# u A countrys standard of living depends on its ability to produce goods and services. u Within a country there are large changes in the standard of living.

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u A countrys standard of living depends on its ability to produce goods and services. u Within a country there are large changes in the standard of living over time. u In the United States over the past century, average income as measured by real GDP per person has grown by about 2 percent per year.

Economic growth is the increase in the amount of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real GDP.

amount of labour increase labour productivity increase

Population growth Migration of workers Decrease of unemployment rate Increase of the number of working hours per person Higher retirement age

Productivity refers to the amount of goods and services produced for each hour of a workers time. A nations standard of living is determined by the productivity of its workers.

u Living standards, as measured by real GDP per person, vary significantly among nations.

Annual growth rates that seem small become large when compounded for many years. Compounding ( compound interest ) refers to the accumulation of a growth rate over a period of time.

According to the rule of 70, if some variable grows at a rate of x percent per year, then that variable doubles in approximately 70/x years.

\$5,000 invested at 7 percent interest per year, will double in size in 10 years 70/ 7 = 10

i – interest rate k – number of years

Calculate in how many years time will GDP double its value if the interest rate is equal to 5%. k = 14,2 so GDP will double its value after 15 years

Calculate the growth rate if GDP is to double in 10 years. Interest rate must be equal to 7,2%

Encourage saving and investment. Encourage investment from abroad Encourage education and training. Establish secure property rights and maintain political stability.

Promote free trade. Promote research and development.

There is definitely a link between investment today and growth in the future.

(a) Growth Rate 1960-1991(b) Investment 1960-1991 South Korea Singapore Japan Israel Canada Brazil West Germany Mexico United Kingdom Nigeria United States India Bangladesh Chile Rwanda Growth Rate (percent) 01234567 South Korea Singapore Japan Israel Canada Brazil West Germany Mexico United Kingdom Nigeria United States India Bangladesh Chile Rwanda Investment (percent of GDP) 010203040 Growth and Investment

As the stock of capital rises, the extra output produced from an additional unit of capital falls; this property is called diminishing returns. Because of diminishing returns, an increase in the saving rate leads to higher growth only for a while. Thus small countries can grow faster than big countries. u The catch-up effect refers to the condition that, other things being equal, it is easier for a country to grow fast if it starts out relatively poor. u Once the country becomes richer, diminishing returns sets in.

For a countrys long-run growth, education is at least as important as investment in physical capital. Human Capital u In the United States, each year of schooling raises a persons wage on average by about 10 percent. u Thus, one way the government can enhance the standard of living is to provide schools.

Trade is, in some ways, a type of technology. A country that eliminates trade restrictions will experience the same kind of economic growth that would occur after a major technological advance.

The advance of technological knowledge has led to higher standards of living. u Most technological advance comes from private research by firms and individual inventors. u Government can encourage the development of new technologies through research grants and the patent system.

Gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD) includes expenditure on research and development by: business enterprises, higher education institutions, government and private non-profit organizations.

GERD

http://windward.hawaii.edu/facstaff/briggs- p/Macroeconomics/macrolectures.htm Czarny Bogusław, Podstawy Ekonomii, PWE 2002 www.wikipedia.org

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