Presentation on theme: "Conflict over water resources: Case study Colorado River Basin"— Presentation transcript:
1Conflict over water resources: Case study Colorado River Basin LO: explain how the water is being managed in the Colorado River basin
2Water scarcity hotspots According to the International Water Management Institute environmental research organisation global water stress is increasing, and 1/3 rd of all people face some sort of water scarcity. Agricultural uses dominate in the growing need for food.Aral Sea faces environmental catastrophe, although recent attempts to reduce impacts of river diversions for especially cotton productionSevere water scarcity N China, leading to South North transfer scheme-see later slideEgypt imports > 50% of its food because of physical scarcityR Ganges: physical stress from pollution and over abstractionOgallala aquifer provides 1/3 all US irrigation water, but is seriously depleted: the water table is dropping by about 1m/yr.As a ‘fossil’ reserve, formed probably from past glacial meltwater flows, it is effectively a finite resourceAustralia; diversion ¼ of all water away from Murray Darling Basin for agricultureMuch of sub Saharan Africa suffers from economic scarcity from especially poverty but also lack of infrastructural development . Some 1 bn people involved1Little/no water scarcityPhysical water scarcity- not necessarily dry areas but those where over 75% river flows are used by agriculture, industry or domestic consumersEconomic water scarcity- less than 25% rivers used, and abundant supply potential but not reaching the poorest people .Approaching physical water scarcity – More than 60% river flows allocated, and in the near future these river basins will have physical scarcity
3DEMANDS? SUPPLY? DIFFERENT USERS? Water conflicts Rising Diminishing Population growthConsumer demandIndustrial growthAgricultural demandReductions because of:Users abstracting/polluting upstreamDeteriorating qualityImpact of climate changeDEMANDS?RisingSUPPLY?DiminishingPRESSURE POINT- ie need for management.This is shown spatially as a ‘hotspot’ of conflict, see map on next slide.Pressure and hence tension and conflict may be over surface flow and/or groundwater suppliesDams and diversions and loss of wetlands are particularly contested.DIFFERENT USERS?Conflicting demandsInternational conflicts i.e. basin crosses national boundariesInternal conflicts ie within a countryConservation versus exploitation
4Present and potential water conflict hotspots As water supply decreases, tensions will increase as different players try to access common water suppliesMany conflicts are transboundary in nature, either between states or countriesRiver basins currently in disputeRiver basins at risk in the futureLarge International drainage basinsTigris-EuphratesIraq + Syria concerns that Turkey’s GAP project will divert their waterObColorado: disputes between the 7 US states and Mexico it flows through. The river is so overused, that it no longer reaches the sea!.90% abstracted before reaches MexicoThe Aral Sea, an inland drainage basin, once the world’s 4th largest inland lake has shrunk sine the 1950s after the 2 rivers feeding it: the Amu Dayra and Syr Darya were diverted for irrigation.By 2007 the sea was 10% of original volume and split into 2 lakes. The ex soviet states are in conflict: Uzbekistan , Turkmenistan and Kazakstan.Lake ChadMekongGangesInsert Figure 2.11 page 47OkavangoZambeziLa PlataOrangeNote: although there have been rising tensions globally, many areas demonstrate effective management to diffuse the situation and create more equitable and sustainable demand-supply balance, such as the Mekong River Committee,& the Nile River InitiativeNile hotly disputed between Ethiopia and Sudan ,who control its headwaters, and Egypt .
5Colorado river basin: Geographical location Name the states who share the River basin
6During the past 50 years this once free flowing river has been tamed by a gigantic plumbing system consisting of14 major dams and reservoirs.hundreds of smaller dams.a network of aqueducts and canals that supply water to farmers, ranchers and cities.
7Today, this domesticated river provides….. electricity (from hydroelectric plants at major dams)water for more than 25 million people in 7 stateswater used to produce about 15% of the nation's produce and livestockmulti-billion recreation industry ofwhitewater raftingboatingfishingcampinghikingenjoyed by 15 million people a year.
14Take away this tamed river and….. Las Vegas, Nevada would be a mostly uninhabited desert area.San Diego, California (which gets 70% of its water from the Colorado), could not support its present population.California's Imperial Valley (which grows a major portion of the nation's vegetables would consist mostly of cactus and mesquite plants.
15Three major problems are associated with use of this river's water: the Colorado River basin includes some of the driest lands in the US.Legal pacts in 1922 and 1944 allocate more water to the states in the river's upper basin (Wyoming, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico) and lower basin (Arizona, Nevada and California) and to Mexico, than now flows through the river, even in years without a drought.because of so many withdrawals, the river rarely makes it to the Gulf of California.
16Colorado River drought The south-western US is suffering its eighth consecutive year of drought. There are concerns that the Colorado River, which has sustained life in the area for thousands of years, can no longer meet the needs of the tens of millions of people living in major cities such as Las Vegas and Los Angeles.
20Colorado River case study….. Where is the case study locatedWhy is there an issue? (who are the different users?/ what do they want water for?)What was done about it?4. When did this happen?5. Who has benefited?