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Chapter 16 The Arts at Home and Abroad From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.
The Arts at Home and Abroad Explosion of black artistry in 1920s made possible by: Electronic innovation Corporate publishing Mass advertising and distribution networks New Negroes; Jazz-age shift in artistic expression toward the abstract Debate within black community about the role of the arts in the struggle for racial equality © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2
Recorded Music and Radio Classic Blues Popularity of Mamie Smiths recording of Crazy Blues demonstrates strength of black consumer market Opens doors for other classic blues black woman singers Bessie Smith – Down Hearted Blues Race records market Country blues; Blind Lemon Jefferson Reaped huge profits for white companies © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3
Recorded Music and Radio Black Swan Records Black entrepreneur Harry Pace saw his musical production company as a vehicle for racial advancement Racial responsibility and middle-class values central to his business model Complemented writers and literary critics of the Harlem Renaissance Rival white record companies and the radio ultimately put Black Swan out of business © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4
Recorded Music and Radio National and Live Broadcast Radio Radio introduced black talent and eroded cultural and social isolation of southern blacks White listeners given opportunity to hear black music; blacks who were otherwise excluded from white venues could listen via radio Duke Ellington greatest beneficiary of live radio music Came direct from Harlems Cotton Club © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5
Jazz Roots and Routes The Evolution of Jazz: New Orleans to Chicago Jazz evolved from regional differences in music Shaped by migration of southern musicians and rise of northern record industry New Orleans best musicians migrated to Chicago New Orleans influence seen in jazz recordings of Chicago-based bands in 1920s King Olivers Creole Jazz Band Louis Armstrong © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6
7 The Great Blues Migration
Jazz Roots and Routes Jazz in New York: Ragtime to Stride Stride piano style evidence of New Yorks small band tradition Big-band tradition more prominent in early 1920s The James Reese Europe Orchestra Key in New Yorks black musical theater Music differed from Chicago jazz Influenced by Broadway, society dance; tight orchestrations, little improvisation © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8
9 James Reese Europes Society Orchestra c. 1914
Jazz Roots and Routes Fletcher Henderson took over after Europes death Race-conscious; emphasized professionalism and music reading skills Louis Armstrong Transforms Big Band Jazz Joined Fletcher Hendersons orchestra in 1924 Despite differing styles, Armstrong transformed New Yorks big-band jazz; new rhythmic momentum and improvisational boldness Reconnected with Sidney Bechet; recordings became template for post-1920s combo jazz © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10
Jazz Roots and Routes Duke Ellington and the Big Band Era By late 1920s, jazz a national craze; and New York center of jazz world Duke Ellington central to New Yorks big-band era New Negro; racial pride and best interests of the race important to him © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11
Motion Pictures Black community outrage at Birth of a Nation First black film company appeared in Harlem in 1916 Early filmmakers made race movies Black versions of established Hollywood genres; response to commercial demands of black audiences Some movies did make social statements Scar of Shame (1927) Within our Gates (1920) (response to Birth of a Nation) © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12
Motion Pictures Black Talent in White Studios Musical short-subject and feature films; black musical talent with national reputations tapped by white studios Bessie Smith; Duke Ellington All-black musical Hallelujah! (1929) by white filmmaker King Vidor Sympathetic rendition of southern black family life Complex and conflicted lead male, rather than the stereotypical childlike or buffoonish black character © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13
Black Theater African American theater flourished in Harlem in prewar years Lafayette Players Postwar Theater Black actors began appearing before wider audiences Charles Gilpin; Paul Robeson Plays about black life by white authors Porgy; The Green Pastures © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14
Black Theater Black Musicals Black-written and -produced musicals began to appear on Broadway Shuffle Along; Put and Take The Charleston Theme music of the Roaring Twenties, The Charleston, written by James P. Johnson for the black musical Runnin Wild Broadway introduced talents Josephine Baker and Florence Mills © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15
The Harlem Renaissance The Tenderloin Roots of black artistic talent planted in Manhattans Tenderloin Home to most of citys 60,000 black residents The Marshall Hotel Spot for black artists to network, mentor, and collaborate Black bohemia short-lived; demographic shift to Harlem Seen as Race Capital of the World; visited by white tourists © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16
The Harlem Renaissance Black Periodicals Black authors and playwrights rose to prominence, aided by civil rights organizations Jessie Fauset literary editor of NAACPs The Crisis Charles S. Johnson edited National Urban Leagues Opportunity Johnsons 1924 Civic Club event introduced black writers to white literary establishment Alain Locke, the events MC, became architect of New Negro renaissance © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17
The Harlem Renaissance Before the Civic Club Claude McKay Traditional poetic style but militantly defiant Jean Toomer Cane Countee Cullen Central Harlem Renaissance figure; body of work contains both racial and nonracial subject matter © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18
The Harlem Renaissance Langston Hughes Wrote in various genres; incorporated jazz and blues rhythms Admired black vernacular culture; tackled politically charged and leftist themes Harlem Renaissance Women Jessie Redmond Fauset – emphasized universal qualities among races Nella Larsen – questioned Talented Tenth Zora Neal Hurston – anthropologist and literary modernist © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19
French Connections Black artists got attention from international white audiences 1920s Paris resembled Harlem The vogue negre Josephine Baker Influence of African art and shapes – Pablo Picassos Les Demoiselles dAvignon René Maran awarded the Prix Goncourt Parisian diversity created linguistic and ethnic challenges © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20
Visual Artists Photographers and Illustrators James Van Der Zee Photographs of black middle class and Harlem; chronicled the emergence of the New Negro Aaron Douglas Preeminent visual artist of the period; stylized African- influenced aesthetic Studied under Winold Reiss © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22 Couple wearing raccoon coats, with a Cadillac
Visual Artists Painters Palmer Hayden Experimented with variety of subjects and styles Best known for scenes of urban black life Archibald J. Motley, Jr. Well known for Bronzeville paintings of Chicagos black working-class neighborhoods One of first black artists to gain critical and financial success Sargent Johnson Restrained sculptural aesthetic of African forms © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23
Clashing Artistic Values Art as Propaganda Argument over the images of blacks that art gave whites W. E. B. Du Bois – all Art is propaganda… Felt art should counter stereotypes and racial images Countee Cullen Denounced pejorative representations of black people Argument took place in the white press Black writers clashed over meaning of black creative expression Fire!! © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24
Clashing Artistic Values Race Literature Racial distinctiveness in the arts Victoria Earle Matthews – development of body of literature separate from larger American literature Du Bois – spiritual and psychical racial differences Schuyler – black American art same as white, both influenced by Europeans Hughes – affirmation of cultural uniqueness Toomer – advocated melting pot solution © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25
Clashing Artistic Values Art and Social Change Artists in the civil rights vanguard James Weldon Johnson Civil rights by copyright Renaissance man; accomplished literary artist and executive director of NAACP Du Bois Walter White © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26
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