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Tracking Ideas over Time AUS Library Information Discovery Series January 18 & 19, 2011 Mary Ann Nash.

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Presentation on theme: "Tracking Ideas over Time AUS Library Information Discovery Series January 18 & 19, 2011 Mary Ann Nash."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tracking Ideas over Time AUS Library Information Discovery Series January 18 & 19, 2011 Mary Ann Nash

2 Tracking ideas over time Citation databases allow you to move both backward and forward in time to determine research influence Cited by tools enable you to follow a line of research from a known key piece of work to more recent research Cited references allow you to track previous research

3 Citation databases are specialized indexes that provide information about how scholars cite one another in publications. What are citation databases?

4 Citation database Cited References Cited By Persian Gulf Seafaring and East Africa: Ninth-Twelfth Centuries, Thomas M. Ricks African Historical Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2 (1970), pp

5 Common uses of citation data History of an idea – Discover how a known idea or innovation has been confirmed, applied, improved, extended, or corrected Impact of an individual – Use citation analysis to find influential authors who are publishing high-impact research in your field, discover important author and/or institutional research collaborations Impact of a journal – Determine where the most impactful research is being published

6 Problems with citation data No one source indexes all the published literature Variations in author names – automated indexing Citing an author or work is not always for positive reasons

7 AUS Citation Tools ISI Web of Knowledge Title: GPS constraints on Africa (Nubia) and Arabia plate motions Author(s): McClusky S, Reilinger R, Mahmoud S, et al. Source: GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL Volume: 155 Issue: 1 Pages: Published: OCT 2003 Times Cited: 176GPS constraints on Africa (Nubia) and Arabia plate motions176 Google Scholar GPS constraints on Africa (Nubia) and Arabia plate motions GPS constraints on Africa (Nubia) and Arabia plate motions McClusky, R Reilinger, S Mahmoud… - Geophysical …, Wiley Online Library We use continuously recording GPS (CGPS) and survey-mode GPS (SGPS) observations to determine Euler vectors for relative motion of the African (Nubian), Arabian and Eurasian plates. We present a well-constrained Eurasia–Nubia Euler vector derived from 23 IGS... Cited by Related articles - BL Direct - All 14 versions Cited by 165 Related articlesBL DirectAll 14 versions

8 Subject-specific databases Other databases providing citation data: – IEEE – JStor – PubMed – PsycInfo – Academic Search Premier – Business Source Premier Note: citation data is limited to articles indexed by the database

9 Web of Knowledge Web of Knowledge is the original and best known citation index Coverage of over 228 disciplines in the sciences and social sciences Science Citation Index Expanded: 8,060 major journals 173 disciplines from 1900-present Social Sciences Citation Index: 2,697 journals 55 social science disciplines selected items from 3,500 of the world's leading scientific and technical journals from 1900-present Includes all cited references captured from indexed articles.

10 AUS Library Information Discovery Series January 18 & 19, 2011 Mary Ann Nash



13 Times Cited

14 Cited References

15 Related Records Related to the record based on common references from Web of Science

16 Related Records

17 Cited Reference Search

18 Finish Search


20 Search Tips Refine results: Subject Areas Document Types Authors Source Titles Publication Years Institutions Funding Agencies Languages Countries/Territories Sort by: Latest Date Times cited Relevance First author Source title Publication year

21 Refine Results

22 Refined by Institution

23 Create Sign-in Take advantage of features: – Save searches – Set-up citation alerts – Save directly to EndNote Web

24 Extras Citation Maps Citation Reports Analyze Results

25 Citation Maps Graphical representation that shows the citation relationships (cited references and citing articles) between a paper and other papers using visualization tools and techniques.


27 Citation Reports Provides aggregate citation statistics for a set of search results. These statistics include: – The total number of times all items have been cited – The average number of times an item has been cited – The number of times an item has been cited each year – The average number of times an item has been cited in a year


29 Analyze results Produces a report showing the values in ranked order. Rank by: – Authors – Country/Territory – Funding Agency – Grant Number – Document type – Institution – Language – Publication Year – Source Title – Subject Area

30 Analyze Results

31 Google Scholar Broad range of disciplines – Strong coverage of social sciences, business, arts & humanities and engineering Coverage includes: – scholarly journals, abstracts, peer reviewed articles, theses, dissertations, books, preprints, PowerPoint presentations and technical reports from universities, academic institutions, professional societies, research groups, and preprint repositories around the world

32 Google Scholar Be aware: – Google Scholar does not index all scholarly articles; therefore, some articles citing the item under study may not be counted – Author names can be tricky to search and the results can vary greatly depending on how the name is entered

33 Google Scholar

34 Google Scholar Search

35 Search Tips All – Articles and patents – Articles excluding patents – Legal opinions and journals Since – anytime include citations or at least summaries – articles which other scholarly articles have referred to, but which we haven't found online

36 [CITATION] The earthquakes of Greece B Papazachos… Editions Ziti Cited by Related articles - Library Search - Import into EndNote Cited by 368Related articlesLibrary SearchImport into EndNote BOOK] The mechanics of earthquakes and faulting [PDF] from episodes.orgThe mechanics of earthquakes and faulting[PDF] from CH Scholz PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY... Cited by Related articles - Library Search - All 12 versions - Import into EndNote Cited by 2000Related articlesLibrary SearchAll 12 versionsImport into EndNote Tectonic stress and the spectra of seismic shear waves from earthquakes JN Brune - Journal of Geophysical Research, An earthquake model is derived by considering the effective stress available to accelerate the sides of the fault. The model describes near- and far-field displacement-time functions and spectra and includes the effect of fractional stress drop. It succefully explains the near- and... Cited by Related articles - All 5 versions - Import into EndNote Cited by 2005Related articlesAll 5 versionsImport into EndNote

37 Cited by

38 Extras Advanced Scholar Search alerts Import to EndNote


40 Alerts

41 Related Articles Google Scholar Related Articles – Automatically determines which articles are most closely related. The list of related articles is ranked primarily by how similar these articles are to the original result, but also takes into account the relevance of each paper.

42 Related Articles

43 A note on related references Many databases offer a link to related articles or related records – WOK based on citation analysis – GS based on document content In other databases, related articles may not be based on citations Many databases (Pubmed, Science Direct) re- execute the search based on keywords A different means of extending your research topic

44 Journal Citation Reports – Measurements are aggregated at level of subject category and used for benchmarking rankings – Journals do not represent all scholarly journals published, only those selected by WOK

45 Journal Citation Reports Measurements provided at journal level – Total citations – Impact Factor - calculated by dividing the number of citations in the JCR year by the total number of articles published in the two previous years. An Impact Factor of 2.5 means that, on average, the articles published one or two years ago have been cited two and a half times – Immediacy index - average number of times an article is cited in the year it is published, indicates how quickly articles in a journal are cited – Articles - The total number of articles in the journal published in the JCR year – Cited half-life - median age of the articles that were cited in the JCR year

46 Journal Citation Reports




50 Tracking ideas over time Lists of works cited are the core of research. Scholarship is a conversation and citations are the thread of that conversation. Using the works cited can help you find more information about your research topic. – Backward citation searching The list of works cited by a scholar gives you a snapshot of the thinking and research available at the time the research was published. It tells you what sources, ideas, theories have shaped and influenced a researcher. – Forward citation searching Finding out whether an article was cited by authors after its publication will help you assess the importance of that article and how it has shaped subsequent research and scholarship.


52 Thank You Mary Ann Nash X2272

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