmission can be received is called range. The curvature of the earth sets a range limit for The distance over which a transmission can be received is called range. The curvature of the earth sets a range limit for many signals; this is called a radio horizon. (T3C10) many signals; this is called a radio horizon. (T3C10) The curvature of the earth sets a range limit for many signals; this is called a radio horizon. 5Wave propagation

6 Communications at VHF and UHF are generally line of sight communications. That is they travel directly from the transmitting station to the receiving station. Normally used for local communication. 6Wave propagation

7 Direct (not via a repeater) UHF and VHF signals are rarely heard from stations outside your local coverage area because these high frequency signals are not reflected by the ionosphere.

8 Longer Radio waves can travel along the ground 8Wave propagation

9 Possible routes of wave propagation

10 Radio waves can be reflected or refracted by sudden changes in the media through which they travel. 10Wave propagation

11 Knife-edge propagation is the term used to describe when signals are partially refracted around solid objects exhibiting sharp edges. Obstructions can create radio shadows

12 Refraction also makes the earth seem less curved to VHF and UHF signals making them able to travel further that the line of sight. 12Wave propagation

13 Shorter waves lengths can more easily penetrate buildings, making communication from inside a structure more effective when using UHF signals. 13Wave propagation

14 Radio signals may take different paths from the transmitter to the receiver. This is called multipath. 14Wave propagation

15 Signals may interfere with each other if they are out of phase. 15Wave propagation

16 Moving your antenna just a few feet may avoid the random reflections causing the multipath distortions. Problems/solutions with multipath propagation The irregular fading of signals from distant stations is caused by the random combining of signals arriving via different paths. 16Wave propagation

17 Signals from mobile stations moving through an area with multipath have characteristic rapid variations in strength known as p icket-fencing. 17Wave propagation

18 18 What should you do if another operator reports that your stations signals were strong just a moment ago, but now they are weak or distorted? Move a few feet, as random reflections may be causing multipath distortions.

19 Wave propagation19 Why are UHF signals often more effective from inside buildings than VHF signals? The shorter wave length allows them to more easily penetrate the structure of the building.

20 Wave propagation20 What term is commonly used to describe the rapid fluttering sound heard from mobile stations that are moving while transmitting? Picket fencing

21 Wave propagation21 What is the cause of irregular fading of signals from distant stations during times of generally good reception? A.absorption of signals by the D layer of the ionosphere. B.absorption of signals by the E layer of the ionosphere. C.random combining of signals arriving via different path lengths D.distortion in the local receiver

22 Wave propagation22 What may occur if VHF or UHF data signals propagate over multiple paths? A.Transmission rates can be increased by a factor equal to the number of paths B.Transmission rates may decrease by a factor equal to the number of paths C.No significant changes will occur if the signals are transmitting using FM D.Error rates are likely to increase

23 Wave propagation23 What does the term knife-edge propagation mean? A.Signals are reflected back toward the originating station at acute angles B. Signals are sliced into several discrete beams and arrive via different paths C. Signals are partially refracted around solid objects exhibiting sharp edges D. Signals are propagated close to the band edge exhibiting a sharp cutoff

24 Wave propagation24 What is the radio horizon? A. The distance at which radio signals between two points are effectively blocked by the curvature of the Earth B. The distance from the ground to a horizontally mounted antenna C. The farthest point you can see when standing at the base of your antenna tower D. The shortest distance between two points on the Earths surface

25 Wave propagation25 Why do VHF and UHF radio signals usually travel somewhat farther than the visual line of sight distance between two stations? A. Radio signals move somewhat faster than the speed of light B. Radio waves are not blocked by dust particles C. The Earth seems less curved to radio waves than to light D. Radio waves are blocked by dust particles

26 Wave propagation can be assisted by atmospheric phenomena 26Wave propagation

27 Layers caused by temperature inversions form ducts that can carry signals much farther than typical line of sight communications 27Wave propagation

28 Layers with different properties refract waves with slight variations. This tropospheric scattering often allows contacts over 300 miles. 28Wave propagation

29 The ionosphere is an area from 30 to 260 miles above the earth that has some unique electrical properties. 29Wave propagation

30 The ionosphere can completely reflect HF and VHF waves back toward the earth. (sky wave or skip) Multiple reflections between the ionosphere/earth allows radio waves to be received around the world! The earths surface can also reflect radios waves. (hop) 30Wave propagation

31 The ability of the ionosphere to refract waves depends on the frequency of the waves. 31Wave propagation

32 High frequency waves usually pass right through, this is why VHF and UHF signals are rarely heard beyond the radio horizon without being relayed by a repeater 32Wave propagation

33 As the sun illuminates the ionosphere the maximum usable frequency increases. This is why upper HF bands are more likely to by usable during the day. 33Wave propagation

34 During solar cycles patches of the ionosphere become sufficiently charged to reflect VHF and UHF signals back to Earth. This is called sporadic E propagation. 34Wave propagation

35 Sporadic E Propagation is most common during early summer and mid winter months on the 10, 6 and 2 meter bands. 35Wave propagation

36 Radio signals reflected off the aurora borealis exhibit rapid fluctuations and are often distorted. 36Wave propagation

37 It is possible to bounce radio signals of meteor trails. The best band for meteor scatter is the 6 meter band. 37Wave propagation

38 38 What mode is responsible for allowing over- the-horizon VHF and UHF communications to ranges of approximately 300 miles on a regular basis? A. Tropospheric scatter B. D layer refraction C. F2 layer refraction D. Faraday rotation

39 Wave propagation39 What band is best suited to communicating via meteor scatter? A. 10 meters B. 6 meters C. 2 meters D. 70 cm

40 Wave propagation40 What causes tropospheric ducting? A.Discharges of lightning during electrical storms B. Sunspots and solar flares C. Updrafts from hurricanes and tornadoes D. Temperature inversions in the atmosphere

41 Wave propagation41 What is generally the best time for long- distance 10 meter band propagation? A. During daylight hours B. During nighttime hours C. When there are coronal mass ejections D. Whenever the solar flux is low

42 Wave propagation42 Which part of the atmosphere enables the propagation of radio signals around the world? A. The stratosphere B. The troposphere C. The ionosphere D. The magnetosphere

43 Wave propagation43 Why are direct (not via a repeater) UHF signals rarely heard from stations outside your local coverage area? A. They are too weak to go very far B. FCC regulations prohibit them from going more than 50 miles C. UHF signals are usually not reflected by the ionosphere D. They collide with trees and shrubbery and fade out

44 Wave propagation44 Which of the following might be happening when VHF signals are being received from long distances? A. Signals are being reflected from outer space B. Signals are arriving by sub-surface ducting C. Signals are being reflected by lightning storms in your area D. Signals are being refracted from a sporadic E layer

45 Wave propagation45 What is a characteristic of VHF signals received via auroral reflection? A. Signals from distances of 10,000 or more miles are common B. The signals exhibit rapid fluctuations of strength and often sound distorted C. These types of signals occur only during winter nighttime hours D. These types of signals are generally strongest when your antenna is aimed to the south (for stations in the Northern Hemisphere

46 Wave propagation46 Which of the following propagation types is most commonly associated with occasional strong over-the- horizon signals on the 10, 6, and 2 meter bands? A. Backscatter B. Sporadic E C. D layer absorption D. Gray-line propagation

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